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ENDURING FREEDOM: US POLITICAL WARFARE IN THE COLD WAR AND THE WAR ON TERROR

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Title: ENDURING FREEDOM: US POLITICAL WARFARE IN THE COLD WAR AND THE WAR ON TERROR


1
ENDURING FREEDOM US POLITICAL WARFARE IN THE
COLD WAR AND THE WAR ON TERROR
  • Professor Scott Lucas
  • American and Canadian Studies

2
PART 1 WHEN CULTURE AND FOREIGN POLICY COLLIDE
3

  • As Karen Hughes, longtime presidential
  • adviser and
    new public diplomacy guru at the
  • State
    Department, prepares to leave this
  • weekend on a
    listening tour of the Middle East,
  • a
    congressionally mandated advisory panel to
  • the
    department warned that Americas image
  • and
    reputation abroad could hardly be worse.
  • The panel's report, which has been seen by
    senior officials but not yet officially released,
    said a fact-finding mission to the Middle East
    last year found that there is deep and abiding
    anger toward U.S. policies and actions. The
    Advisory Committee on Cultural Diplomacy cited
    polling that found that large majorities in
    Egypt, Morocco and Saudi Arabia "view George W.
    Bush as a greater threat to the world order than
    Osama bin Laden. (Washington Post, 24 September
    2005)

4
  • QUESTION
  • WHY IS THERE A CONTINUING TENSION BETWEEN THE
    PROJECTION OF AMERICA AND ITS RECEPTION BY
    PEOPLES OF OTHER COUNTRIES?
  • America's image problem is not only regional.
    It is global. (Council on Foreign Relations, July
    2002)
  • A fundamental problem of credibility….The
    United States today is without a working channel
    of communication to the world of Muslims and of
    Islam (Defense Science Board, December 2004)

5
  • I'm amazed that there is such misunderstanding
    of what our country is about that people would
    hate us. I, like most Americans, I just can't
    believe it, because I know how good we are. 
  • George Bush, 14 October 2001

6
PART 2 U.S. STRATEGY, THEN AND NOW THE ENEMY
AND THE CONCEPT OF POLITICAL WARFARE

7
  • Political warfare is the employment of all
    the means at a nation's command, short of war, to
    achieve its national objectives.
  • Understanding
    the concept of political
  • warfare, we
    should also recognize that
  • there are two
    major types of political
  • warfare--one
    overt and the other
  • covert…. Having
    assumed greater
  • international
    responsibilities than ever before
  • in our history
    and having been engaged by
  • the full might of
    the Kremlin's political
  • warfare, we
    cannot afford to leave unmobilized
  • our resources for
    covert political warfare.
  • (George Kennan, Director of Policy
    Planning, State Department, May 1948)

8
  • POLITICAL WARFARE TRIES TO UNIFY METHODS
  • 1. Soft and Hard Power
  • 2. Overt and Covert Operations

9
  • B. POLITICAL WARFARE TRIES TO UNIFY
  • SPHERES OF ACTIVITY STATE AND
  • PRIVATE
  • What is
    proposed here is an operation in the
  • traditional
    American form organized public
  • support of
    resistance to tyranny in foreign
  • countries.
    Throughout our history, private American citizens
    have banded together to champion the cause of
    freedom for people suffering under oppression.
    (George Kennan, The Inauguration of Organized
    Political Warfare, May 1948)

10
  • D. POLITICAL WARFARE IS A TOTAL
  • CAMPAIGN
  • 1. Military
  • 2. Economic
  • 3. Cultural/Ideological
  • 4. Media and Propaganda
  • (Official and Unofficial)

11
  • We must pool our efforts with those of the
    other free peoples in a sustained, intensified
    program to promote the cause of freedom against
    the propaganda of slavery. We must make ourselves
    heard around the world in a great campaign of
    truth.
  • President Harry Truman, 1950

12
  • PART IV
  • THE TENSIONS

13
  • A. Militarisation (from 1950)
  • No automatic means of stopping
    communism on our part, particular where it is
    primarily a matter of mens minds. Military
    occupation or direct military action not always
    fool-proof remedy, and not even seriously
    advocated for most of Asia --- even by strongest
    critics of our policy. (George Kennan to
    Secretary of State Dean Acheson, 6 February 1950)
  • The ability to perform these tasks (of foreign
    policy) requires a build-up of military strength
    by the United States and its allies to a point at
    which the combined strength will be superior for
    at least these tasks, both initially and
    throughout a war, to the forces that can be
    brought to bear by the Soviet Union and its
    satellites. (NSC 68, April 1950)

14
  • B. The Limits of Soft Power
  • HUNGARY 1956
    CHINA CUBA
  • C. The Breakdown of the Cold War Framework
  • VIETNAM
    IRAN LEBANON

15
  • D. The Conflict Between Power and Liberation
    (Freedom)
  • We have about 50 of the world's wealth but
    only 6.3 of its population. This disparity is
    particularly great as between ourselves and the
    peoples of Asia. In this situation, we cannot
    fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our
    real task in the coming period is to devise a
    pattern of relationships which will permit us to
    maintain this position of disparity without
    positive detriment to our national security. To
    do so, we will have to dispense with all
    sentimentality and day-dreaming and our
    attention will have to be concentrated everywhere
    on our immediate national objectives. (George
    Kennan, February 1948)
  • To attempt evasion of an obvious
    ideological issue is (1) objectively, to yield
    much of the field of conflict to our adversaries
    and (2) subjectively, to subvert our own
    ideological integrity --- that is, deny
    subconsciously heritage and philosophic concepts
    which are inner reasons that
  • we are, for all our shortcomings, not only
    great but good, and therefore a dynamic force in
    the mind of the world. (Policy Planning Staff,
    May 1949)

16
  • PART V
  • THE POST-COLD WAR REVIVAL
  • POLITICAL WARFARE
  • OR MUCH MORE?

17
  • A. The Invocation of Freedom
  • Freedom is the non-negotiable demand of
    human dignity the birthright of every person in
    every civilization. Throughout history, freedom
    has been threatened by war and terror it has
    been challenged by the clashing wills of powerful
    states and the evil designs of tyrants and it
    has been tested by widespread poverty and
    disease. Today, humanity holds in its hands the
    opportunity to further freedom's triumph over all
    these foes. The United States welcomes our
    responsibility to lead in this great mission.
  • (National Security Strategy 2002)

18
  • B. Tragedy and Possibility 11 September 2001


  • How do we capitalize on these

  • opportunities? (National Security

  • Advisor Condoleezza Rice to

  • National Security Council staff)
  • I want best info fast. Judge whether good
    enough hit S.H. Saddam
  • Hussein at same time. Not only UBL Osama bin
    Laden. Go massive.
  • Sweep it all up. Things related and not.
  • (Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld
  • to staff, 12 September 2001)

19
  • C. Public Diplomacy and Political Warfare
  • The much discussed potential of public
    diplomacy to address anti-American sentiment is
    vitally important at a time when terrorism is
    such a worldwide threat and uncertainty is
    pervasive.  In the struggle of ideas, public
    diplomacy is a critical component, a rapid and
    flexible capability for U.S. diplomacy abroad
    directed at improving understanding of and
    support for U.S. policy, encouraging and
    empowering moderates, and discrediting
    intolerance. (State Department
  • Strategic Goal 11 Public Diplomacy and
    Public Affairs, 2004)

20
This is definitely
the most elegant brand I--I've ever
had to work with, and I have a lot of
facets of the brand.
First it's President Bush and Secretary Powell
embodying the brand. That's
a pretty inspiring place
to start. Advertising executive Charlotte Beers,
on being appointed as Assistant Secretary of
State for Public Affairs, 7 November 2001
  • As Shahed Amanullah, an engineer who lives in San
    Francisco, California, puts it, " American values
    are, by and large, very consistent with Islamic
    values, with a focus on family, faith, hard work,
    and an obligation to better self and society.

21
  • PART 6
  • THE TENSIONS, CHAPTER TWO

22
  • They could have the prophet Muhammad doing
    public relations and it wouldn't help.
  • (Osama Siblani, publisher of Arab-American
    News)

23
  • Militarisation and Hard Power

  • As much as I would love

  • the Iraqis to love me,

  • and my doctrine tells me

  • that I want to win the

  • hearts and minds, I

  • know Im not going to do

  • that. (Lieutenant

  • General Thomas Metz)

24
  • B. The Conflict of Power and Liberation
    (Freedom)
  • Our first objective is to prevent the
    re-emergence of a new rival. This is a dominant
    consideration underlying the new regional defense
    strategy and requires that we endeavor to prevent
    any hostile power from dominating a region whose
    resources would, under consolidated control, be
    sufficient to generate global power. These
    regions include Western
  • Europe, East Asia, the territory of the
  • former Soviet Union, and Southwest
  • Asia. (Assistant Secretary of Defense
  • Paul Wolfowitz, 1992 Defense
  • Planning Guidance)

25
  • The Bush Administration Iraq as Example
  • Powell began by discussing the
  • new strategy for targeted sanctions.
  • But after a moment Rumsfeld
  • interrupted. Sanctions are fine, he
  • said. But what we really want to think
  • about is going after Saddam. Imagine
  • what the region would look like without
  • Saddam and with a regime that's
  • aligned with U.S. interests. It would
  • demonstrate what U.S. policy is all
  • about. (Secretary of Treasury Paul
  • ONeill referring to 1 February 2001
  • National Security Council meeting)

26
  • The great strength of this nation must be
    used to promote a balance of power that favors
    freedom. (National Security Strategy 2002)
  • The Iraqis had
    Were trying to
  • flowers in their
    save their lives
  • minds. (Assistant
    but theyre not
  • Secretary of Defense
    helping us by
  • Douglas Feith)
    getting in our

  • way. (US
    military

  • officer)
  • Freedoms untidy. (Donald Rumsfeld, April
    2001)

27
  • PLAYING FOOTBALL AND GROWING BEARDS IN FALLUJAH
  • In early 2004, US Marines were sent into the
    Fallujah area to replace Army units which had
    been, in the words of Marine spokesmen, too
    heavy-handed in their treatment of the Iraqi
    population. To win local favour, the Marines grew
    beards and set up football games.
  • At the start of April, the Marines shaved off
    their beards and all football games.
  • In the next two weeks, more than 700 Iraqis died
    in Fallujah.

28
  • C. The Limits of Soft Power
  • A group of Turkish women's rights activists
    confronted Undersecretary of State Karen Hughes
    on Wednesday with emotional and heated complaints
    about the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq, turning a
    session designed to highlight the empowering of
    women into a raw display of the anger at U.S.
    policy in the region.
  • "This war is really, really bringing your
    positive efforts to the level of zero," said
    Hidayet Sefkatli Tuksal, an activist with the
    Capital City Women's Forum. She said it was
    difficult to talk about cooperation between women
    in the United States and Turkey as long as Iraq
    was under occupation. (Washington
  • Post, 29 September 2005)
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