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Space Travel Law


... and that is true for the laws governing Space Tourism Sources of Space Travel Law Travel and Tourism Law - Air, Sea, Hospitality, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Space Travel Law

Space Travel Law
Dr. Phil Cameron, S.J.D., LL.M, J.D. Doctor of
International Law Space Travel Law Association
(STELA ) International
Forum of Travel and Tourism Advocates (IFTTA) Anolik Law Corporation San Francisco, California USA
  • There is nothing new under the Sun,
  • and that is true for the laws governing
  • Space Tourism

Sources of Space Travel Law
  • Travel and Tourism Law - Air, Sea,
    Hospitality, Antarctica
  • Outer Space Law
  • World Heritage Law and Treaties

Travel and Tourism Industry
  • Sellers of Travel Virgin, Space Adventures,
    many Mojave desert companies
  • Providers of Travel - Russian Space Agency and
    more than a dozen Private Industries in USA and
  • Travelers Tourists and Crew

Travel and Tourism Industry
  • Spaceport America - 100,000 square-foot (9,290
    square-meter) facility New Mexico - 31 million
    Construction 2008-10
  • Virgin Galactic BensonSpace

Actual Tourists
  • Dennis Tito, a U.S. millionaire,
  • paid about 20 million to be launched into space
    in 2001.
  • Mark Shuttleworth, a South African technology
    entrepreneur, paid nearly 20 million to be
    launched into space in 2002.
  • Greg Olsen, a 58-year-old scientist who heads the
    Princeton, New Jersey-based company Sensors
    Unlimited, Inc., April 2005.
  • Anousheh Ansari, an Iranian American and the
    first female space tourists in 2006. Ansaris
    family made a multimillion-dollar contribution to
    back the Ansari X Prize.
  • Charles Simonyi an American, Microsoft
    co-founder - paid up to 25 million for a 14-day
    flight to the ISS April 2007.

More Tourists
  • Richard Garriott, an American computer game
    developer will pay at least 30 million to launch
    in October 2008. His father, Owen Garriott, is a
    former NASA astronaut of Skylab and Spacelab-1 in
    the 1970s and '80s. The first astronauts child
    to travel in space.
  • Daisuke Enomoto , Here we can note that not
    everyone is permitted to be a space tourists, as
    was demonstrated by the failure of Japanese Live
    Door Director, who was unable to continue space
    training and his trip due to medical reasons
    following the collapse of his company, arrest of
    his fellow board member, and suicide of his
    colleague. Myself along with most of Japan, was
    disappointed by his inability to launch in 2006.
  • Virgin Galactic , July 2006, "sold some 200
    suborbital flights tickets US15.6 million, and
    celebrities scheduling flights Sigourney
    Weaver ,

  • Please find good laws to protect space tourists
  • --Stella Cameron
  • Not to be confused with the Space Travel Law
    Association (STELA)

Tourism as a Product Derived from Outer Space
Space, as a Common Heritage of Humanity, also
includes the principle that activities of people
in outer space affect us all. Sputnik launch of
1957 changed prior law - ownership of the
heavens Thats one small step for man, one
giant leap for mankind... as Neil Armstrong
declared on his historic first moon excursion in
Product Tourism and the Moon Treaty (1974)
  • Everything discovered, invented, created,
    destroyed, explored, defined, developed, and so
    on, in outer space will gradually trickle down
    and reach all people everywhere.
  • As such, the activities carried out in outer
    space, the right to conduct such activities, and
    the benefits from those activities belong to
    World Heritage.

Providers of Travel
Outer Space Law
  • From its inception, the development of space, and
    all of the benefits that derive from space, has
    been founded on the principles of equality,
    openness, and cooperation of all of humanity
  • Five Outer Space Treaties Outer Space Treaty
    1967, Rescue Agreement 1968, Liability Convention
    1972, Registration Convention 1974, Moon
    Agreement 1974.

Outer Space Treaty Article 1 (1967)
  • World Heritage Law was first crystallized as a
    legal concept in stating that Outer Space is the
    common heritage of all Mankind
  • One state cannot interfere with another States
    right to explore space
  • Signed by 91 states ratified by 62 states
  • (as of April 2007)

Outer Space Treaty
  • Outer space, as a territory, along with the
    objects that derive from it, cannot be owned by
    individuals or States.
  • One State cannot exclude another from space
  • Therefore, all peoples have a right to utilize
    outer space as a property right for tourism, and
    to enjoy and access starlight for recreation,
    artistic and religious inspiration, scientific
    development, or any other pursuits.

Outer Space Treaty
  • Outer space, including the moon and other
    celestial bodies, shall be free for exploration
    and use by all States without discrimination of
    any kind, on a basis of equality and in
    accordance with international law, and there
    shall be free access to all areas of celestial
  • Spirit of Outer Space as a new territory
    specifically separates it from Terra Nullius /
    Manifest Destiny

Article 4 of the Moon Treaty applies to all
Celestial Bodies
  • The exploration and use of the moon shall be
    the province of all mankind and shall be carried
    out for the benefit and in the interests of all
    countries, irrespective of their degree of
    economic or scientific development. Due regard
    shall be paid to the interests of present and
    future generations as well as to the need to
    promote higher standards of living and conditions
    of economic and social progress and development
    in accordance with the Charter of the United


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Edwin Hubble Attorney and Astronomer
  • Hubble demonstrated the empirical Redshift
    Distance Law of galaxies, showing that lawyers
    can in fact contribute to the betterment of
  • The Hubble Telescopes purpose is being in orbit,
    beyond the interference of atmosphere and
    background light.

Travel and Tourism Protective Laws
  • It is through State based implementation of
    international laws and norms and the development
    of national tourism laws that practically enables
    the traveler to realize and exercise her Right to
  • Starlight can then be seen as a commodity for
    consumption by tourists and economic gain for the
    local tourism industry, and the State, resulting
    in a means of tourism and sustainable development.

Enforcement of the Right to Starlight
  • Offer rewards for States that implement and
    provide Starlight areas for travelers
  • Organizations mobilizing their scientific and
    touristic pursuits towards those States that are
    in fact providing Starlight
  • Boycott by these organizations towards those
    States would provide the economic remedy and
    motive sought to ensure Rights to Starlight are

Travel and Tourism Protective Laws
  • Travelers Tourists have particular rights, as
    found in the law that recognizes the rights to
    enjoy starlight
  • in space
  • from terrestrial spots on Earth
  • while traveling for touristic and scientific
  • Hosts and Providers The sustainable development
    aspect is felt by the State that is acting as a
    host showcasing the starlight to the scientific
    traveler and tourist. Then balancing of diverse
    social and economic needs of the present and
    respecting the needs of future generations.

  • There exist duties for both States and
    international organizations to protect the World
    Heritage Right to Starlight
  • And to foster the rights of travelers, hosts, and
    providers of travel to enjoy this Starlight
    property interest that belongs to all humanity.
  • The existing legal instruments demonstrate the
    protection for the Right to Starlight, but it is
    the States that act as custodians of World
    Heritage that are charged with ensuring these
    rights are enforceable, and in turn made
    available to all of humanity.

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