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Politics of India

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His daughter (Indira Gandhi) as Prime Minister (1966-1977, 1980-1984) Nehru's legacies ... Indira Gandhi declared national emergency. politics in India is ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Politics of India


1
Politics of India
2
India
3
Republic of India
  • A federal republic with a parliamentary system of
    government
  • capital New Delhi

4
2nd most populous nation
  • Population over 1.3 billion
  • Growing at 1.1 a year
  • versus 0.3 in China
  • More than a quarter aged 14 or younger
  • Most Indians aged 28 or younger

5
A nation of diversity languages
  • Constitution lists 22 official languages
  • English
  • Hindi (44)

6
A nation of diversity religions
  • Religions
  • Hindu (about 80)
  • Muslim (about 14)
  • Christian, Sikh, etc.
  • all major religions in the world are present
  • one of the major causes of conflict
  • religion can become a political vehicle for
    social movement

7
Brief history
  • One of the worlds oldest civilizations
  • 5,000 years
  • foreign incursions
  • Aryans, Arabs, Turks, Portugal, France, and
    Britain
  • from 1,500 B.C. to 19th Century A.D.

8
190 years of British colonial rule
  • Informal colonial rule through the British East
    India Company (1750s-1850s)
  • formal colonial rule after the Mutiny rebellion
    of 1857

9
Struggle for independence
  • Indian National Congress was formed in 1885
  • non-violent resistance to colonial rule
  • Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)
  • transformed INC
  • unity within diversity
  • non-cooperation movement
  • Nehru (1889-1964)

10
Independence partition
  • Division of the subcontinent (1947)
  • India
  • Pakistan

11
Republic of India
  • Prime Minister Nehru (1947-1964)
  • His daughter (Indira Gandhi) as Prime Minister
    (1966-1977, 1980-1984)

12
Nehrus legacies
  • His grandson
  • Rajiv Gandhi
  • Prime Minister (1984-1989)
  • His granddaughter-in-law
  • Sonja Gandhi
  • Congress party president (1999 - )

13
Worlds largest democracy
  • Resilient democratic institutions, processes, and
    legitimacy
  • except 1975-1977
  • Indira Gandhi declared national emergency
  • politics in India is characterized by
  • governments of precarious coalitions
  • weakened political institutions
  • political activism along ethnic lines

14
A federal system
  • 28 states and 6 centrally administered Union
    Territories
  • 2 states are partially claimed by Pakistan and
    China

15
Federal system
  • Relatively centralized
  • federal government controls the most essential
    government functions
  • defense
  • foreign policy
  • taxation
  • public expenditures
  • economic (industrial) planning

16
The legislature
  • Parliamentary system of government
  • the executive authority is responsible to the
    Parliament

17
The legislature
  • bicameral Parliament
  • Rajya Sabha (Council of States)
  • Lok Sabha (House of the People)

18
Elections to Lok Sabha
  • Vote share of 3 major political parties

19
Prime Minister
  • Leader of the majority party leader in Lok Sabha
    becomes the prime minister
  • prime minister nominates a cabinet
  • members of Parliament in the ruling coalition
  • Council of Ministers
  • effective power is concentrated in the office of
    the prime minister
  • where most of the important policies originate

20
Prime Ministers of India
  • 1947-1989
  • 3 prime ministers from the Nehru-Gandhi family
    served a total of 38 years during the first 42
    years of the republic
  • 1989-1998
  • 7 rapid turnovers in 9 years
  • Since 1998
  • 3 prime ministers have had longer tenures

21
Economic development
  • Under Prime Minister Nehru (1947-1964)
  • private property and government guidance
  • powerful planning commission
  • government rules and regulations
  • opportunities and incentives for corruption
  • self-sufficiency
  • domestic sector was protected from foreign
    competition
  • protected industries became inefficient

22
Economic development
  • The green revolution in agriculture
  • new agricultural strategy in late 1960s
  • seeds, fertilizer, and irrigation
  • India became self-sufficient in food

23
Economic development
  • state-led economic development
  • government-planned private economy
  • substantial industrial base

24
Economic liberalization
  • Dissatisfaction with the relatively slow economic
    growth
  • dismantle controls over private sector
  • further integrate into global economy
  • Financial crisis in early 1990s
  • emergency funds from IMF World Bank
  • conditional on economic liberalization
  • reduce government budget deficit
  • selling government shares in public enterprises

25
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26
Economic liberalization
  • India has large numbers of well-educated people
    skilled in the English language
  • India is a major exporter of software services
    and software workers
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