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Child Labour

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(WHO 2010) Child labour ... (Kane 2009) Increase family dynamic - In the village in India where I was born and raised, the notion of child rights does not exist. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Child Labour


1
Child Labour
  • Nikki Mabini
  • Ashley Coffin
  • Megan Eisenhauer
  • Emma Oseko

2
Objectives
  • Define child labour and how it has evolved over
    the years.
  • Analyze the supportive and opposing arguments to
    develop your own opinion on child labour.
  • Explain the health care providers role in terms
    of caring for children omitted to child labour.

3
  • Only estimates exist, but at least 250 million
    children between the ages of 5 and 14 work for a
    living in developing countries, nearly half of
    them full time.
  • (WHO 2010)

4
Relevant Terms
  • Child labour - refers to children performing work
    that is exploitative or detrimental to their
    development
    (Conley 2000)
  • Child labourer - a child denied the liberating
    benefit of education, one whose health, growth
    and development are threatened, who risks losing
    the love, care and protection of family and who
    cannot enjoy the rest and play that are every
    childs right. (WHO
    2010)

5
Terms contd
  • Child Protection Violation (UNICEF
    2009)
  • International Labor Organization (ILO)
  • The ILO is the UN-specialized agency seeking the
    promotion of social justice and internationally
    recognized human and labour rights.
  • Distinguishes between harmful and non-harmful
    work
  • Harmful work work in the industrial sectors
    considered stressful and presenting high risks of
    exposure to radiation and hazardous chemical
    substances
  • Non- harmful work work in the family unit

(Bhukuth, 2008)
6
History of Child Labour
  • In 18th century, child labor was accepted by
    many.
  • Throughout the 18th century misconceptions about
    children increased child labour
  • During the Victorian Era, increased in population
    in Great Britain worsen child labour.
  • The Industrial revolution in Canada also
    increased child labor practices.
  • In 1920, legislations were constructed to secure
    children rights and their education.

(The Canadian Encyclopedia, 2010)
(Galbi, 1994)
(Daniels, 2003)
(The Canadian Encyclopedia, 2010)
7
The Evolution of international standards on child
rights
  • 1924 - The League of Nations adopts the Geneva
    Declaration on the Rights of the Child.
  • 1948 - The UN General Assembly passes the
    Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • 1959 - The UN General Assembly adopts the
    Declaration of the Rights of the Child

(UNICEF, 2009)
8
  • 1973 - The International Labour Organizations
    adopts Convention No. 138 on the Minimum Age for
    Admission to Employment
  • 1989 - The UN General Assembly unanimously
    approves the Convention on the Rights of the
    Child
  • 1999 - The International Labour Organization
    adopts Convention No. 182 concerning the
    Prohibition and Immediate Action for the
    Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour.
  • 2002 - The UN General Assembly holds a Special
    Session on Children, meeting for the first time
    to specifically discuss childrens issues.

(UNICEF, 2009)
9
Current Influences
10
Understanding why a family sends a child into
child labour
  • Poverty
  • The underlying factor
  • Caused by economic, environmental, social, and
    physical factors
  • Child labour becomes a coping strategy in that
    negative shift of the familys well-being
    families survive thanks to the financial
    contribution made by childrens work

(Bhukuth, 2008)
11
Understanding contd
  • Assumed that families are not in the business of
    exploiting children and that the work is judged
    not be hazardous to their physical, mental, or
    moral health
  • Important to note that exploitation cannot be
    ruled out

(Bhukuth, 2008)
12
Socio-economic reality
  • Different in developed and under-developed
    countries
  • Child labour
  • 1. Sustains standards of living in some
    households
  • 2. Children are generally from most marginalized
    backgrounds living in extreme poverty e.g. in
    the case of debt bondage

(Bhukuth, 2008)
13
Formal economy
  • Mainly private companies e.g. factory work,
    mining.
  • These employment markets exploit children in the
    form of wages
  • Children just seen as minors rather than workers
    whose rights have to be respected.

(Bhukuth, 2008)
14
Formal economy contd
  • Status as a minor
  • 1. leaves child worker open to any form
  • of abuse
  • 2. cannot claim own rights or better working
    conditions
  • 3. not entitled to join any union where their
  • voices will be heard
  • Result many resolve to work in the informal
    economy

(Bhukuth, 2008)
15
Informal economy
  • Children work as helpers, apprentices or do
    casual labour in family businesses, artisan work
    or domestic chores.
  • Sector has own set of operating rules making it
    difficult to ensure application of labour
    legislations

(Bhukuth, 2008)
16
Childhood work
  • Every society perceives children and work
    differently
  • This makes it difficult to harmonize and apply
    international laws in relation to child labour
  • Conventions on child labour leave a lot of room
    for maneuver currently, there are attempts to
    establish universal standards.

(Bhukuth, 2008)
17
International conventions
  • Find it difficult to ban child labour because
  • 1. Are not in a position to support households
    involved in it
  • 2. Banning children from working would mean
    taking responsibility for poor families who at
    present manage to survive without help

(Bhukuth, 2008)
18
(UNICEF, 2008)
19
Supporting Child Labour
  • Provide family income
  • Family dynamic

20
Opposing Child Labour
  • Exposure to Harms
  • Education
  • Health

21
(No Transcript)
22
Proposed actions
  • World bank stresses safety nets that would
    respond to this crisis (Kane, 2009)
  • Boosting small scale projects
  • School- based programs
  • Multi-level monitoring
  • Youth employment schemes

(Kane, 2009)
23
1. Boosting small-scale projects
  • Increasing investments in small-scale
  • projects will lighten work needed to
    generate adequate income for survival.
  • Will support and sustain small families

(Kane, 2009)
24
2. School based programs
  • School feeding programs and take-home rations
    that not only safe guard a childs nutrition, but
    also provide an incentive for the child to attend
    school
  • Prioritizing secondary grades for fee waivers,
    scholarships and grants for clothes, books and
    transport since children in this group are
    generally a higher cost for the family

(Kane, 2009)
25
3. Multi-level monitoring
  • School based-
  • Protecting children who are
  • already studying and working.
  • Teachers and other educational staff need to
    observe for signs of increased workload fatigue,
    sudden absences, lack of concentration, physical
    injuries etc

(Kane, 2009) )
26
Monitoring contd
  • (b) Labour monitoring
  • Government, workers organizations and
  • employment groups to identify children
  • moving into child labour
  • (c) Social monitoring
  • social services in place to identify and
  • protect children at risk

(Kane, 2009)
27
4. Youth employment schemes
  • Getting young people of working age into decent
    work is an important step in reducing
    vulnerability of younger children to enter labour
    prematurely.
  • Include apprenticeships, subsidies to
  • employers, training young people
  • to upgrade their skills

(Kane, 2009)
28
Prevention Strategies
  • Prevention required the combination of
    education, outreach and enforcement. These
    activities require a mulfaceted approach aimded
    at employers, teens, parents, schools, and
    communities

(Miller, Handelman, Lewis, 2007)
29
What Nurses Can Do
  • Become aware of Child Labour and the determinants
    of health
  • Become Involved in Non Governmental Organizations
  • Become travel nurses
  • Nurses involvement in communities

(Roggero, Mangiaterra, Bustreo, Rosati, 2007)
(Higgins, Tierney, Lins, Hanrahan, 2004)
30
Determinants of Health
  • Peoples lifestyles and the conditions in which
    they live and work strongly influence their
    health.

(Public Health Agency of Canada, 2001)
31
Questions????
  • What does child labour mean to you?
  • How has your opinion changed after participating
    in this seminar?
  • How can nurses advocate for childrens rights?

32
GOOD LUCK IN THE FUTURE!
33
References
  • Bhukuth, A. (2008). Defining child labour A
    controversial debate. Development in Practice,
    18(3), 385-394.
  • Caglayan, C., Hamzaoglu, O., Yavuz, C. I.,
    Yüksel, S. (2010). Working conditions and health
    status of child workers Cross-sectional study of
    the students at an apprenticeship school in
    Kocaeli. Pediatrics International, 5(1), 6-12.
    Retrieved on March 16, 2010 from ProQuest
    Database.
  • Conley, J. (2000). Child labor-robbing children
    of their youth. Pediatric Nursing, 26(6), 637-
    639. Retrieved March 16, 2010, from ProQuest
    Database.
  • Daniels, B. (2003). Poverty and Families in the
    Victorian Era. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  • Galbi, D. A. (1994). Child Labor and the division
    of labor in the early English cotton mills.
  • Higgins, D., Tierney, J., Lins, M., Hanrahan,
    L. (2004). School nurses a resource for young
    worker safety. Journal of School Nursing (Allen
    Press Publishing Services Inc.), 20(6), 317-323.
    Retrieved on March 16, 2010 from ProQuest
    Database.
  • Kane, J. (2009). What the economic crisis means
    for child labour. Global Social Policy, 9,
    175-196.

34
References Cont
  • Miller, M., Handelman, E.,  Lewis, C. (2007).
    Protecting Young Workers Coordinated strategies
    help to raise safety awareness. Professional
    Safety, 52(6), 38-45. Retrieved March 16, 2010,
    from ProQuest Database.
  • Public Health Agency of Canada. (2001).
    Determinants of Health. Retrieved on March 16,
    2010 from http//www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/determi
    nants/index-eng.phpdeterminants
  • Roggero, P., Mangiaterra, V., Bustreo, F.,
    Rosati, F. (2007). The health impact of child
    labor in developing countries evidence from
    cross-country data. American Journal of Public
    Health, 97(2), 271-275. Retrieved on March 16,
    2010 from ProQuest Database.
  • The Canadian Encyclopedia. (2010). Child Labor.
    Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  • United Nations International Children's Emergency
    Fund (UNICEF) (2001). Beyond child labour,
    affirming rights. Retrieved March 14, 2010 from
    http//www.unicef.org/publications/files/pub_beyon
    d_en.pdf
  • UNICEF (2009). Celebrating 20 years of the
    convention on the rights of the child. The State
    of the Worlds Children/Special Edition. Retrieved
    March 14, 2010 from http//www.reliefweb.int/rw/l
    ib.nsf/db900sid/EGUA-7XXSS7/file/unicef_sowc_spec
    ._ed._crc.pdf?openelement
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