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Measuring Earth Earths Size and Shape

Unit 1

Study Guide

Earths Shape

What is the true shape of the Earth?

OBLATE SPHEROID

flat at the poles and bulging at the center

Earths Shape

Which of the following models is the correct

scale model of the Earth?

OR

?

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Smoothness of the Earth

Which is smoother the Earth or a classroom

globe?

the Earth

the relief of a classroom globe is exaggerated

What is the formula for circumference?

Eratosthenes Formula

Angle distance

360

Circumference

Circumference distance around the earth

Latitude Longitude

Latitude lines are parallel.

They NEVER meet

Longitude lines are meridians and meet at the

poles.

Looks like a peeled orange.

Latitude Longitude

Lines of latitude measure

South

North

and

of the equator

North

Equator

South

How many degrees of latitude are there?

90 degrees

What is the latitude of the equator?

0 degrees

What is the latitude of the North Pole?

90 degrees

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LATITUDE

ALTITUDE OF POLARIS

Demo

POLARIS CAN ONLY BE SEEN IN THE HEMISPHERE

NORTHERN

PolarisNorth StarLATITUDE

For Drawing See location of North Star on next

slide

Draw location of North Star

If the North Star is 50 degrees

above the horizon-

50 degrees North!

What is your latitude?

How is Longtiude Measured?

Longitude is measured and from the

East

West

Prime Meridian

Longitude

How is longitude measured?

To get to the next line of longitude, you must

move in which of two directions?

Prime Meridian

East

West

Prime Meridian

LONGITUDE

IS BASED ON EARTHS

ROTATION

LONGITUDE

EACH HOUR THE EARTH ROTATES

15

(360/24hrs)

People on the same line of longitude have the same

Local Time

Later

Earlier

HOW MANY TIME ZONES?

HOW MANY TIME ZONES?

24 TIME ZONES 15 APART

Example Two students record a difference in

local time of two hours. How many degrees of

longitude apart are they?

15 x 2 hours 30

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What is the latitude and longitude of POINT B?

40 N, 120 W

Practice

What is the latitude and longitude of POINT G?

Practice

45 S, 80 E

What is the latitude and longitude of POINT D?

10 S, 40 W

Practice

Topographic Maps

What is the purpose?

To see the shape and elevation of the land

What is the Contour Interval?

25

The change in elevation between 2 contour lines.

Contour Interval?

20

Elevation of "A"?

540

Elevation of "B"?

580

Why??? If there was another line it would be

620 so the highest value before is 619 feet.

Highest possible elevation?

619

What do hachured lines show?

areas of depression

What are the rules concerning hachured lines?

first hachured line has same elevation as

previous contour line then drops by the contour

interval

How you can determine which way a river flows

on a topographic map?

(1) Contour lines point to the source of

a river (upstream)

(2) The river flows opposite the V s.

If north is at the top of the page, what

direction is this river flowing?

south

What is a topographic profile ?

A three dimensional graph of a contour map

What is gradient?

gradient change in elevation

distance

the slope or steepness of the land

Answer the following based on the map.

Note Hill B has Hachure Lines

Answer the following based on the map.

- What is the contour interval of this map?
- What is the elevation of POINT E?
- What is the elevation of POINT F?
- What is the elevation of POINT D?
- What is the elevation of POINT A?
- What is the elevation of POINT G?
- What is the elevation of POINT C?
- What is the elevation of POINT B?
- Which side of HILL C is the steepest?
- Which way is the Cinder River Flowing?

20 meters

0 meters

30 meters

60 meters

139 meters

40 meters

60 meters

40 meters

south

northwest

Try on your own first then check your answers

If the distance between the two circled cities

is 400 km, calculate the temperature gradient

to the nearest hundredth? Show all work.

gradient change in temperature

distance

80-60 400

20 400

0.05 F/km

Using the ESRT (Unit 1)

Answer the following Using your ESRT

- (1) What is the most abundant element in the

- earths crust by volume?
- (2) What is the latitude of Slide Mountain?
- (3) What is the temperature at the boundary of

the - earths mantle and outer core?
- (4) What layer of the atmosphere contains the
- most water vapor?

oxygen

42 degrees

5000 degrees C

troposphere

Try on your own first.

Page 1

Page 3

Page 10

Page 14

Know the following

- Know how to use the ESRT for this unit!
- Be able to read and interpret a contour map.
- Be able to calculate gradient (change in

elevation or temperature) - Be able to draw a topographic profile.
- Know how to draw and read an isotherm map.
- Know how to use latitude and longitude on a map

or globe. - Know the shape of the EarthOBLATE SPHEROID
- Know that the altitude of Polaris (North Star)

equals the - LATITUDE of the observer!
- Know the Equator 0 degrees Latitude and the

Prime Meridian 0 degrees Longitude. - Know the Latitude of the North Pole 90 degrees.
- Know lithosphere (land), hydrosphere (water) and

atmosphere - ( air).
- A river flows opposite the Vs and hachure lines

show depression. - Study ALL notes, worksheets and study guides.
- See Chapter 3 in the text.