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The Basic Input/Output System

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The Basic Input/Output System ... BIOS performs POST BIOS reads CMOS and configures devices Plug and Play devices detected and configured BIOS determines which ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Basic Input/Output System


1
The Basic Input/Output System
  • Unit objectives
  • Access the BIOS setup utility, change hardware
    configuration values, and research BIOS updates
  • Explain the POST and boot processes and identify
    the symptoms of, probable causes of, and
    potential solutions to problems with the BIOS and
    POST

2
Topic A
  • Topic A The BIOS and CMOS
  • Topic B The POST and boot processes

3
Firmware
  • Gray area between hardware and software
  • Software written permanently or semi-permanently
    to a computer chip
  • Used to control electronic devices
  • Implemented in PC with BIOS and CMOS

4
BIOS
  • Basic Input/Output System
  • A set of software instructions stored on a chip
    on the motherboard
  • Enables basic computer functions
  • Common BIOS manufacturers
  • AMI
  • AWARD
  • MR BIOS
  • PHOENIX
  • Many use shadowing

5
CMOS
  • Area of memory that stores BIOS configuration
    information
  • Battery provides power to CMOS
  • Type of computer chip complementary metal oxide
    semiconductor
  • Can maintain information without a supply of
    power

6
CMOS battery
7
CMOS configuration
  • Configure with system setup utility
  • Built in BIOS
  • Locate on separate hard disk partition
  • Stored on disc
  • Access to utility varies by manufacturer
  • List of CMOS access keys
  • http//murfsgarage.cybertechhelp.com/?cmossetup.h
    tm

8
CMOS configurable settings
  • Date and time
  • CPU options
  • Optical drive options
  • Floppy drive options
  • Hard drive options
  • Serial port options
  • Parallel port options
  • Integrated devices
  • Plug and Play

continued
9
CMOS settings, continued
  • Power management options
  • Virus detection
  • Boot password

10
Activity A-1
Updating your PCs BIOS settings
11
BIOS updates
  • BIOS implemented either in
  • ROM Programmed at factory
  • Flash memory Can update, flash, the BIOS
  • Update if you
  • Have device problems or other bugs that PC
    manufacturer says are caused by BIOS problems
  • Have device problems that cant be attributed to
    anything else have exhausted all other
    troubleshooting avenues
  • Need to use new hardware options that are
    supported by motherboard but not by BIOS

12
BIOS update sources
  • Links to BIOS updates and flashing utilities on
    PC manufacturers Web site
  • BIOS is tailored by each PC manufacturer
  • Dont go to BIOS manufacturers Web site

13
Determining the BIOS version
  1. Open System Information
  2. Record BIOS Version/Date field value
  3. If present, record SMBIOS field value

14
Flashing the BIOS
  1. Determine current BIOS version
  2. Go to PC manufacturers Web support pages
  3. Compare available updates with current version
  4. Download new BIOS version
  5. Download flashing utility
  6. Close all open windows
  7. Open flashing utility follow instructions
  8. Restart PC

15
BIOS update guidelines
  • Dont update your BIOS unless you must
  • Never turn off your computer during a BIOS update
  • Connect to a UPS
  • Use the correct BIOS flash utility
  • Follow instructions exactly
  • Back up BIOS if possible

16
Recovering from a failed update
  • Use BIOS backup to restore previous version
  • Use boot block
  • Use flash recovery jumper switch
  • Obtain new BIOS chip

17
Activity A-2
Researching BIOS updates for your PC
18
Bad CMOS battery
  • BIOS data retained due to CMOS battery
  • Older PCs had a soldered batterynot replaceable
  • Newer PCs have removable battery

19
Low battery errors
  • Loss of time or date at boot
  • CMOS Read Error
  • CMOS checksum error
  • CMOS Battery Failure

20
Replacing the CMOS battery
  1. Record custom CMOS setting values
  2. Power down open your computers chassis
  3. If necessary, remove cables to allow battery
    access
  4. Gently slide the battery out of its compartment
  5. If necessary, discharge the CMOS memory using
    motherboard jumpers
  6. Insert the new battery into the holder
  7. Reconnect any cables you disconnected to gain
    access to the battery
  8. Close the PCs chassis
  9. Reconnect any cables and power cord
  10. Reboot. Enter correct date and time
  11. Access BIOS to reset custom values

21
Activity A-3
Replacing the CMOS battery
22
Topic B
  • Topic A The BIOS and CMOS
  • Topic B The POST and boot processes

23
POST process
  • Power-on self test
  • BIOS tests core hardware
  • BIOS tests video subsystem
  • BIOS identifies itself, including its
  • Version
  • Manufacturer
  • Date
  • BIOS tests main system memory

24
Beep codes
  • Inform user of errors before display is loaded
  • Vary by manufacturer
  • www.computerhope.com/beep.htm
  • Common beep codes
  • 1 short beep No problems found
  • 3 long beeps Keyboard error
  • 8 short beeps Video adapter memory problems
  • 9 short beeps BIOS problem
  • 1 long 3 short beeps Memory error

25
Numeric codes
  • Informs user of errors after display is loaded
  • Vary by manufacturer
  • IBM numeric code examples
  • 151 Real time clock failure
  • 161 Bad CMOS battery
  • 162 Configuration mismatch
  • 164 Memory size mismatch
  • 201 or any 20 Memory failure
  • 1762 Hard drive configuration error

26
Activity B-1
Observing the POST process
27
The boot process
  1. You turn on the power
  2. Timer chip sends reset signals to CPU to prevent
    booting
  3. Power supply performs internal checks sends
    Power_Good signal to CPU
  4. Timer stops sending reset signals to CPU
  5. CPU loads BIOS and BIOS extensions
  6. BIOS checks whether this is a cold or warm boot

continued
28
The boot process, continued
  1. If cold boot, BIOS performs POST
  2. BIOS reads CMOS and configures devices
  3. Plug and Play devices detected and configured
  4. BIOS determines which drive to boot from
  5. BIOS reads the master boot record from drive
  6. OS takes over and completes the boot process

29
Boot devices
  • Used to load operating system
  • Current
  • Internal hard disk
  • Optical drive CD or DVD
  • USB drive flash drive or external hard disk or
    optical drive
  • Network drive, using a PXE network interface card
  • Older
  • Floppy disk drive
  • SCSI device
  • Zip drive

30
Boot devices in the system BIOS
31
Activity B-2
Checking the boot order
32
BIOS-related problems
  • Devices misidentified
  • Wrong memory size reported during POST or
    available during booting
  • Hard drive inaccessible
  • System wont boot from hard drive
  • System boots from the wrong device
  • Date and time incorrect or reset after computer
    is turned off

33
POST-related problems
  • Theres no video instead, the computer sounds 8
    short beeps
  • The system emits 3 long beeps
  • The system emits 1 long and 3 short beeps
  • POST code 162 is displayed
  • POST code 164 is displayed

34
CMOS-related problems
  • Error messages
  • Non-system disk or disk error
  • Display type mismatch
  • Memory size mismatch
  • CMOS checksum failure

35
Activity B-3
Troubleshooting BIOS and POST problems
36
Unit summary
  • Accessed the BIOS setup utility, changed hardware
    configuration values, and researched BIOS updates
  • Explained the POST and boot processes and
    identified the symptoms of, probable causes of,
    and potential solutions to problems with the BIOS
    and POST
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