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Early P.E. Facilities

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Title: Early P.E. Facilities


1
Early P.E. Facilities
  • 1867 Dartmouth
  • 1867 Princeton
  • 1867 Bowdoin
  • 1870 U of Wisconsin
  • 1875 Yale
  • 1879 Harvard
  • 1879 O of California
  • 1860 Vasser
  • 1865 Mt. Holyoke
  • 1875 Smith
  • 1885 Bryn Mawr
  • 1888 Goucher
  • 1899 Mills
  • 1st pool 1888 Goucher

2
Short history AAHPERD
  • Founded 1885 - AAPE
  • 1886 - AAAPE
  • later - APEA
  • 1937 - AAHPE
  • 1938 - AAHPER
  • 1979 - AAHPERD
  • 1896 - APER
  • 1930 JOPERD
  • 1930 - Res Quarterly
  • 1958 - Fitness test
  • 1965 -Fitness norms revised
  • 1980 - Health related fitness test
  • 1988 - Physical Best
  • six national associations

3
National associations
  • Am Assoc for Active Lifestyles Fitness
  • Am Assoc for Health Education
  • Am Assoc for Leisure Recreation
  • Nat Assoc for Girls Womens in Sport
  • Nat Assoc for Sport Physical Education
  • Nat Dance Association

4
AAALF History 1949-1998
  • 1949 - General Division
  • 1974 - Assoc for Res, Admin, Prof Councils
    (ARAPC)
  • 1994 - AAALF

5
AAALFs Councils and Society
  • Adapted P.E. Council
  • Aquatics Council
  • College and University Administrators
  • Council on Aging Adult Development
  • Council on Facilities Equipment
  • Council on Outdoor Education
  • Ethnic Minority Council

6
AAALFs Councils Society continued
  • International Relations Council
  • Measurement Evaluation Council
  • Physical Fitness Council
  • Student Action Council
  • School and Community Safety Society of America

7
Facility planning guide history
  • 1946 - initial printing
  • 1946 edition followed by 1956, 1963, 1979, 1984,
    1988, 1992, 1999
  • Editors - Miles 46, Coates Flynn 79 84,
    Flynn 88 92, Sawyer, 99

8
CFE History
  • 1955 - Council on Equipment Supplies
  • 1976 - Council on Facilities, Equipment,
    Supplies
  • 1993 - Council on Facilities and Equipment

9
National workshops on design sponsored by CFE
  • Jacobs Mill Workshop, 1946
  • Kellogg Center Workshop, 1956
  • Biddle Workshop, 1965

10
Standards
  • Mandatory
  • Voluntary

11
Mandatory Standard
  • Is a standard developed by a federal agency such
    as Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    (OSHA).

12
Voluntary Standard
  • Is developed by a professional non-profit agency

13
Other controls
  • Legal codes
  • Technical specifications and guidelines
  • Literature and learned treatises

14
Standard of Practice
  • Is a usual practice accepted by the national or
    local government regarding some aspect of
    equipment or facility design or usage.

15
Organizations advancing standards
  • Am Natl Standards Institute ANSI
  • Am Society of Testing Materials ASTM
  • Occupational Safety Health Admin OSHA
  • Internatl Recognized Assoc of Quality Clubs
    IRSA
  • Untied States Tennis Association USTA

16
Other Organizations
  • National Fire Protection Association NFPA
  • National Building Code NBC
  • Standard Building Code SBC
  • National Spa Pool Institute NSPI

17
Planning Guidelines
  • Compliance with the ADA
  • Using a Comprehensive Master Plan
  • Use a Participatory Planning Approach
  • Research your Funding Options
  • Organize a Project Planning Committee
  • Understand when to Renovate, Retrofit, or Replace

18
Planning Guide Continued
  • Develop a Program Statement for the Architect
  • Using Planning Professionals

19
Selecting an Architect
  • Membership in AIA
  • Licensed to practice
  • Good reputation
  • References
  • Examples of work
  • Proximity to the project
  • Work with building committee

20
Selecting an Architect Continued
  • Ability to recommend reliable and respected
    contractors
  • Ability to provide strong competent supervision

21
Selecting a Consultant
  • Educational background
  • Work experience
  • Planning experience
  • Proximity to project
  • Reputation
  • Ability to work with building committee
  • Ability to understand and read blueprints

22
Selecting a Consultant Continued
  • Ability to understand the organizations programs
  • Ability to understand the future of the
    organizations programs

23
Site Selection Steps
  • Research
  • Designers design for people
  • Maintenance and operations
  • Maintenance
  • Operations
  • Special programs
  • Facilities their requirements

24
Site Selection Steps
  • Regional analysis
  • Site analysis (21 considerations)
  • Program
  • Functional analysis
  • Combined site, function land use
  • Refinement and site plan
  • Overall plan

25
Site Selection Steps
  • Construction documents
  • Bidding
  • Construction
  • Review

26
Site Selection Considerations
  • Access to site
  • Circulation within site
  • Parking
  • Water Supply
  • Sewage disposal
  • Electrical services
  • Telephone service
  • Other utilities
  • Environmental concerns
  • Easements
  • Zoning
  • Historical
  • Record of former use
  • Climate conditions
  • Nuisance potentials

27
Site Selection Consideration
  • Natural features
  • Economic impact study
  • Natural barriers visibility
  • Supporting demographics
  • Security concerns

28
Construction Step
  • Preconstruction conference
  • Construction Change orders
  • Pre-final inspection
  • Prepare punch list
  • As built drawings
  • Preparation of operations manual
  • training on how to operate

29
Construction Step
  • Final inspection
  • Acceptance as completed project
  • Maintenance period
  • Bond period
  • Bond inspection and final acceptance

30
Schematic Design Phase
  • The architect prepares -
  • the schedule
  • the construction budget requirements
  • drawings and other documents illustrating scale
  • relationship of project components

31
Construction Document Phase
  • All construction drawings
  • electrical
  • mechanical
  • structural
  • floor plans
  • landscaping
  • Specifications manual

32
Bidding Process
  • Bidding
  • invitation to bid
  • instructions and bid form
  • blue prints specifications
  • Advertising
  • Opening reviewing bids
  • Award of contract

33
Bidding
  • One contractor
  • Three contractors
  • mechanical, electrical, general
  • Lump sum
  • Lump sum with alternatives
  • Unit prices

34
Financing Options
  • Public Funding
  • Taxes - hotel/motel, restaurant, auto rental,
    taxi, sin, sales, road, utility, property,
    business license, and team.
  • Tax abatements
  • Bonds - municipal, general obligation,
    non-guaranteed, revenue, tax increment financing
    (TIF), special authority

35
Private Funding
  • Donation of cash
  • In-kind contributions
  • Naming rights
  • Concessionaire exclusivity
  • Restaurant rights
  • Sponsorship
  • Life insurance
  • Bequests/trusts
  • Lease agreements
  • Luxury suites
  • Premium seating
  • Parking fees
  • advertising rights
  • Vendor/contractor equity
  • Asset-backed securities

36
Attractive Nuisance Doctrine
  • It is a doctrine that holds if a person creates
    a condition on his/her premises which may
    reasonably be construed to be the sources of
    danger to children, he/she must take precautions
    as a reasonably prudent person would take to
    prevent injury to children of tender ages whom
    he/she knows to be accustomed to frequent the
    area.

37
Foreseeability
  • The reasonable anticipation that harm or injury
    is a likely result from certain acts or omissions.

38
Negligence
  • The omission of that care which a person of
    common prudence usually takes of his/her own
    concerns.

39
Duties of Reasonably Safe Environment
  • Keep the premises in safe repair,
  • Inspect the premises to discover obvious and
    hidden hazards,
  • Remove the hazards or warn of their presence,
  • Anticipate foreseeable uses and activities by
    invitees and take reasonable precautions to
    protect invitees from foreseeable dangers, and
  • Conduct operations on the premises with
    reasonable care for the safety of the invitee.

40
Planning Safe Facilities
  • Security and Access Control
  • Safety Zones
  • Pedestrian Traffic Flow
  • Storage
  • Proper Materials
  • Supervision

41
Primary Causes of Safety Problems in Sports
Facilities
  • Poor facility planning and design
  • Poor management

42
American With Disabilities Act
  • The act provides for comprehensive civil rights
    protection to individuals with disabilities in
    the areas of
  • employment,
  • public accommodations,
  • state and local government services, and
  • telecommunications.

43
Five Titles of the ADA
  • Title I prohibits discrimination against
    qualified individuals with disabilities in such
    areas as job application procedures, hiring,
    discharge, promotion, job training, and other
    conditions of employment.
  • Title II prohibits exclusion of disabled
    persons from benefits, services or activities
    offered by the government.

44
Five Titles of the ADA
  • Title III guarantees persons with disabilities
    access to privately operated places of business.
  • Title IV requires telephone companies to
    provide interstate and intrastate
    telecommunications relay service so that hearing
    impaired and speech impaired individuals can
    communicate with others.

45
Five Titles of the ADA
  • Title V refers to the administration and
    handling of complaints under ADA.

46
Lighting Terms
  • Brightness
  • Glare
  • Illumination
  • Footcandle
  • Footlambert
  • Reflection Factor

47
Basic Lighting Considerations
  • Installation
  • Design for Impact
  • Lighting Types
  • Lighting Levels
  • Natural Lighting

48
Types of Lighting
  • Incandescent
  • Fluorescent
  • Mercury-Vapor
  • Metal Halide
  • High Pressure Sodium
  • Quartz

49
Unique Lighting Settings/Issues
  • Aquatic Facilities
  • Outdoor Lighting
  • Exit Lighting
  • Night Lighting
  • Emergency Lighting

50
Acoustics
  • Internal Treatment
  • External Treatment
  • Exterior Treatment

51
Electronic Technologies
  • Electronic Communication
  • Scoreboards and Electronic Timing systems
  • Elevators and Other Hydraulic Lifts
  • Security
  • Emergency Alarms
  • Emergency Generators

52
Optimal Thermal Environment
  • Radiant temperature where surface and air
    temperatures are balanced,
  • Air temperature between 64 and 72 F,
  • Humidity between 40 and 60 percent, and
  • A constant air movement of 20 to 40 lineal
    feet/per/minute at a sitting height.

53
Specialists Contributing to Design and Planning
of Ancillary Areas
  • Owners Project Manager
  • Facility Planner/Programmer
  • Architect
  • Construction Cost Authority
  • Operational Consultant
  • Component Suppliers

54
Basic Components Common to Locker Rooms
  • Lockers
  • Toilets
  • Showers
  • Amenities
  • Grooming Stations

55
Locker System Considerations
  • Cost
  • Appearance Requirements
  • Resistance to Abuse
  • Resistance to Corrosion
  • Availability of Desired Size and Accessories
  • Installation Requirements

56
Amenities
  • Steam Rooms
  • Saunas
  • Jacuzzis
  • Grooming Stations

57
Special Types of Locker Rooms
  • Family Locker Rooms
  • Express Lockers
  • Staff Locker Rooms
  • Officials Locker Rooms

58
Types of Signs
  • Warning, danger, caution, emergency
  • Notice and standard operations
  • Directional
  • Rules and regulations
  • Sign graphics

59
Designing Signs
  • Placement
  • Materials
  • Repetitiveness
  • Shape
  • Color
  • Size
  • Graphics

60
Signs need to be
  • Simple
  • Understandable
  • Attract the facility users attention

61
Sign Maintenance
  • Electronic bulbs and components will need
    replacing have easily accessible.
  • Signs can break. Use proper coverings.
  • Signs can be defaced. Use proper materials.
  • Signs need to be cleaned on a regular basis.

62
Signage and the Three Groups It Serves
  • Facility Users
  • Staff/Employees
  • Emergency Personnel

63
Steps in Surface Selection
  • Definition
  • Solicitation
  • Comparison
  • Visitation
  • Selection
  • Quality
  • Manufacturer
  • Installer
  • Life-Cycle Cost
  • Bidding
  • Installation

64
Surface Direct Links
  • Cost
  • Type
  • Installation
  • Maintenance
  • Facility Usage
  • Appearance
  • Longevity
  • Overall Facility Success

65
Indoor Surfaces Areas
  • Floors
  • Ceilings
  • Walls
  • Windows
  • Specialty Areas
  • Locker Rooms
  • Steam Rooms
  • Aerobic/Exercise Areas
  • Strength Training Areas
  • Racquetball Courts
  • Offices/Teaching Areas

66
Energy Management Process
  • Assessment of the building and operating systems.
  • List of appropriate energy conservation measures
    based on assessment.
  • Careful planned implementation.
  • Regular review of actual energy savings.

67
Three Major Steps in Energy Management
  • Energy Audit Analysis
  • Implementation
  • Monitoring of Results

68
Financing Energy Management Programs
  • Operating Funds
  • Capital Budgets
  • Leases
  • Energy Service Agreement

69
Situations to consider
  • Building Envelope
  • Operation Maintenance
  • HVAC Systems
  • Heat Pumps
  • Domestic Hot Water
  • Indoor/Outdoor Water Use
  • Air Quality
  • Thermal Factors
  • Lighting

70
Steps to Improve Water Conservation
  • Shut off taps fully
  • Repair drips leaks promptly
  • Check timing cycles for automatic systems
  • Install low-flow aerators
  • Retrofit toilets

71
Steps to Reduce Outdoor Water Consumption
  • Plant only native vegetation suited to climate
  • Limit watering of turf
  • Water only during evening and overnight to reduce
    evaporation
  • Use trickle or soaker hoses
  • Design for runoff rainwater to return to the soil

72
Air Quality Components
  • Physical
  • Chemical
  • Biological
  • Thermodynamic Characteristics of the Air

73
Types of Bleachers
  • Permanent (Stationary)
  • Portable (Movable)
  • Telescopic (Folding)
  • Temporary

74
Bleacher Components
  • Footboards
  • Seatboards
  • Risers
  • Guardrails

75
Codes and Regulations
  • 2000 International Building Code (IBC) of the
    International Code Council
  • 1999 National Building Code (NBC) of the Building
    Officials and Code Administrators
  • 1997 Standard Building Code (SBC) of the Southern
    Building Code Congress International (SBCCI)
  • 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC) of the
    International Conference of Building Officials
    (ICBO)
  • 2000 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
    101 Life Safety Code

76
Areas of Concern
  • Press Box Construction
  • Number of Seats to an Aisle
  • Required Plumbing Fixtures
  • Aisle Width
  • Accessibility
  • Foundations
  • Use of Space Below Bleachers/Grandstands

77
Landscape Design
  • Aesthetics
  • Function
  • Safety

78
Groundskeeping Planning Responsibilities
  • Management
  • Maintenance
  • Equipment

79
Special considerations in Landscape Design
  • Surface and subsurface irrigation and drainage
  • Parking
  • Chemical handling and storage

80
Parking Design
  • Aesthetics
  • Natural Barriers
  • Man-made Barriers
  • Function
  • Safety
  • Type of System
  • Type of Dispensers

81
Parking Safety Strategies
  • Emergency telephone system
  • Glass panels in stairwells
  • Video cameras
  • Parking attendants
  • Lighting levels
  • Procedures to enhance safety awareness
  • Safety programs such as escort services

82
Planning Parking Facilities
  • Traditional Parking Paradigm
  • Central pay stations
  • Smart Cards
  • Debit Cards
  • Proximity Cards
  • Weaknesses of Traditional Paradigm

83
Planning Parking Facilities
  • Customer Oriented Parking
  • Reserved Spaces
  • Core Area Parking
  • Perimeter Area Parking
  • Designated Motorcycle Parking
  • Carpool/Vanpool Parking
  • Bicycle Parking
  • Shared Parking
  • Economic Incentives

84
Level of Maintenance
  • Landscaping Care
  • Striping
  • Painting
  • Sweeping
  • Pavement Cleaning
  • Relamping
  • Replacement of Signs
  • Window Washing
  • Trash Removal
  • Snow Removal

85
Funding of the Parking System
  • Permits
  • Metered Parking
  • Designated Visitor Parking
  • Parking for Special Events
  • Parking Tickets

86
Budget for the Parking System
  • Administration
  • Maintenance
  • Repair and Renovation
  • Deferred Maintenance
  • New Construction
  • Reserves
  • Alternate Transportation Options

87
Parking Technology
  • Equipment to monitor parking structure activity
  • Central pay stations
  • Debit Card Systems

88
Design Considerations for Maintenance and
Operations
  • Workshops
  • Storage
  • Janitorial Closets
  • Laundry Facilities
  • Office and Administrative Space
  • Staff Break Rooms with Locker Facilities

89
Central Custodial Complex
  • The size and function of the central custodial
    complex will be base on
  • The size of the building, and
  • The nature of the programs being conducted.

90
Administrative Space Requirements
  • Desk
  • Filing Cabinets
  • Communication Equipment
  • Networked Computer and Printer

91
Generic Concerns for Building Maintenance
  • Standardize building fixtures and equipment
  • Logistical concerns
  • Access of building operating equipment

92
Tennis Courts
  • Prevailing winds, natural barriers
  • Visual background
  • Contour of land
  • Orientation
  • Surfacing
  • Slope
  • Fencing

93
Types of Courts
  • Porous
  • Non-porous
  • Initial cost
  • Cost of upkeep
  • Amount of use
  • Area of country
  • Maintenance personnel needed
  • Type of players
  • Level of competition
  • Age of players

94
Court Surfaces
  • Clay
  • Grass
  • Soft composition
  • Asphalt
  • Concrete
  • Hard composition
  • Synthetic

95
Tennis Courts-Miscellaneous Considerations
  • Lighting
  • Storage areas
  • Parking areas
  • Water fountains
  • Electrical outlets
  • Spectator seating
  • Surface color

96
Paddle Tennis
  • Dimensions
  • Safety space
  • Posts
  • Surfaces

97
Paddle
  • Dimensions
  • Net and anchoring
  • Markings
  • Surfaces
  • Backwalls
  • Portable courts

98
Platform Tennis
  • Dimensions
  • Nets
  • Area
  • Backstop
  • Surface

99
Badminton
  • Dimensions
  • Court
  • Ceiling clearance
  • Safety distance

100
Basketball
  • Indoor/Outdoor
  • Dimensions
  • Markings
  • Flooring/surfacing
  • Orientation

101
Volleyball
  • Dimensions
  • Markings
  • Safety space
  • Net height
  • Standards
  • Light fixtures
  • Outdoor Sand Volleyball Courts

102
Racquetball, Handball, and Squash Courts
  • Dimensions
  • Design considerations
  • Walls
  • Materials
  • Floors
  • Doors
  • Markings
  • Lighting
  • Acoustics
  • Ventilation
  • Storage
  • Signage

103
Shuffleboard
  • Dimensions
  • Markings
  • Orientation
  • Level areas
  • Portable courts

104
Croquet
  • Six-Wicket
  • Nine-Wicket
  • Dimensions
  • Stakes
  • Boundries

105
Fencing
  • Dimensions
  • Markings
  • Ceiling clearance
  • Electric foil and epee
  • Electrical outlets

106
Safety considerations in selecting field acreage
  • Size
  • Proximity to
  • streets
  • railroads
  • water courses
  • trenches
  • ponds
  • storage yards
  • Soil suitability
  • Climatic
  • noise
  • odors
  • smoke
  • dust
  • Visibility of entire area
  • Protective perimeter
  • Illumination of area

107
Safety considerations in Selecting Field Acreage
  • Space for multiple fields
  • Baseball/softball concerns for spectators
    parking
  • foul balls
  • home runs
  • over throws
  • Site conditions
  • Space
  • safety zones
  • obstructions
  • Circulation
  • Access
  • Utility lines

108
Field Safety Concerns
  • Size of field
  • safety buffers
  • proximity to other fields, buildings, and parking
  • Access
  • Parking
  • Illumination of the field
  • Spectators
  • Handicapped accessibility
  • Fences
  • height
  • padding
  • buffer zone
  • Materials used

109
Field Turf Options
  • Synthetic
  • Natural

110
Seating Considerations
  • Conforms to ADA guidelines
  • Railings
  • Enclosing spaces under seats
  • Enclosing structure to gain additional storage
    space
  • Aisles with railings

111
Field Orientation
  • North to South
  • Baseball/softball establish an orientation that
    avoids the batter/catcher and pitcher from facing
    directly into the early morning or late afternoon
    sun.

112
Fencing
  • Height - 6 to 8, 8 preferable
  • Sturdy enough to support players weight and/or a
    wind screen
  • Top covered with colorful vinyl tube
  • In front of dugouts
  • Post on outside of fence fabric
  • No closer than 50 to sidelines/foul line

113
Drainage
  • Subsoil 80-90 sand
  • Crowned playing field, not exceeding 1/4 per
    foot
  • Sidelines drainage at least 5 from playing field
  • French drains along sidelines

114
Irrigation
  • Types
  • underground throughout playing field
  • underground along the perimeter of playing field
  • above ground with portable piping and sprinkler
    heads

115
Planning Concerns for Irrigation
  • Tie-ins for drinking fountains hose bibs
  • Liquid fertilization options
  • Participant safety
  • Type of sprinkler heads
  • Watering pattern layout
  • Source of water
  • Timing system
  • Winterizing

116
Sport Field Planning Tips
  • Have good construction specifications
  • Have good communications
  • Be able to compromise solve problems
  • Use sound agronomics
  • Follow a good fertilization, irrigation, and
    mowing program

117
Planning Concerns for Press Box
  • Table(s) for reporters or broadcasters
  • Comfortable chairs
  • Phone hook ups
  • Computer hook ups
  • Electrical outlets
  • Coffee maker
  • Filming area
  • Specific areas for press, radio announcers,
    scorekeeper, PA announcer, coaches, and scouts

118
Rest Room Planning
  • Twice the number for women
  • Changing areas for babies
  • Waste disposal for diapers
  • Handicapped accessible
  • Flourescent lighting
  • HVAC

119
Scoreboard Planning
  • Scoring
  • Periods or innings
  • Balls, strikes, outs
  • Injury time
  • Penalty time remaining
  • Times places by lanes
  • Diving scores by judge, degree of difficulty,
    total points scored, ranking after X number of
    dives
  • Roster
  • Players vital statistics
  • Advertising
  • PA system

120
Scoreboard Planning continued
  • Multiple functions for various sports using the
    field complex
  • Close-ups of players and spectators
  • Video capabilities
  • Time of day
  • Scores from other games

121
Storage Planning
  • Riding lawn mowers
  • Push mowers
  • Tillers
  • Weed eaters
  • Shovels, racks, and hoes
  • Utility vehicles
  • irrigation pipes
  • Hoses sprinkler heads
  • Field liners
  • Goals
  • Field flags
  • Benches
  • Waste containers
  • Protection screens

122
Storage Planning
  • Pitching machines
  • Tarps
  • Fertilizers, insecticides, and talc
  • Paint
  • Chains, yard markers, padding for goal posts

123
Planning for Baseball/Softball Fields
  • NFHSA, NCAA, NJCAA, Softball USA, NAGWS Rules
  • Bases
  • stationary bases
  • modified stationary bases
  • release-type bases
  • throw down bases
  • Skinned infield
  • Turf infield outfield
  • Pitchers mound
  • Base paths
  • Warning tracks
  • Backstop
  • Players bench area
  • Batting cage

124
Planning for Baseball/Softball Field
  • Bull pen
  • Size
  • Multi-field Complex
  • Spectators
  • Rest Room area
  • Concessions
  • Spectators
  • Press Box

125
Other Fields
  • Football
  • Field Hockey
  • Lacrosse
  • Soccer
  • Rugby
  • Bocci

126
Planning a Track and Field Complex
  • Site analysis
  • Drainage
  • Stable, well-built base
  • Quality synthetic surface
  • Accurate markings
  • Track curb
  • Wind
  • Throwing events
  • Jumping events
  • Good soil
  • Water jump
  • Basic shapes
  • equal quadrant track
  • non-equal quadrant track
  • Broken-back track

127
Planning a Track Field Complex
  • Runways
  • Take-off boards
  • Starting systems
  • Spectator seating
  • Surfaces
  • Asphalt-bound
  • polyurethane-bound
  • SBR or EPDM
  • latex-bound

128
Planning a Cross Country Complex
  • Starting Finish
  • Storage Parking
  • Mens and womens course
  • 3 KM, 5KM, 8KM
  • Paths should be 10 M wide
  • Course markings

129
Leisure Pool Features
  • Water falls
  • Fountains
  • Whirlpools
  • Current channels
  • Lazy River
  • Participatory water play apparatus

130
Leisure Pool Design Considerations
  • Cost
  • Operating costs
  • Life cycle costs
  • Long-term popularity

131
Planning Considerations for a New Swim Center
  • Need analysis
  • Programming
  • Funding
  • Future needs

132
Design Options
  • Basements
  • Pool shell construction
  • cast-in-place concrete
  • Pneumatically applied concrete
  • Structural features
  • Fenestration
  • Dehumidification
  • Materials Finishes

133
Technical Considerations
  • Dimensions
  • Interior Finishes
  • Gutter Systems
  • deep recessed
  • deck level
  • rollout
  • Gutter construction
  • cast-in-place
  • fabricated or steel
  • Pool filters
  • sand
  • diatomaceous earth
  • cartridge
  • Chemical treatment
  • Movable bulkhead
  • Movable floors
  • Diving facilities

134
Technical Considerations
  • Drainage
  • Building envelope
  • Support spaces
  • dressing rooms
  • offices
  • first aid area
  • meet management area
  • Dehumidification
  • HVAC
  • Maintenance repair
  • Safety features
  • Signage
  • safety equipment
  • safety ledges
  • recessed ladders

135
SAFE Playgrounds
  • Supervision
  • Age Appropriate
  • Falling
  • Equipment

136
General Planning Considerations
  • Supervision Design Considerations
  • Age Separation
  • Sight Lines
  • Zones for Play

137
Age Appropriate Design Considerations
  • Correct Size
  • Developmental Characteristics
  • Physical Layout

138
Considerations for Proper Surfacing
  • Environmental Conditions
  • Management Requirements
  • Cost Factors
  • Characteristics of Users
  • Maintenance Requirements
  • Equipment Requirements
  • Accessibility

139
Site Analysis (Environmental)
  • Soil and Geology
  • Drainage
  • Topography
  • Vegetation

140
Site Analysis (Man-Made)
  • Utilities
  • Roads
  • Use Zones
  • Land Use
  • Access

141
Three Factors to Consider When Installing
Equipment
  • The planning for installation,
  • The actual installation of the equipment and
    surfacing, and
  • The liability issues related to the installation.

142
Five Factors in Installing Planning
  • The manufacturer of the equipment,
  • The manufacturer of the surface,
  • The materials needed,
  • Who will perform the installation, and
  • Budgetary factors.

143
Master Plan Concept
  • Community Involvement
  • Planning for Urban Areas
  • Multiple Use
  • Eliminating Architectural Barriers

144
Indoor Community Areas Facilities
  • Planning Units
  • General Recreational Buildings
  • Neighborhood Center
  • Community Center
  • Multi-Purpose Room
  • Gymnasium
  • Locker and Shower Rooms

145
Indoor Community Areas Facilities (cont.)
  • Stage and Auditorium
  • Game Room
  • Kitchen
  • Lounge and Lobby
  • Storage Areas
  • Club or Classrooms
  • Photography Room

146
Indoor Community Areas Facilities (cont.)
  • Music Room
  • Auxiliary Gyms
  • Instructors Office
  • Checkroom
  • Art Center
  • Pre-School Center
  • Senior Citizen Center

147
Indoor Community Areas Facilities (cont.)
  • Swimming Pool (Natatorium)
  • Teen Centers

148
The Neighborhood Center
  • Multi-purpose room
  • Gymnasium
  • Arts Crafts
  • Game Room
  • Kitchen
  • Restrooms
  • Lounge and Lobby
  • Office
  • Large Storage Areas

149
The Community Center
  • Multi-purpose rooms
  • Gymnasium
  • Shower and Locker Rooms
  • Stage and Auditorium
  • Art/Dance/Music/Drama
  • Game Room
  • Kitchen
  • Restrooms
  • Lounge Lobby
  • Office
  • Large Storage Areas
  • Clubs/Classrooms

150
Outdoor Facilities Open Spaces
  • Standards
  • Park and Recreation Areas
  • Playlot/Mini-Parks
  • Neighborhood Park
  • Community Parks Playfields
  • City-Wide or District Parks

151
City-Wide or District Park
  • Field for baseball, football, soccer, and
    softball
  • Tennis center
  • Winter sports facilities
  • Day-camp center
  • Picnic areas
  • Cycling paths
  • Swimming pools
  • Water sports lake
  • Pitch-and-putt golf course
  • Recreation building
  • Nature trails
  • Skating rinks
  • Playlot apparatus
  • Parking areas
  • Outdoor theater

152
Special-Use Areas Facilities
  • Walking trails
  • Bicycle pathways
  • Bridle paths and rings
  • Exercise trail
  • Golf course
  • Marinas and boat ramps
  • Roller and ice skating

153
Special-Use Areas Facilities
  • Ice Hockey
  • Curling
  • Performing Arts
  • Archery Range
  • Bocce Ball
  • Shuffleboard
  • Croquet

154
Snow Sports
  • Ski Courses
  • Cross-Country Skiing
  • Coasting, Sleighing, Tobogganing
  • Snowmobiling

155
Type A Space Requirements
  • Gym floor
  • Mat areas
  • Swimming pool
  • Court areas
  • racquetball/handball
  • tennis, badminton
  • walleyball
  • sand volleyball

156
Type B Space
  • Sport field spaces of all types
  • Fitness trails
  • Court spaces
  • Swimming pool

157
Type C Spaces
  • Sports fields and building
  • Intramural and general outdoor recreation areas

158
Campus Recreation Facility Spaces Indoor
  • Large multipurpose gymnasium
  • Smaller auxiliary gymnasiums
  • Swimming pool
  • Combative space
  • Climbing Wall
  • Strength training
  • Cardiovascular
  • Free weights
  • Handball/Racquetball/walleyball courts
  • Golf room
  • Dance exercise area
  • Game room
  • Lounge

159
Campus Recreation Facilities Spaces Indoor
  • Lobby
  • Archery, rifle, or pistol range
  • Concessions area
  • Rental area
  • Offices
  • Conference room
  • Storage
  • Pro shop
  • Training room
  • Locker rooms
  • Roller blade hockey space

160
Campus Recreation Facility Spaces Outdoor
  • Lighted fields
  • touch/ flag football
  • soccer
  • field hockey
  • baseball
  • rugby
  • Lighted courts
  • basketball, volleyball
  • badminton, tennis
  • Horseshoe pits
  • Lighted rollerblade hockey court
  • Lighted fitness trail
  • Lighted skating rink
  • swimming pool
  • Storage building
  • Maintenance building

161
Campus Recreation Facility Spaces outdoors
  • Lighted walking trails
  • Golf course
  • Lighted driving range
  • Lighted practice green
  • Bocci field
  • Croquet field
  • Tennis practice board
  • Soccer kicking wall
  • Picnic areas with shelters
  • Ropes course
  • One-wall racquetball/handball court
  • Sand volleyball

162
Assessing needs of Existing Facility
  • Strength training goals
  • Type of training to be used
  • Season priorities
  • Age ranges of clients
  • Usage schedule
  • Repairs/modifications
  • Safety

163
Planning the Layout
  • Visualize the present and potential locations of
    equipment
  • Organize for safety
  • Identify areas of frequent travel
  • Develop facility flow
  • Select supervisor station location

164
Flooring
  • Wooden
  • Tile
  • Resilient rubber
  • Interlocking mats
  • Carpet

165
Walls
  • Sound proofing
  • Mirrors

166
New Facility Considerations
  • Programs
  • Size
  • Walls
  • Floor platform(s)
  • Ceiling
  • Electrical
  • Climate control

167
New Facility Considerations continued
  • Sound, and audio/visual
  • Storage
  • Security
  • Testing area
  • Cardiovascular area
  • Mechanized weight area
  • Free weight area

168
Testing Area Considerations
  • Size
  • Walls
  • Floor
  • Ceiling
  • Electrical
  • Climate Control
  • Plumbing
  • Security
  • Sound
  • Storage

169
Why a Climbing Wall?
  • Integral part of an adventure program
  • Use a climbing groups or individuals
  • High profile architecture
  • Efficiently use an under utilized area of a
    facility
  • Training facility for climbers
  • An additional fitness development opportunity

170
Planning Questions
  • Who will be the users?
  • Will the wall be a stand-alone entity?
  • Will the wall be used in conjunction with other
    facilities?
  • How will the project be funded?
  • Is this a new or retrofit of an existing
    facility?
  • How much space is available?

171
Planning Questions
  • How important are aesthetics?
  • What type of flooring will be best for the
    facility?
  • Do the design features promote safety, minimize
    maintenance problems, and meet program needs

172
Design factors
  • Wall surface real rock look, seamless cement,
    panels, wood
  • Wall height bouldering wall 12 Commercial
    height 25 to 35 competition wall 35
    training wall 40
  • Portable walls
  • Climbing treadmills
  • Wall features number, type, and location of
    handholds, cracks, aretes (corner), depressions,
    overhangs, caves, ledges, etc.

173
Design Factors
  • Wall structure wall sub-structure must be
    designed to hold weight of climbers, movement of
    climbers, and impact of climbers
  • Security
  • Storage
  • Flooring movable landing mats, thickly padded
    carpeting, 6 of rubber pieces or gravel
    flooring extends 6 out from furthest protrusion
    of the wall

174
Climbing wall types
  • Homemade
  • Prefabricated panel system
  • Portable walls
  • Climbing towers

175
Climbing Equipment
  • Ropes
  • Harnesses
  • Helmets
  • Belay system
  • Locking D carabiners
  • Climbing shoes

176
Safety Standards for Walls
  • Supervisors are qualified instructors
  • Emergency equipment available
  • CPR and First Aid training for personnel
  • Periodic in-service training
  • Policies and emergency procedures must be posted
  • Climbers must show proficiency in belay
    techniques, rope handling skills, climbing
    signals
  • Facilities regularly inspected
  • Negative air pressure maintained in indoor
    facility
  • Wall surface moderately abrasive

177
Challenge Ropes Courseslearning objectives
  • Commitment
  • Communication
  • Fun, exhilaration, challenge
  • Risk taking
  • Fear management
  • Team work
  • Leadership
  • Ability to follow
  • Problem solving
  • Safety education
  • Trying to ones best
  • The joy of effort
  • Exceeding ones perceived limits
  • Trust
  • Cooperation
  • Compassion
  • Physical fitness
  • Coordination

178
General Elements of Low Ropes Course
  • Rope swing on knotted rope
  • Spiders web
  • Hanging tire
  • Traversing and balancing the swinging log
  • Tension traverse on low cable wire with overhead
    rope
  • Traverse the diverging cable wires
  • Balance beam traverse
  • Low wall
  • Higher log beam
  • Swinging tires traverse
  • Catwalk or twin cable wire feet only traverse

179
High Challenge Ropes Course
  • Vertical rope ladders, cargo nets, or log rungs
  • Centipede poles with staples, firecracker ladders
  • Inclined log, fidget ladder, or beam
  • High and low cable bridge traverse
  • Zip wire on a pulley
  • Trapeze dive
  • Pamper pole or high pedestal
  • Trapeze or knotted rope swing
  • Twin wire cable or rope traverse
  • Cable traverse with hanging rings or vertical
    ropes for hands

180
Ropes Course Maintenance
  • Use pressure treated lumber
  • Weatherproof wood parts
  • Use only healthy trees with a solid root system
    as support trees
  • Use wood chips or bark mulch around the base of
    trees
  • Immediately replace dead or insect infected trees
  • Trim and cleared broken or overgrowing limbs
  • Remove splinters and rough edges on all wood
    parts
  • Replace and repair all rotten or cracked wood

181
Rope course maintenance
  • Reset protruding mails
  • Check for rotting of the poles in the ground
  • Use only galvanized metal items (I.e., bolts,
    cables, cable locks, rapid links)
  • Tighten nuts and bolts, turnbuckles, and clamps
  • Temporarily cover all frayed cable ends
  • Cover all frayed areas with permanent sleeves
  • Inspect cables for smoothness
  • Cables should be 3/8 wire rope that is 7 x 19 (7
    stands with 19 wires per strand)

182
Challenge Ropes Course Equipment
  • Use Union International Association of Alpinists
    certified climbing ropes and screwgate locking
    carabiners
  • Install only stainless steel or galvanized
    hardware
  • Have participants wear an adjustable harness
  • Maintain positive security while on the ropes
    course using lobster claws
  • Minimize rope wear and damage by using a shear
    reduction devise
  • Have a first aid available
  • Store equipment in cool dry place

183
Challenge Ropes Course Equipment
  • Lightning protection on high ropes courses
  • Require helmets be worn on high or dangerous
    elements
  • Use a gravity break on a zip line element

184
General Planning Criteria
  • Location
  • Potential usage of area
  • Size of the area available
  • Access to public transportation
  • Drainage for the site
  • Access to public utilities
  • Noise pollution
  • Nuisance avoidance
  • Spectator seating
  • Parking and emergency access

185
General Planning Criteria
  • Safety
  • Safe spectator areas
  • Low-maintenance site
  • Adequate sight lines
  • Protective netting or barriers
  • Shaded areas
  • Drinking fountains
  • Lighting
  • Safety
  • Night lighting for activity

186
General Planning Criteria
  • Noise pollution
  • Light pollution
  • Orientation
  • Other activities
  • In-line skating
  • Rollerbladding
  • Recreational speed skating
  • In-line hockey

187
Ramp Construction
  • Wood Ramps
  • Concrete Ramps
  • Combination wood and concrete

188
Ski and Snow Boarding Areas
  • Strategic Planning
  • Topography
  • Orientation
  • Layout
  • Lodges and support facilities
  • Inside the lodge
  • Participant equipment
  • Operations equipment

189
Ice Rinks
  • Strategic planning
  • Size
  • Geographical concerns
  • Ice making
  • Sides
  • Artificial ice

190
Common Planning Considerations
  • Surface materials
  • Sound control and acoustics
  • Electrical systems and service
  • Climate control
  • Security
  • Climbing walls
  • Ropes and cargo nets
  • Storage
  • Shower and dressing rooms
  • Folding partitions or curtains
  • Office space for PE teachers

191
Floor Surfaces
  • 3 Distinct Types
  • Hard wood
  • Maple
  • Resilient synthetic
  • Tartan
  • Common surfaces
  • Tile
  • Ceramic tile
  • Rug

192
Sound Control and Acoustics
  • Sound is transmitted in a variety of ways
  • Ventilating ducts
  • Pipes
  • Spaces around pipe sleeves
  • Walls
  • Floors
  • Ceilings

193
Sound Control Solutions
  • Baffles or lining the ducts with sound absorbent
    and fire resistant materials can reduce sound
    transmission.
  • Double wall construction.
  • Install machinery on floating or resilient
    mountings.
  • Properly locate doors and windows

194
Electrical Illumination System Considerations
  • Maintenance
  • Repair
  • Replacement
  • Cleaning

195
Gymnasium Lighting
  • Most commonly used systems are
  • Incandescent
  • Fluorescent
  • Mercury-vapor
  • Sodium-vapor
  • Metal halide

196
HVAC System Considerations
  • Economy of operation
  • Flexibility of control
  • Quietness of operation
  • Capacity to maintain desired thermal conditions

197
Security
  • 2 ways to accomplish security
  • Constructing the facility according to a plan
    that allows for maximum security.
  • Adopting an administrative plan for the direction
    and control of all persons using the building.

198
Climbing Walls, Ropes and Cargo Nets-Safety Issues
  • Important facility and safety issues include how
  • The rope is fixed to the ceiling.
  • It is stored when not in use.
  • The landing base is established under the rope.

199
Elementary Indoor Activity Areas
  • Gymnasium
  • Auxiliary teaching stations-Playroom
  • Multi-purpose rooms
  • Cafeteria-gymnasium combinations
  • Self-contained classrooms

200
Secondary Indoor Activity Areas
  • Gymnasiums
  • Rhythm rooms
  • Rooms for gymnastics
  • Adapted physical education rooms
  • Wrestling rooms
  • Classrooms
  • Swimming pools
  • Archery ranges
  • Rifle ranges
  • Racquetball courts

201
Secondary School Gymnasium Considerations
  • Size and Layout
  • Walls and Ceilings
  • Lighting
  • Wall Padding
  • Fixed Equipment
  • Spectator Seating
  • Traffic Controls
  • Foyers
  • Spectator Rest Rooms
  • Concessions

202
Health Services
  • Contribute to the school program by
  • Facilitating learning
  • Encouraging pupils to obtain needed medical or
    dental treatment
  • Adapting school programs to individual pupil
    needs
  • Maintaining a healthful school environment
  • Increasing pupils understanding of health

203
Drivers Education Facility
  • Indoor facility
  • Classroom
  • Psychophysical lab with testing devices
  • Simulator lab
  • Office
  • Outdoor facility
  • On-street driving area
  • Off-street driving range
  • Multiple car driving range

204
Combative Activities
  • Aikido
  • Judo
  • Karate
  • Kendo
  • Kung Fu
  • Tae Kwan Do
  • Tai Chi

205
Types of Combative Facilities
  • Grappling
  • Striking
  • Grappling and Striking

206
General Features of Combative Facilities
  • Wall Coverings
  • Water Fountain
  • Ceilings
  • Lighting
  • Storage
  • Scoreboard
  • Custodial Closet

207
Equestrian Facilities
  • Barns
  • Work Areas
  • Turnout Areas
  • Arenas

208
Barn Components
  • Stalls
  • Feed Room
  • Hay Storage
  • Bedding Storage
  • Wash Rooms
  • Tack Room
  • Utility Stall
  • Manure Disposal

209
Common Stall Sizes
  • 10 x 10
  • 12 x 12
  • 12 x 14
  • 12 x 16
  • 12 x 18

210
Stall Flooring
  • Soil (clay, dirt)
  • Gravel, Sand
  • Asphalt
  • Concrete
  • Wood
  • Draining Floor
  • Conveyor Belting
  • Rubber Mats

211
Turnout Areas
  • Pens
  • Runs
  • Corrals
  • Paddocks

212
Jumps/Natural Obstacles
  • Post-and-Rails
  • Stone Walls
  • Aiken
  • Chicken Coop
  • Brush
  • Plank
  • White Gate

213
Athletic Training Facility Spaces
  • Office
  • Examination
  • Classroom
  • Team preparation
  • Injury evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Rehabilitation
  • Wet
  • Maintenance
  • storage

214
Equipment considerations
  • Free weights
  • mechanized weight machines
  • biohazard waste containers
  • Whirlpools
  • Hydrotherapy pool
  • Portable x-ray
  • Dynamometers
  • Ice machines
  • Refrigerators
  • Portable water containers
  • Electric golf cart
  • Muscle stimulator
  • Hydrocollators
  • Ultrasound
  • Computers, etc.

215
Classroom considerations
  • Seating arrangements
  • Lighting
  • Heating, Cooling, Ventilation
  • Sight lines
  • Audio/Visual/Multimedia
  • sound, video, and graphics
  • Grease boards

216
Distance Education Classroom
  • Color cameras
  • Overhead color Elmo cameras
  • Wall mounted monitors
  • Microphones and mixing
  • Multimedia computer
  • VCRs

217
Computer Laboratories
  • Sub-floor recessed, removable metal floor
    installed 3 X 3 squares
  • Wiring and cables under metal floor
  • Portable work stations
  • Environmental controls to maintain a computer
    conducive environment
  • Surge protection
  • Install a substitute water system

218
Human Performance Laboratory
  • Environmental chamber
  • Hydrostatic pool recessed with tiled floor and
    walls
  • Hydrostatic pool filter area and access to pipes
  • Computer outlets and surge protection
  • Locker room space

219
Human Performance Laboratory continued
  • Recessed treadmill with appropriate electrical
    supply and access
  • GFI outlets
  • Ample outlets throughout area
  • Sink and appropriate counter space and cabinets
  • Appropriate storage

220
Human Performance Laboratory
  • Indirect lighting
  • Security to protect computers
  • Do not install water based sprinkler system
  • Office space

221
Biomechanics Laboratory
  • Recessed force platform
  • Suspended theater lighting
  • Dark room
  • Computer outlets
  • Computer and digitizing area
  • Background drapes and nets suspended from ceiling
    controlled electronically

222
Biomechanics Laboratory
  • Appropriate storage, and office space
  • Appropriate security to protect all computers
  • Synthetic flooring
  • Indirect lighting
  • Install an alternative sprinkler system - do not
    use water

223
Motor Learning Laboratory
  • Office space
  • Synthetic flooring
  • Curtains and nets suspended from the ceiling
    controlled electronically
  • Counter space
  • Privacy cubicles
  • Computer outlets

224
Motor Learning Laboratory
  • Indirect lighting
  • Alternate sprinkling system (do not use water)
  • Security for computers
  • Appropriate storage

225
Technicians Office Workshop
  • Work benches
  • Storage cabinets
  • Peg boards
  • Coarse concrete floor
  • Alternate sprinkling system (do not use water)
  • Double-deep sink and counter space

226
Technicians Office Workspace
  • Indirect lighting
  • Appropriate security

227
Dance Facilities
  • Elementary school
  • Secondary school
  • College

228
Dance Facility Spaces
  • Box Office
  • Construction rooms
  • Costume storage
  • Custodial space
  • Laundry facilities
  • Listening areas
  • Dressing rooms
  • Office space
  • Public lavatories
  • Storage
  • Stage
  • Studio - teaching
  • Studio - performance
  • Classroom
  • Training room

229
Dance Facility Planning Considerations
  • Electrical
  • Lighting
  • Acoustics
  • HVAC
  • Floors
  • Walls
  • Ceiling
  • Safety
  • Drinking fountains
  • Sound systems
  • Filming and taping facilities
  • Movable equipment
  • Auxiliary space
  • Classroom space
  • Dance teaching space

230
Dance Facility Planning Considerations
  • Practice space
  • Choreography space
  • Rehearsal space
  • Research space

231
Dance Studios
  • Modern Dance
  • Ballet
  • Square Dance
  • Folk Dance
  • Social Dance
  • Tap Dance

232
Performance Space Considerations
  • Seating
  • Lighting
  • Sound equipment
  • Control space
  • Live musicians
  • Curtains, teasers, battens

233
Costume Room Considerations
  • Built-in cabinets
  • Control room with toilet facilities
  • Cutting table
  • Double door entrance
  • Laundry
  • Sewing machines
  • Mirrors

234
Types of Orienteering
  • Point-to Point Orienteering
  • Score Orienteering

235
Pre-Competitive Activities
  • String Course
  • Landmark Hunt
  • Map Point Walk
  • Map Point Reporting
  • Urban Orienteering

236
Levels of Competitive Orienteering
  • White Courses
  • Yellow Courses
  • Orange Courses
  • Green Courses
  • Red Courses
  • Blue Courses

237
Orienteering Equipment
  • Orienteering Maps
  • Orienteering Compass
  • Control Markers
  • Control Cards
  • Control Descriptions
  • Punch

238
Boxing Organizations
  • United States Amateur Boxing, Inc. (USA Boxing)
  • National Collegiate Boxing Assoc.

239
Space
  • 10 x 10 or larger
  • Proper floor covering
  • Heavy and light striking bags
  • Calisthenics stations
  • Equipment storage area

240
Necessary Equipment
  • Ring padding
  • Boxing gloves
  • Headgear
  • Mouthpiece
  • Groin/chest protection
  • Handwraps
  • Heavy bag
  • Light striking bag

241
Possible signs of Head Injury
  • Restlessness or irritability
  • Seizure
  • Blurred vision or loss of vision
  • Repeated vomiting
  • Blood/fluid from ears or nose
  • Uncontrolled urination
  • Dizziness or headache
  • Increasing drowsiness
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Mental disorientation or confusion
  • Unusual/strange behavior

242
Innovations in Materials and Methods of
Construction
  • Retractable roof stadiums
  • Fabric structures
  • Tension structures
  • Air-supported structures
  • Combining air-supported and tension
  • Temporary air-structures
  • Cable domes
  • Wooden domes

243
Equipment
  • Fixed assets other than land and buildings of a
    business enterprise.
  • Durable goods (items used repeatedly over a
    period of years).
  • Items with higher per unit cost.

244
Supplies
  • Short duration of use.
  • one-time-only

245
Cost Considerations
  • Initial creation and annual operation.
  • Ultimate wants of users.
  • Total cost.

246
Equipment Trends for Stadiums, Arenas Gymnasiums
  • Seating Options
  • Luxury Boxes
  • Club Seating
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