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European footholds in North America


England, France and Holland challenge Spanish control in America. France ... lived in Holland; losing identity; decide to leave for America; Pilgrims ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: European footholds in North America

  • European footholds in North America

  • 1598 Onate sets up new province area which is
    present day New Mexico
  • Pueblo Indians and other Indian tribes taken as
  • Drought, food shortage, poverty
  • Pueblo Indians accept Christianity in return for
    food and protection
  • Colony of New Mexico limps along

Spain contd.
  • Onate replaced by new governor
  • Less than 50 colonists
  • Capital set up at Santa Fe (a village at that
  • Population increases in a few decades.
  • 1630 Spanish Friars, colonists, African slaves,
    Indians and mixed-race youngsters
  • Friars force pueblos to give up rituals and
    destroy artifacts
  • Punish and torture Indians who do not convert or

Spain contd.
  • Pueblos carry on sacred rituals in secret
  • Horses, sheep, fruits and vegetables introduced
    to area
  • Disease
  • Pueblo population brought down to a fourth of
    what they started out in 1600 by end of 17th

Spain contd.
  • Plans to disband colony in Florida
  • Friars convince crown to allow colony to stay
  • Natives forced to conversion
  • Had to provide food for troops and Friars
  • Traveled inland with Friars on conversion
    missions as load bearers
  • Introduced disease to inland Natives affecting
    Native population inland
  • England, France and Holland challenge Spanish
    control in America

  • Until 1600, French had fur and metal trade in N.
  • Champlain sets up French outpost in Quebec
  • Joins Algonquin and Huron to invade Iroquois
    results in lasting trade friendships with these 2
  • Only Catholics allowed to settle in Quebec
  • Jesuit priests establish schools and churches for
    active conversion of Huron

France contd.
  • Huron, French vs. Iroquois, Dutch competition
    for fur
  • Huron and Iroquois population cut down to a
    fourth of original population by 1640
  • Iroquois tradition of replacing community members
    with captives
  • Attack by Iroquois on Huron priests killed,
    women taken prisoners, villages burned, furs
  • Colony very weak by 1660

  • Dutch colony established in present day Albany
    (New Netherland)
  • Governed by DWIC (Dutch West India Company)
  • Constant problems with neighboring Indian tribes,
    English, French and the newly arrived Swedes for
    trading grounds
  • Ethnically diverse population in New Amsterdam
  • Half free slaves, Jews, Swedes, Finns, English
    and French Protestants
  • Eventually absorbed by the English colony

England background
  • Poverty and economic crisis in England
  • Stuarts (Scottish) take over crown in 1603 and
    last until 1649
  • Political and religious strife people considered
    leaving England for new homes
  • New vigor in ocean exploration
  • Richard Hakluyt Virginia Company (Joint stock
    company) extends from Vermont to Carolina and
    Atlantic to Pacific
  • Two groups set out in 1606 Maine and Chesapeake
  • Maine colony (Sagadahoc) fails and returns to
    England in a year

Jamestown (Chesapeake Bay)
  • Second group arrive in Chesapeake Bay and name
    the settlement Jamestown (James I) in 1607
  • English investors of Virginia Company expect huge
    and immediate profits from venture
  • Powhattan Indians hostile, location swampy,
    mosquito ridden and un-suitable to grow crops
  • Poor leadership, not used to manual labor,
    disease, profits to Company not to them
  • John Smith improves relations with Indians
    (Pocahontas) which lasts a few years

Jamestown contd.
  • 1609 Company stock holders re-do strategy to
    improve conditions in Jamestown
  • 500 new recruits, 1609
  • Men to women ration imbalanced
  • Poor conditions no staple or established crop,
    Indian trouble, starvation, disease, dwindling
  • 1610 Only about 60 survivors, decide to abandon
    Jamestown and set sail for England

Jamestown contd.
  • Colonists meet new ships with fresh supplies and
    300 new settlers decide to try again
  • John Rolfe gets tobacco seed (stinking weed)
    and decides to see if it establishes
  • 1612 tobacco crop flourishes
  • Shortage of labor to work in fields leads to
    slave purchases

Jamestown contd.
  • Indentured servants
  • Invested money and services for 7 yr term in
    return for 50 acres of land at maturation
  • Head right additional 50 acres for each member
    or laborer transported with their own paid
  • House of Burgesses 1619, brings about
    self-government, based on English law, ensured
    basic rights to colonists
  • 1618-1622 population boom, tobacco flourishes,
    disease among settlers, increased Indian tensions

Jamestown contd.
  • 1622 Powhattan Indian attack kills 350 settlers
  • Indentured servants denied their promise
  • King dissolves Virginia Company
  • Jamestown controlled by Crown
  • House of Burgesses meets and created county
  • 1646 Powhattans and neighboring allies
    subjugated and forced to pay tribute
  • 1660 About 25,000 colonists in Virginia and

Maryland (Chesapeake Bay)
  • Second English colony in Chesapeake Bay initiated
    by Lord Baltimore I (Calvert) in 1632
  • Lord Baltimore II takes over settlement effort
  • Royal Charter granted land adjacent to Virginia
    named Maryland after Catholic queen Henrietta
  • Settlers combination of Protestant and Catholic
  • 1655 Protestants seize control of government and
    refuse to tolerate Catholics

Tobacco Cash crop of Chesapeake Bay
  • Tobacco established as cash crop by 1640s.
  • Main export to London
  • Disadvantages of tobacco depletion of soil
    fertility, dependence on single crop, storms,
    droughts, unstable markets abroad
  • In spite of these tobacco continues as main
    source of livelihood to farmers

  • 1620 Separatists (refused to follow Church of
    England) lived in Holland losing identity
    decide to leave for America Pilgrims
  • Sail on Mayflower land in Plymouth, sea-weary,
    winter coming
  • Mayflower Compact promise to stay together to
    build a community
  • Winter, starvation, illness sweeps thru colony
  • Join hands with Indians (Massasoit and Squanto)
    for to learn about the land
  • Squanto former English slave, traveled to
    Europe, spoke English, taught Pilgrims to fish
    and grow corn, mediated between Wampanoag Indians
  • Thanksgiving tradition started

Puritans (Massachusetts Bay Colony)
  • Group who protested elaborate rituals of Anglican
    Church (Calvinism)
  • Emphasis on preaching, sermons, pulpit and not
    the altar
  • Used simple language for all to follow
  • Encouraged reading and discussion of scriptures
  • Economic and religious troubles in England
  • 1629 Massachusetts Bay Company set up be
    entrepreneurs who needed new markets, and
    Puritans who needed religious freedom

City Upon a Hill
  • John Winthrop, Puritan leader of Massachusetts
    Bay Colony, arrives in 1630
  • Settlers were family units, settlements healthy
  • Winthrop makes speech Puritans would be example
    to others, under a covenant with God to serve Him
    in return for His blessings and protection,
    colony would be a City Upon a Hill
  • Winthrop becomes governor
  • 1630-1640 20,000 settlers arrive
  • Trade main activity to support economy

City Upon a Hill
  • God had chosen Puritans to play a special role in
    the world
  • Town life was center of Puritans
  • Punishment was harsh, rewards generous
  • Life centered around God and service to Him
  • Prohibited religious dissenters

Roger Williams
  • Protested against Puritan treatment of Indians,
    and belief that women were not as important as
    men, believed in separation of Church and State
  • Leaders of colony angered by his ideas to reform
    Anglican Church and his refusal to denounce it
  • Banished in 1635 moved to present day
    Providence, Rhode Island with other dissenters
  • 1644 gains charter to start independent colony
    at Rhode Island

Anne Hutchinson
  • Daughter of English minister
  • 1634 moved to Boston with family
  • Gained divine inspiration from Holy Spirit
  • Opposed regular church attendance
  • Compared Puritans to be same as members of
    Anglican Church
  • Opposed how women were treated and allowed
    themselves to be treated by others
  • Banished 1637, first moved to Rhode Island and
    then to Dutch settlement near Hudson River
  • 1643 Hutchinson and family killed by Indians

Pequot War 1637
  • Puritans gain strength in America and England
  • Civil War in England Charles I beheaded
  • More need for land to settle
  • Winthrops son spread rumors that Pequot Indians
    would cause trouble
  • Allies with Narrangansett and Mohegan Indians and
    attacks the Pequot Indians
  • Mystic Village Massacre Most of the tribe
    (including women and children) killed, village
  • Neighboring Indian tribes cede land to Puritans
  • Missionary work begins Indians forced to
    convert, forbidden to worship Indian Gods, Indian
    College set up to educate Indian Youth about
    Christianity, Indian Bible created

  • By 1660 Four European powers established in
    America (Spanish, French, English and Dutch)
  • England in spite of its slow start was most
    aggressive of all colonizers
  • Created settlers with family units rather than
    garrisons or outposts
  • By 1660, English population of settlers
    out-numbered all others