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Scaffold and Ladder Safety Training

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Scaffold and Ladder Safety Training * Some fabricated scaffold planks are made with hooks to restrain the platform from movement. In this case cleats were installed ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Scaffold and Ladder Safety Training


1
Scaffold and Ladder Safety Training
2
Disclaimer
  • This material was produced under grant number
  • SH-17787-08-60-F-24 from the Occupational Safety
    and Health Administration, U.S. Department of
    Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views
    or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor
    does mention of trade names, commercial products,
    or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S.
    Government.
  • This presentation is intended to discuss Federal
    Regulations only - your individual State
    requirements may be more stringent as many states
    operate their own state OSHA and they may have
    adopted construction standards that are different
    from information presented in this training. If
    you live in a state with an OSHA approved state
    plan, you should contact your local administrator
    for further information on the standards
    applicable in your state.
  • These materials are meant for informational
    purposes only.
  • No representation is made as to the thoroughness
    of the presentation.

3
Disclaimer, cont.
  • It is not the intent to provide compliance-based
    training in this presentation, the intent is more
    to address hazard awareness in the residential
    construction (i.e. home building) industry, and
    to recognize the overlapping hazards present in
    many construction workplaces.
  • Photos shown in this presentation may depict
    situations that are not in compliance with
    applicable OSHA/safety requirements.
  • No legal advice is offered or implied, and no
    attorney-client relationship is intended or
    established. If legal advice or other expert
    assistance is required the services of a
    competent professional person should be sought.
  • It is the responsibility of the employer and its
    employees to comply with all pertinent
    OSHA/safety rules and regulations in the
    jurisdiction in which they work.

4
Introduction
  • Falls from scaffolds and ladders are a leading
    cause of serious and fatal injuries in
    residential construction.
  • The goals of this course are to help you
  • understand how to correct or eliminate fall
    hazards on your job sites related to scaffold and
    ladder use
  • understand the OSHA scaffold and ladder safety
    requirements

5
Introduction, cont.
  • The course is based on the NAHB-OSHA Scaffold
    Safety Handbook, Scaffold Safety Video, Fall
    Protection Handbook and Fall Protection Video.
  • Participants can use the information from this
    seminar to
  • Provide training to employees
  • Implement a ladder and scaffold safety program

6
Course Objectives
  1. Identify the importance of preventing falls from
    ladders and scaffolds.
  2. Recognize fall hazards associated with ladder and
    scaffold use.
  3. Identify OSHA requirements for ladders,
    stairways, and scaffolds.
  4. Identify work practices for using ladders and
    scaffolds safely.

7
Course Agenda
  • Section 1 Overview
  • Section 2 Ladder Safety
  • Section 3 Scaffold Safety
  • Section 4 Group Workshop
  • Section 5 Post Test and Review

8
Section 1 Overview
9
Why is Preventing Falls from Ladders and
Scaffolds Important?
  • Falls continue to be the leading cause of
    fatalities in residential construction.
  • Falls (602) were responsible for 45 of
    residential construction fatalities from 2003 to
    2006.
  • 135 (22) were falls from ladders.
  • 89 (15) were falls from scaffolding.

Source NAHB Residential Construction Industry
Fatalities 2003-2006 (www.nahb.org/fatalitystudy
)
10
Fatalities by Event or Exposure Residential
Construction
Source NAHB Residential Construction Industry
Fatalities 2003-2006 (www.nahb.org/fatalitystudy
)
11
Fall Fatalities Residential Construction
Source NAHB Residential Construction Industry
Fatalities 2003-2006 (www.nahb.org/fatalitystudy
)
12
Most Frequently Cited Serious Violations In
Construction - 2007
Fall protection Residential construction 6 or
more
Fall protection - Unprotected sides edges
Head protection
Scaffolds - Fall protection
Aerial Lifts - Body belt and lanyard
Standard Subpart - 1926.
Fall hazards training program
Portable ladders 3 feet above landing surface
Scaffolds - Access
Scaffolds - Platform construction
Training for employees using scaffolds
13
OSHA Scaffold and Ladder Citations
  • Plastering Contractor fined 106,200 for exposing
    employees to fall hazards while working on a
    scaffold without using fall protection equipment.
  • Roofing Contractor fined 61,800 following an
    OSHA inspection for exposing employees to fall
    hazards including the use of a ladder that did
    not extend 3 ft. beyond the landing surface.

14
OSHA Fall Protection Requirements
  • Subpart L - 1926.451(g)
  • Each employee on a scaffold more than 10 (3.1M)
    above a lower level shall be protected from
    falling to a lower level.
  • Subpart X Ladders
  • Fall protection is not required for workers
    climbing or working on portable ladders.
  • Subpart X Stairways
  • Stairways having four (4) or more risers or
    rising more than 30 inches must be equipped with
    at least on handrail and one stairrail system
    along each unprotected side or edge.

15
OSHA Fall Protection Requirements cont.
  • Subpart M - 1926.501(b)(13)
  • Residential construction. Each employee
    engaged in residential construction activities 6
    or more above lower levels must be protected by
    conventional or alternative fall protection
  • Exemption When the employer can demonstrate
    the protection is infeasible or creates a greater
    hazard the employer must develop an alternative
    fall protection plan.

16
In the Headlines
17
In the Headlines, cont.
18
How do you prevent falls from ladders and
scaffolds?
  • Implement a comprehensive safety program.
  • Understand OSHA ladder and scaffold regulations.
  • Train workers to identify hazards associated with
    ladder and scaffold use.
  • Use safe work practices.

19
Section 2 Ladder and Stairway Safety
20
Learning Objectives Section 2
  • Determine the proper ladder to use based on
    weight capacity and height.
  • Calculate the proper pitch of extension ladders
    for proper set-up, and identify how to secure and
    stabilize ladders.
  • Identify how to maintain a safe position when
    using a ladder.
  • Identify safety requirements for protecting
    stairways.

21
Common Ladder Hazards
  • Improper set-up
  • Portable ladders not 3 feet above landing surface
  • Not securing ladder correctly
  • Standing on the top two steps of a stepladder
  • Overreaching when working from a ladder

22
Choosing the Right Ladder
  • Before stepping onto a ladder, think about these
    things
  • Duty rating of the ladderwhat capacity can it
    hold?
  • Height of the laddertoo short or too tall?
  • Condition of the ladder and instructions unique
    to the ladder selected.

23
Proper Duty Rating/Capacity
  • OSHA Requirement
  • Ladders shall not be loaded beyond the maximum
    intended load for which they were built nor
    beyond their manufacturer's rated capacity.

24
Proper Duty Rating/Capacity, cont.
Select a ladder with the proper duty rating for
your weight and the materials you are handling.
25
Extension Ladders
25
26
Proper Ladder Set-up
  • Consider placement and pitch of the ladder.
  • Secure and stabilize the ladder.

27
Pitch Extension Ladders
  • Extension ladders should be used at a 4 to 1
    pitch (1.2 to .3 m).
  • For every 4 ft. (1.2 m) in height, the bottom of
    the ladder should be 1 ft. (.3 m) away from the
    structure.
  • Example
  • 20 ft. (height) 4 ft. 5 ft. pitch

28
Pitch Extension Ladders, cont.
29
Proper Height Extension Ladders
  • When accessing another level, the ladder must
    extend at least 3ft. (0.9m) above the landing to
    provide a hand hold for getting on and off the
    ladder.

3 ft.
30
Proper Height for Extension Ladders, cont.
Choose the right ladder for the height you need to reach. Choose the right ladder for the height you need to reach. Choose the right ladder for the height you need to reach.
Ladder Height (ft.) Maximum Reach (ft.) Height to Gutter or Top Support Point
16 15 9 ft. max.
20 19 9-13 ft.
24 23 13-17 ft.
28 27 17-21 ft.
32 31 21-25 ft.
36 34 25-28 ft.
40 37 28-31 ft.
Assume a 5 ft.-6 in. person with a vertical reach of 12 in. Support points for extension ladders reflect section overlap, ladder angle, or 3-ft. extension above roof line Assume a 5 ft.-6 in. person with a vertical reach of 12 in. Support points for extension ladders reflect section overlap, ladder angle, or 3-ft. extension above roof line Assume a 5 ft.-6 in. person with a vertical reach of 12 in. Support points for extension ladders reflect section overlap, ladder angle, or 3-ft. extension above roof line
31
Secure and Stabilize Ladders
  • Extension ladders should be secured at the top or
    bottom to prevent movement.
  • The base of an extension ladder must be secured
    in place by using the safety feet on the ladder
    or other effective means.

32
Secure and Stabilize Ladders, cont.
33
Secure and Stabilize Ladders, cont.
34
Secure and Stabilize Ladders, cont.
35
Loose Soil
36
Step Ladders
36
37
Step Ladders
  • Only use in the fully open position on firm level
    ground.
  • Do not use a stepladder that is folded or in a
    leaning position.
  • Never sit/stand on the top two rungs.
  • Consider work height when selecting a stepladder.

38
Step Ladders, cont.
  • Stepladders are designed for use in an
    opened-and-locked position.

39
Step Ladders, cont.
  • Do NOT use a stepladder that is folded or in a
    leaning position.

40
Proper Height Stepladders
Choose a stepladder that is no more than 4ft.
shorter than the height you want to Reach.
41
Maintain a Safe Position on Ladders
  • Face the ladder when ascending or descending.
  • Maintain three points of contact at all times.
  • Keep your body centered on the ladder.
  • Never let your belt buckle pass either siderail.

42
Maintaining a Safe Position on a Ladder, cont.
43
Ladder Inspections
  • Ladders must be inspected before each use.
  • Broken or weak ladders or ladders that are not
    stable must be marked or tagged as defective and
    taken out of service.
  • Look for cracks and weak points.
  • Competent person must periodically inspect
    ladders.

44
Ladder Inspection, cont.
45
Review the Safety Labels on the Ladder
46
Additional Safe Work Practices Ladders
  • Extension ladders should not be separated to
    create two ladders.
  • Keep the areas around the tops and bottoms of all
    ladders clear to prevent trip-and-fall hazards.
  • Avoid setting ladders up in high traffic areas or
    barricade the area around ladder.

47
Additional Safe Work Practices Ladders, cont.
  • Ladders must be kept free of oil, grease, and
    other slipping hazards.
  • Consider using a rope to raise/lower materials
    instead of carrying items while climbing a
    ladder.
  • Do NOT use metal or aluminum ladders near exposed
    energized electrical equipment.

47
48
Section 3 Scaffold Safety
49
Learning Objectives Section 3
  • Identify general requirements for safely building
    and using scaffolds.
  • Identify competent person responsibilities.
  • How to access scaffolds safely.
  • Determine proper fall protection including
    guardrails and personal fall arrest systems.
  • Identify safety requirements applicable to
    specific types of scaffolds.

50
Common Scaffold Hazards
  • No guardrails on scaffolds.
  • Defective wood planks and inadequate planking
    overhang.
  • Unsafe access to scaffold.
  • Cross bracing not adequate.
  • Inadequate footings.
  • Bridging of scaffolds.

51
General Requirements
  • Erect/dismantle all Scaffolds According to the
    Manufacturer's Instructions and Competent Persons
    (CP) Direction
  • Capacity
  • Must support 4x Intended Load
  • Stable Footings
  • Base Plate, Screw Jacks Mudsills

52
General Requirements, cont.
  • Platforms at Least 18 Wide
  • Ladder Jack, Pump Jack, Top Plate, and Roof
    Brackets Can Be 12 Wide
  • Front edge of all platforms within 14 of face of
    work
  • Exceptions
  • 3 for outrigger scaffolds
  • 18 for plastering and lathing operations

53
Scaffold Capacity
  • Scaffolds must be capable of supporting its own
    weight and at least 4x the expected load.
  • Expected load includes
  • Workers
  • Equipment
  • Tools
  • Materials

54
Scaffold Capacity, cont.
  • Scaffold Capacity Expected Load x 4
  • 400 lbs of Workers
  • 100 lbs of Tools
  • 100 lbs of Materials
  • 600 lbs x 4 2,400 lbs

55
Base Plate Mudsill Required
56
Proper Scaffold Base
57
Masonry Blocks Bricks NOT Acceptable as
Scaffold Base
58
Scaffold Platform
  • Each platform on all working levels must be fully
    planked and secured to prevent movement.
  • No more than a 1 space between decking/platform
    units and upright supports.
  • Wood scaffold planks must be nominal 2 x 10.
  • Must be Scaffold Grade Planks or equivalent.

59
Scaffold Grade Plank Stamp
60
Planks with Visible Defects MUST NOT be Used
61
Scaffold Use
  • Do NOT use objects (ladders, boxes, barrels,
    etc.) on top of scaffold platforms to increase
    height
  • Planks Extend 6 Past Supports or Secured
  • Do NOT Paint Platforms
  • Exception Platform edges may be covered or
    marked for identification
  • Brace Fully

62
Front Edge within 14 of Face
63
Scaffold Plank 6 Past Support
64
Scaffold Plank Cleat
65
Fully Braced Scaffold
66
Competent Person Responsibilities
  • Designated competent person
  • Designated by the employer.
  • Has the knowledge and experience required to
    identify existing and predictable hazards.
  • Has authority to eliminate unsafe working
    conditions.
  • Has authority to stop work if unsafe conditions
    exists.

67
Competent Person Responsibilities, cont.
  • Train employees who erect, dismantle, move, or
    alter scaffolds.
  • Determine if it is safe for employees to work on
    or from a scaffold during storms or high winds.
  • Inspect scaffolds and scaffold components for
    visible defects before each work shift.

68
Scaffold Access
  • Ladders Needed if Access More Than 2
  • Dont Climb Cross Braces
  • Place Ladders Securely
  • Ladders must be positioned so they will not tip
    the scaffold

69
Scaffold Access, cont.
  • Access to or from another surface (such as a
    window) can only be used when the scaffold is
  • No more than 14 horizontally, and
  • No more than 24 vertically from the other surface

70
Portable Access Ladder
  • Must be secured to prevent displacement.
  • Extend at least 3 above landing to provide a
    handhold.

71
Attachable Access Ladder
72
Scaffold Stairway
73
Scaffold Fall Protection
  • Scaffolding 10 or higher must have some means of
    fall protection
  • guardrails or
  • personal fall arrest system (PFAS)
  • Toprails installed between 38 and 45 High.
  • Midrails installed halfway between toprail and
    platform.
  • Cross bracing OK as guardrails if the center
    point is between 20 to 30 for Midrail and 38
    to 45 for Toprail.
  • Toprails to 200 lbs. of force/Midrails to 150
    lbs. of force in any direction.

74
Scaffold Fall Protection, cont.
  • Erecting and Dismantling
  • Fall protection should be used when feasible and
    when it does not create a greater hazard
  • Competent person determines the feasibility and
    safety of providing fall protection

75
Falling Object Protection
  • Anyone working on or around a scaffold must wear
    a hard hat.
  • Workers on or below scaffolds must be protected
    from falling objects by
  • Toeboards
  • Mesh
  • Screens or
  • Equivalent measures

76
Falling Object Protection, cont.
77
Falling Object Protection, cont.
78
Scaffold Safety Training
  • All employees must be trained prior to working on
    scaffolds.
  • Qualified person must conduct the training and
    include the following
  • Electrical Hazards
  • Fall Protection
  • Falling Object Protection
  • Proper Use
  • Material Handling
  • Load-carrying Capacities

79
What type of scaffold do you use?
80
Types of Scaffolds Covered
  • Fabricated Frame Scaffold
  • Pump Jack Scaffold
  • Ladder Jack Scaffold
  • Trestle Horse Scaffold
  • Mobile Scaffold
  • Roof Bracket Scaffold
  • Top Plate Scaffold
  • Aerial Lifts
  • Work Platforms attached to forklifts

81
Fabricated Frame
82
Fabricated Frame
  • Have guardrails installed.

83
Fabricated Frame, cont.
  • Use Cross bracing.

84
Fabricated Frame, cont.
  • Use of uplift pins.

85
Fabricated Frame, cont.
  • Supported scaffolds with a height to base width
    (including outrigger supports, if used) ratio of
    more than four to one (41) must be restrained
    from tipping by
  • Guying,
  • Tying,
  • Bracing, or
  • Equivalent means

86
Pump Jack Scaffold
87
Pump Jack Scaffold, cont.
  • Brackets, braces must be made of metal and
    installed as per manufacturer specifications.

88
Pump Jack Scaffold, cont.
  • Must have guardrails (including end rails), or
    personal fall arrest system (PFAS), when working
    at heights above 10.

89
Pump Jack Scaffold, cont.
  • Keep working surface free from debris.

90
Pump Jack Scaffold, cont.
  • When using wood poles the lumber must be
  • Straight-grained
  • Free of shakes
  • Free of large loose or dead knots, and other
    defects that might impair strength
  • Wood poles built of two continuous lengths must
    have seams parallel.
  • Mending plates must be used when 2x4s are splice
    together.


91
Ladder Jack Scaffold
92
Ladder Jack Scaffold, cont.
  • Platform cannot exceed a height of 20 or be
    bridged together.

93
Ladder Jack Scaffold, cont.
  • Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) must be used
    for work at heights greater than 10.

94
Ladder Jack Scaffold, cont.
  • Ladders must be placed, fastened or equipped with
    devices to prevent slipping.

95
Trestle Horse Scaffolds
96
Trestle Scaffold
  • Scaffold platforms shall not be used above the
    second to top rung.
  • Job built ladders cannot be used in a trestle
    scaffold system.
  • Ladders must be secured to prevent displacement.

97
Horse Scaffold
  • Not erected more than 10 in height or arranged
    more than two tiers.
  • When stacked one horse must be directly over the
    other horse and each cross braced.
  • Legs must be nailed down or secured.

98
Mobile Scaffold
  • Do Not move while occupied unless specifically
    designed for such movement.
  • Before moving inspect for pits, holes, or
    obstructions on the floor.
  • Push the base On or Near the bottom when moving.

99
Mobile Scaffold, cont.
  • Caster wheels must be locked to prevent movement
    of the scaffold when stationary.

Unlocked
Locked
100
Roof Bracket Scaffold
  • Scaffold bracket must be constructed to form to
    pitch of roof and create a level work surface.
  • Brackets must be nailed into place.
  • When brackets cannot be nailed into place, ¾
    manila rope should be used to secure in place.
  • Must use personal fall arrest system.

101
Top Plate Scaffold
102
Top Plate Scaffold, cont.
  • Must hook over and be supported on top plate of
    wall structure.

103
Top Plate Scaffold, cont.
  • Wall structure must be braced to hold at least 4
    times the intended load.

104
Top Plate Scaffold, cont.
  • Must follow manufactures specification on
    particulars of using the different styles.

105
Aerial Lifts
106
Aerial Lifts, cont.
  • ONLY trained and authorized personnel should
    operate aerial lifts.

107
Aerial Lifts, cont.
  • Wear a full body harness and attach the lanyard
    to the boom or an approved anchor point inside
    the basket and NEVER tie to the adjacent
    structure.

108
Aerial Lifts, cont.
  • Aerial lifts CANNOT be moved while the bucket is
    occupied.

109
Aerial Lifts, cont.
  • Stand on the floor of the basket, NEVER step on
    rails or outside the basket.

110
Aerial Lifts, cont.
  • Do NOT Exceed Load Limits.

111
Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts
112
Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts
  • Work platforms can ONLY be used if the machine
    supporting the personnel platform was designed
    for such use.

113
Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts, cont.
  • ONLY trained and authorized personnel are allowed
    to operate forklifts.

114
Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts, cont.
  • Use ONLY commercially built personnel baskets
    designed for lifting workers that meet ANSI
    requirements.
  • Homemade boxes lifted by forklifts are NOT
    acceptable.

115
Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts, cont.
  • Entire platform must be attached to the lifting
    carriage and/or forks.

116
Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts, cont.
  • Forklifts CANNOT be moved horizontally while the
    platform is occupied.

117
Work Platforms Attached to Forklifts, cont.
  • Wear a full body harness and attach the lanyard
    to the boom or an approved anchor point inside
    the basket and NEVER tie to the adjacent
    structure.

118
Section 4 Group Workshop
119
Hazard Violation Workshop
  • Students will review a series of photographs
    of ladders and scaffolds in use on a jobsite. The
    assignment is to identify the hazards in each
    photo and discuss the corrective action required
    to correct the hazard. (Note Some of the photos
    are of correct safe work practices.) You Play
    OSHA!

120
Picture 1
121
Picture 2
122
Picture 3
123
Picture 4
124
Picture 5

125
Picture 6
126
Picture 7
127
Picture 8
128
Picture 9

129
Picture 10
130
Picture 11
131
Picture 12
132
Picture 13

133
Section 5 Post Test and Review
134
NAHB Labor, Safety Health Department and OSHA
  • If you have any further questions contact
  • Robert Matuga, Assistant Vice President
  • (800) 368-5242 ext. 8507
  • rmatuga_at_nahb.com
  • Kevin Cannon, Safety Specialist
  • (800) 368-5242 ext. 8507
  • kcannon_at_nahb.com
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