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An introduction to immunology

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Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003 An introduction to immunology Aim: A very general introduction to immunology. Explain how molecular interactions are essential for ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: An introduction to immunology


1
An introduction to immunology
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
  • Aim A very general introduction to immunology.
    Explain how molecular interactions are essential
    for the immune system.
  • Why Several articles in this seminar deals with
    interaction between molecules in the immune
    system.
  • Some extra motivation why studies of biomolecular
    interactions are important.

Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
2
Outline of the talk
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
  • Definition of Immunology
  • History of immunology
  • Innate and adaptive immunity
  • Humoral and cellular responses B and T cells
    (specific interactions)
  • Cancer
  • HIV/AIDS

Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
3
Immunology
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
  • Immunology is the study of our protection from
    foreign macromolecules or invading organisms and
    our responses to them.
  • Host e.g. me!!!!
  • Foreign macromolecule, antigen e.g. virus
    protein, worm, parasite (Everything that should
    not be in my body)

Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
4
A Short History of Immunology
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
  • 430 B.C Peloponesian War, Thucydides describes
    plague the ones who had recovered from the
    disease could nurse the sick without getting the
    disease a second time
  • 15th centurry Chinese and Turks use dried crusts
    of smallpox as vaccine
  • 1798 Edward Jenner smallpox vaccine

Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
5
Jenner - Smallpox vaccine
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
  • Noticed that milkmades that had contracted cowpox
    did NOT get smallpox
  • Test on an 8 year old boy, injected cowpox into
    him (NOT very nice)
  • Follwed by exposure to smallpox
  • Vaccine was invented (latin vacca means cow)

Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
6
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
7
Immunology history cont.
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
  • Since 1901 there have been 19 Nobel Prizes for
    immunological research.
  • Examples Discovery of human blood groups (1930)
    and Transplantation immunology(1991)

Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
8
The immune system
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
Immune system
  • Anatomic barriers (Skin,mucous membranes)
  • Physological barriers (temperature, pH)
  • Phagocytic Barriers (cells that eat invaders)
  • Inflammatory barriers (redness, swelling, heat
    and pain)
  • Antigen specificity
  • Diversity
  • Immunological memory
  • Self/nonself recognition

Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
9
Humoral and cellular immunity (antibody mediated
or cellular)
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
10
B cells
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
Surface bound antibody
B-cell
Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
11
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
Antibody secreting B cell
Virus killed
Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
12
T cells
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
  • Two types
  • Helper T cells (Th) activates other cells
  • Cytotoxic T cells (Tc) can kill other cells
  • T cells can only recognize antigens associated
    with certain molecules (MHC)

Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
13
Presentation of antigens to T cells
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
  • Proteins (peptides) from inside the cell are
    presented by MHC I molecules to Tc cells.
  • Proteins (peptides) from the outside of cells are
    presented by MHC II molecules to Th cells.
  • MHC I on almost all cells
  • MHC II on specialized antigen-presenting cells

Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
14
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
Antigen presentig cell
MHC II peptide
Th
Virus infected cell, cancer cell
Tc
MHC I peptide
Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
15
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
16
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
17
MHC molecules
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
  • Important to study what parts of a protein that
    binds to MHC molecules.
  • MHC I binds peptides with 8-10 aa
  • MHC II bind peptides with 12-25 aa
  • Potentials of peptide vaccines
  • Prediction of peptides is important!!!!

Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
18
Cancer
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
  • The second ranking cause of death after heart
    disease in the Western world.
  • most organs and tissues in an organism are in
    balance (death and renewal)
  • cancer cells have no control in growth
    mechanisms, can expand to a large size producing
    a tumor

Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
19
HIV and AIDS
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
  • HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • AIDS - Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  • HIV virus binds to Th cells and causes the number
    of Th cells to decrease.
  • When the number of Th cells is too low, you have
    AIDS.

Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
20
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
21
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
22
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
23
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
24
Treatment strategies
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
  • Inhibit different stages of the lifecycle.
  • HIV protease inhibitors.
  • Peptide Vaccines

Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
25
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
26
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
27
Problems with HIV/AIDS
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
  • - No major resistant population
  • - Disease progresses even with protective IR
  • - No knowledge of what IR is protective
  • - How to elicit a protective IR?
  • - Provirus prevents total eradication
  • - Resistance depends on HIV exposure
  • - No suitable animal model
  • - Legal impediments to prophylactic approach
  • Clinical trial ethical problems
  • - HIV clades cant have a worldwide approach

Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
28
Papers in the seminar!!!!
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
  • Detailed ab initio prediction of
    lysozyme-antibody complex with 1.6 Å accuracy
    (Thomas)
  • A Structure-Based Algorithm to Predict Potential
    Binding Peptides to MHC I Molecules with
    Hydrophobic Binding Pockets (Edilson)
  • Prediction of MHC II-binding peptides using an
    evolutionary algorithm and artificial neural
    networks (Esteban)

Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
29
Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003
Pierre Dönnes pierre_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Annette Höglund annette_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
Andreas Hildebrandt anhi_at_bioinf.uni-sb.de
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