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Title: .NET Fundamentals ASP.NET - Web Forms December 8, 2003


1
.NET FundamentalsASP.NET - Web FormsDecember
8, 2003
2
Agenda December 8, 2003
  • Homework Questions
  • Quick Note on Namespaces
  • ASP.NET Web Applications
  • Simple WebTime Class Exercise
  • Web Form GuestBook Class Exercise
  • Homework Assignment for December 11, 2000

3
Topics
  • Quick Note on Namespaces
  • ASP.NET Technology
  • ASP.NET Web Applications in Visual Studio
  • Visual Studio .NET Software Requirements
  • Internet Information Services (IIS)
  • Web-Based Application Development
  • ASP.NET Web Applications in Visual Studio
  • Things To Look For When Creating a .NET Web Form
    Project
  • WebTime Class Exercise
  • Web Forms Events
  • Web Controls
  • Web Form Database Applications
  • GuestBook Database Class Exercise
  • Local versus Web Project
  • Deploying Web Applications
  • Tic Tac Toe Homework Problem

4
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5
Namespaces
  • Arbitrary grouping
  • Can be more than one file
  • Contains at least one class file
  • Identified with a using statement in C
  • Simplifies class declarations
  • Much freedom in naming (see below)
  • using System.Microsoft.Chips.GuestBookDB

6
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7
ASP.NET Technology
8
ASP.NET Technology
  • Web Forms pages are built with ASP.NET
    technology.
  • ASP.NET is a unified Web platform that provides
    all the services necessary for you to build
    enterprise-class applications.
  • ASP.NET, in turn, is built on the .NET Framework,
    so the entire framework is available to any
    ASP.NET application.
  • Your applications can be authored in any language
    compatible with the common language runtime,
    including Microsoft Visual Basic, Visual C, and
    JScript .NET.

9
ASP.NET Page Framework and the Web Forms Page
  • The ASP.NET page framework is a programming
    framework that runs on a Web server to
    dynamically produce and manage Web Forms pages.
  • In Visual Studio, Web Forms provides a forms
    designer, editor, controls, and debugging, which
    together allow you to rapidly build server-based,
    programmable user interfaces for browsers and Web
    client devices.
  • Web Forms pages run on any browser or client
    device. However, you can design your Web Forms
    page to target a specific browser, such as
    Microsoft Internet Explorer 5, and take
    advantage of the features of a specific browser
    or client device.

10
ASP.NET Page Framework and the Web Forms Page
  • The ASP.NET page framework creates an abstraction
    of the traditional client-server Web interaction
    so that you can program your application using
    traditional methods and tools that support rapid
    application development (RAD) and object-oriented
    programming (OOP).
  • Within Web Forms pages you can work with HTML
    elements using properties, methods, and events.
  • The ASP.NET page framework removes the
    implementation details of the separation of
    client and server inherent in Web-based
    applications by presenting a unified model for
    responding to client events in code that runs at
    the server.

11
ASP.NET Page Framework and the Web Forms Page
  • The framework also automatically maintains the
    state of a page and the controls on that page
    during the page processing life cycle.
  • The ASP.NET page framework and Web Forms pages
    also support server controls that encapsulate
    common UI functionality in easy-to-use, reusable
    controls.
  • ASP.NET supports mobile controls for Web-enabled
    devices such as cellular phones, handheld
    computers, and personal digital assistants
    (PDAs).

12
XML Web Services
  • ASP.NET supports XML Web services.
  • An XML Web service is a component containing
    business functionality exposed through Internet
    protocols.
  • An XML Web service enables applications to
    exchange information between Web-based
    applications using standards like HTTP and XML
    messaging to move data across firewalls.
  • XML Web services are not tied to a particular
    component technology or object-calling
    convention. As a result, programs written in any
    language, using any component model, and running
    on any operating system can access XML Web
    services.

13
State Management Facilities
  • ASP.NET provides intrinsic state management
    functionality that allows you to save and manage
    application-specific, session-specific, and
    developer-defined information. This information
    can be independent of any controls on the page.
    It can be shared between pages, such as customer
    information or the contents of a shopping cart.
  • ASP.NET offers distributed state facilities. You
    can create multiple instances of the same
    application on one computer or on several
    computers.

14
Application Events
  • ASP.NET allows you to include application-level
    event-handling code in the optional global.asax
    file. You can use application events to manage
    application-wide information and perform orderly
    application startup and cleanup tasks.

15
Compilation
  • All ASP.NET code, including server scripts, is
    compiled, which allows for strong typing,
    performance optimizations, and early binding,
    among other benefits. Once the code has been
    compiled, the runtime further compiles ASP.NET to
    native code, providing improved performance.
  • Note  Web Forms pages, XML Web services, and
    components are compiled into dynamic-link library
    (.dll) files. Once compiled, these files do not
    need to be registered on the Web server on which
    they run.

16
Configuration
  • ASP.NET configuration settings are stored in
    XML-based files. Since these XML files are ASCII
    text files, you can read and modify them, so it
    is simple to make configuration changes to your
    Web applications. Each of your applications can
    have its own configuration file and you can
    extend the configuration scheme to suit your
    requirements.

17
Deployment
  • Visual Studio provides a simplified mechanism for
    deploying applications to local or remote
    servers. You can install files by simply copying
    them to your specified application directories,
    or by using a more specialized and configurable
    deployment project.

18
Security
  • When an ASP.NET application runs, it executes in
    the context of a special local user on the Web
    server, called ASPNET, with limited permissions.
    This enhances the security of your Web
    application code by restricting its access to
    Windows resources and processes.
  • ASP.NET also provides various authorization and
    authentication schemes for Web applications. You
    can easily remove, add to, or replace these
    schemes depending upon the needs of your
    application.

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20
ASP.NET Web Applications in Visual Studio
21
ASP.NET Web Applications in Visual Studio
  • Visual Studio .NET allows you to create
    applications that leverage the power of the World
    Wide Web.
  • This includes everything from
  • a traditional Web site that serves HTML pages,
  • to fully featured business applications that run
    on an intranet or the Internet,
  • to sophisticated business-to-business
    applications providing Web-based components that
    can exchange data using XML.

22
Visual Studio ASP.NET Web Applications
  • ASP.NET is part of the .NET Framework, so that it
    provides access to all of the framework features.
  • Create ASP.NET Web applications using any .NET
    programming language (Visual Basic, C, Managed
    Extensions for C, and many others) and .NET
    debugging facilities.
  • Access data using ADO.NET.
  • Access operating system services using .NET
    Framework classes, and so on.

23
Visual Studio ASP.NET Web Applications
  • ASP.NET Web applications run on a Web server
    configured with Microsoft Internet Information
    Services (IIS). However, you do not need to work
    directly with IIS. You can program IIS facilities
    using ASP.NET classes, and Visual Studio handles
    file management tasks such as creating IIS
    applications when needed and providing ways for
    you to deploy your Web applications to IIS.

24
Where Does Visual Studio Fit In?
  • As with any .NET application, if you have the
    .NET Framework, you can create ASP.NET
    applications using text editors, a command-line
    compiler, and other simple tools. You can copy
    your files manually to IIS to deploy the
    application.
  • Alternatively, you can use Visual Studio. When
    you use Visual Studio to create Web applications,
    you are creating essentially the same application
    that you could create by hand. That is, Visual
    Studio does not create a different kind of Web
    application the end result is still an ASP.NET
    Web application.

25
Where Does Visual Studio Fit In?
  • The advantage of using Visual Studio is that it
    provides tools that make application development
    much faster, easier, and more reliable. These
    tools include
  • Visual designers for Web pages with drag-and-drop
    controls and code (HTML) views with syntax
    checking.
  • Code-aware editors that include statement
    completion, syntax checking, and other
    IntelliSense features.
  • Integrated compilation and debugging.
  • Project management facilities for creating and
    managing application files, including deployment
    to local or remote servers.

26
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27
Visual Studio .NET Software Requirements
28
Visual Studio .NET Software Requirements
  • Certain project types and features in Visual
    Studio require that specific software components,
    which may be listed as optional in setup, must be
    installed before you can use that feature or
    project. Some of these components must be
    installed on the development computer, while
    others can be installed on a remote computer.

29
Identifying Software Requirement Issues
  • The following table lists the components that
    must be installed on the various operating
    systems to perform the tasks specified. These
    components are not installed with Visual
    Studio .NET Prerequisites.

30
Visual Studio .NET Software Requirements
Do you want to Windows 2000 Windows XPWindows Server 2003 or later Windows Server 2003 or later Windows NT41Windows 98Windows MeWindows XP Home
Develop ASP Web applications and XML Web services Internet Information Services (IIS) Internet Information Services (IIS) Not supported
Compile code related to Microsoft Windows Message Queuing (MSMQ) Message Queuing Services Message Queuing Services Not supported
31
Visual Studio .NET Software Requirements
Do you want to Windows 2000 Windows XPWindows Server 2003 or later Windows Server 2003 or later Windows NT41Windows 98Windows MeWindows XP Home
Debug code on remote computers Visual Studio Remote Debugger Visual Studio Remote Debugger Visual Studio Remote Debugger
Use source code control to version stored procedures Visual Studio 6.0 Stored Procedure VersioningVisual SourceSafeMicrosoft SQL Server Visual Studio 6.0 Stored Procedure VersioningVisual SourceSafeMicrosoft SQL Server Not supported
32
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33
Internet Information Services (IIS)
34
Internet Information Services (IIS)
  • Internet Information Services (IIS) 6.0 is a
    powerful Web server, available in all versions of
    Microsoft Windows Server 2003, which provides a
    highly reliable, manageable, scalable, and secure
    Web application infrastructure.
  • IIS 6.0 enables organizations of all sizes to
    quickly and easily deploy Web sites and provides
    a high-performance platform for applications
    built using Microsoft ASP.NET and the Microsoft
    .NET Framework.

35
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36
Web-Based Application Development
37
Web-Based Application Development
  • Creates Web content for Web browser clients
  • HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
  • Client-side scripting
  • Images and binary data
  • Web Forms (Web Form pages)
  • File extension .aspx
  • aspx (Web Form files) contain written code, event
    handlers, utility methods and other supporting
    code
  • .aspx.cs C.NET code behind page

38
Simple HTTP Transaction
  • HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  • Defines methods and headers which allows clients
    and servers exchange information in uniform way
  • Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
  • IP address indicating the location of a resource
  • All HTML documents have a corresponding URL
  • Domain Name Server (DNS)
  • A computer that maintains a database of hostnames
    and their corresponding IP addresses

39
System Architecture
  • Multi-tier Applications
  • Web-based applications (n-tier applications)
  • Tiers are logical groupings of functionality
  • Application Client or User Tier (top level tier)
  • User Browser Interface to the Application
  • Information Tier (data tier or bottom tier)
  • Maintains data pertaining to the applications
  • Usually stores data in a relational database
    management systems (RDBMS)
  • Middle Tier
  • Acts as an intermediary between data in the
    information tier and the application's clients

40
Creating and Running a Simple Web-Form Example
  • Visual Component
  • Clickable buttons and other GUI components which
    users interact
  • Nonvisual Component
  • Hidden inputs that store any data that document
    author specifies such as e-mail address

41
.NET Frameworks Requires
  • Internet Information Services (IIS)
  • FrontPage Server Extensions (FPSE)
  • See ?Visual Studio .NET Software Requirements
    help text
  • Not available on
  • Windows NT4
  • Windows 98
  • Windows Me
  • Windows XP Home

42
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43
Things To Look For When Creating a .NET Web Form
Project
44
Things To Look For When Creating a .NET Web Form
Project
  • The project location is split
  • Project Files ? C\inetput\wwwroot\ project name
  • Solution Files ? C\Documents and Settings\...\My
    Documents\Visual Studio Projects\ project name
  • Browser Reference
  • http//localhost/ project name
  • C\inetpub\wwwroot\ project name

45
Project Files
  • Many Project Files and File Types located in
  • C\Inetpub\wwwroot\Week7\WebTime\
  • Global.asax, Global.asax.cs, Global.asax.resx
  • Web.Config
  • WebForm1.aspx ? Windows Form Equivalent
  • WebForm1.aspx.cs ? Code Behind File
  • WebForm1.aspx.resx
  • or for Visual Basic.NET
  • WebTime.aspx, WebTime.aspx.vb, WebForm1.aspx.resx

46
Web Forms Pages and Projects in Visual Studio
  • To work with a Web Forms page in Visual Studio,
    you use the Web Forms Designer.
  • The designer includes a WYSIWYG view, called
    Design view, for laying out the elements of the
    page.
  • Alternatively, you can switch the designer to
    HTML view, which gives you direct access to the
    ASP.NET syntax of the elements on the page.
  • Finally, the designer includes a code editor with
    Intellisense that you can use to create the page
    initialization and event handler code for your
    page.

47
Project Files Created With Web Forms
  • When you create a Web project, Visual Studio
    constructs a Web application directory structure
    on the target Web server, and a project structure
    on your local computer.
  • Note   You need to have appropriate privileges on
    the Web server computer to create and manage Web
    application files. The correct way to get those
    privileges is to be a member of the VS Developers
    group that is automatically created on the Web
    server.

48
Project Files Created With Web Forms
File Created Description
WebForm1.aspx and WebForm1.aspx.vb files (or WebForm1.aspx.cs for Visual C Web applications) These two files make up a single Web Forms page. The .aspx file contains the visual elements of the Web Forms page, for example HTML elements and Web Forms controls. The WebForm1.aspx.vb class file is a hidden, dependent file of WebForm1.aspx. It contains the code-behind class for the Web Forms page, containing event-handler code and the like.
AssemblyInfo.vb (for Visual Basic projects) or AssemblyInfo.cs (for C projects) A project information file (AssemblyInfo.vb or AssemblyInfo.cs file) that contains metadata about the assemblies in a project, such as name, version, and culture information. For details on data contained in the assembly file, see Assembly Manifest.
Web.config An XML-based file that contains configuration data on each unique URL resource used in the project. For more information see Application Configuration Files.
49
Project Files Created With Web Forms
File Created Description
Global.asax and Global.vb or Global.cs files An optional file for handling application-level events. This file resides in the root directory of an ASP.NET application. The Global.vb class file is a hidden, dependent file of Global.asax. It contains the code for handling application events such as the Application_OnError event. At run time, this file is parsed and compiled. For more information on Global.asax file usage, see Global.asax File.
Styles.css A cascading style sheet file to be used within the project. For more information see Introduction to Cascading Style Sheets.
50
Solution Files
  • Found in a Separate Directory
  • C\Documents and Settings\...\My Documents\Visual
    Studio Projects\ project name
  • Visual Studio.Solution (.sln file type)
  • WebTime.sln
  • Solution User Options (.suo file type)
  • WebTime.suo

51
Visual Studio .NET uses two file types (.sln and
.suo) to store settings specific to solutions.
These files, known collectively as solution
files, provide Solution Explorer with the
information it needs to display a graphical
interface for managing your files. They allow you
to concentrate on your projects and final goals
rather than on the environment itself each time
you return to your development tasks.
Solution Files (.sln and .suo)
Extension Name Description
.sln Visual Studio.Solution Organizes projects, project items and solution items into the solution by providing the environment with references to their locations on disk.
.suo Solution User Options Records all of the options that you might associate with your solution so that each time you open it, it includes customizations that you have made.
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53
WebTime Class Exercise
54
WebTime Class Exercise
  • Create a new ASP.NET Web Application (using C)
  • Add a label for the Title WebTime
  • Add a label for the time (i.e.
    DateTime.Now.ToString)
  • Set the font size on the above to XX-Large
  • Add a Button to refresh the time
  • and a little code
  • private void Button1_Click(object sender,
    System.EventArgs e)
  • Label2.Text DateTime.Now.ToString()

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56
Web Form Events
57
Web Form Events
  • Event an object that encapsulates the idea that
    something has happened.
  • Events are generated or raised (i.e. when a
    button is clicked)
  • Event Handler method that responds to the
    event. Event handles are written is C in the
    code-behind page.
  • Event handlers are delegates

58
Event Handles
  • Return a void
  • Two parameters
  • Object raising the event
  • Event arguments object of type EventArgs that
    can expose properties specific to that event
    type.

59
Types of Events
  • Local events mouseover, button clicks, text
    changes
  • Server handled events, requiring a "round trip".
  • Postback events cause the form to be posted back
    to the server immediately, including type events,
    such as Button Click event.
  • Non-postback events are cached by the control
    until the next postback event occurs. You can
    override this non-postback behavior by setting a
    controls AutoPostBack property to true.

60
Events and Delegates
  • An event is a message sent by an object to signal
    the occurrence of an action.
  • The action could be caused by user interaction,
    such as a mouse click, or it could be triggered
    by some other program logic.
  • The object that raises (triggers) the event is
    called the event sender.
  • The object that captures the event and responds
    to it is called the event receiver.

61
Events and Delegates
  • In event communication, the event sender class
    does not know which object or method will receive
    (handle) the events it raises.
  • What is needed is an intermediary (or
    pointer-like mechanism) between the source and
    the receiver.
  • The .NET Framework defines a special type
    (Delegate) that provides the functionality of a
    function pointer.

62
Events and Delegates
  • A delegate is a class that can hold a reference
    to a method.
  • Unlike other classes, a delegate class has a
    signature, and it can hold references only to
    methods that match its signature.
  • A delegate is thus equivalent to a type-safe
    function pointer or a callback.
  • While delegates have other uses, the discussion
    here focuses on the event handling functionality
    of delegates. The following example shows an
    event delegate declaration.

63
Event Delegate Declaration.
  • button1_Click - the delegate for the button
    event.
  • EventArgs - the class that holds event data for
    the alarm event. Actually System.EventArgs.
  • private delegate void button1_Click(object
    sender, EventArgs e)
  • The syntax is similar to that of a method
    declaration however, the delegate keyword
    informs the compiler that button1_Click is a
    delegate type.
  • By convention, event delegates in the .NET
    Framework have two parameters, the source that
    raised the event and the data for the event.

64
Delegate
  • Note   A delegate declaration is sufficient to
    define a delegate class.
  • The declaration supplies the signature of the
    delegate, and the common language runtime
    provides the implementation.
  • An instance of the delegate can bind to any
    method that matches its signature.

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66
Web Controls
67
Web vs Windows Controls
Windows Controls Web Controls
Label Label
TextBox TextBox
Button Button
RadioButton RadioButton
GroupBox GroupBox
ComboBox DropDownList
DataGrid DataGrid



68
Web Controls
69
AdRotator Control
  • Randomly selects an image to display and then
    generates a hyperlink to the Web page associated
    with that image

70
20.5 AdRotator
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72
Web Form Database Applications
73
Database Insert Command
  • Map a list of values to a list of the fields to
    be updated.
  • INSERT INTO TableName(list of columns)
    VALUES(corresponding list of data values)

74
Database Insert Command
  • INSERT INTO Messages(EmailAddress, FirstName,
    LastName, Message, MessageDate) VALUES
    (cas_at_pv.com,John,Smith,Hi to me,
    10/21/2003 123416 PM)

75
Database Insert Command
  • INSERT INTO Messages(EmailAddress, FirstName,
    LastName, Message, MessageDate) " _
  • "VALUES ('" _
  • TextBox3.Text "', '" TextBox1.Text
    "', '" _
  • TextBox2.Text "', '" TextBox4.Text
    "', '" mTime.Now.Today " "
    mTime.Now.ToLongTimeString "')"

76
Differences from Windows Forms
  • Populating a Data Grid
  • Windows Form
  • dg.SetDataBinding(ds, "Books")
  • dg.Show()
  • Web Form
  • dg.DataSource objDS
  • dg.DataBind()

77
Debugging Web Form Applications
  • No MessageBox for error messages
  • Use Response.Write to display messages
  • Use a label or TextBox to display messages
  • Enable Tracing

78
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79
GuestBook Database Class Exercise
80
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81
Tracing
82
ASP.NET Tracing
  • ASP.NET introduces new functionality that allows
    you to view diagnostic information about a single
    request for an ASP.NET page simply by enabling it
    for your page or application.
  • Tracing allows you to write debug statements
    directly in your code without having to remove
    them from your application when it is deployed to
    production servers. You can write variables or
    structures in a page, assert whether a condition
    is met, or simply trace through the execution
    path of your page or application.

83
ASP.NET Tracing
  • In order for these messages and other tracing
    information to be gathered and displayed, you
    must enable tracing for the page or application.
    When you enable tracing, two things occur
  • ASP.NET appends a series of diagnostic
    information tables immediately following the
    page's output. The information is also sent to a
    trace viewer application (if you have enabled
    tracing for the application).
  • ASP.NET displays your custom diagnostic messages
    in the Trace Information table of the appended
    performance data.

84
ASP.NET Tracing
  • Diagnostic information and tracing messages that
    you specify are appended to the output of the
    page that is sent to the requesting browser.
    Optionally, you can view this information from a
    separate trace viewer (Trace.axd) that displays
    trace information for every page in a given
    application. This information can help you to
    clarify errors or undesired results as ASP.NET
    processes a page request.
  • Trace statements are processed and displayed only
    when tracing is enabled. You can control whether
    tracing is displayed to a page, to the trace
    viewer, or both.

85
Tracing
86
Tracing
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88
Local versus Web Project
89
Local versus Web Project
  • Factors to consider when deciding between a local
    or Web project model.
  • Installation strategy
  • Impact of workload

90
Installation strategy
  • Quick-deploying application on a server with
    minimal client configuration, the Web project
    model is best. You can install and run this
    project on the server without installing support
    files on each client, and make upgrades only on
    the server
  • Projects that have little server involvement or
    for stand-alone applications, a local project
    model is the better choice. In this scenario,
    upgrades can be completed on each individual
    client computer.

91
Impact of workload
  • Web projects offer a server-based strategy where
    the majority of operations are conducted on the
    server. The client computer uses a Web browser to
    send information to and display information from
    the server-side application.
  • If server resources are limited, then use a local
    project model where the work is done on the
    client computer without consuming precious server
    time.

92
The following table gives a side-by-side
comparison of Web projects and local projects in
both the design and working environments
93
Consideration Web project Local project
File storage during development Files are stored at a specified URL on a computer with Internet Information Services (IIS) installed. The project also keeps a temporary cache of files on client computers for working offline. Project files are stored on the local computer.
Build model when developing Application code is compiled as a DLL and run on the server. Results are seen on the client computer. Code is compiled and run on the client computer.
Deployment method The project is deployed to a Web server. Project files are installed on the client computer with required support files.
94
Consideration Web project Local project
Workload Client computers run the application remotely with a Web browser. Processing is done primarily on the server. The application is run locally on the client computer.
Upgrading Application changes are made at the server level without installation of support files on client computers. The application upgrades are installed on client computers.
Moving project files The Copy Project command is used to move files to the specified URL. Project files are physically copied from one location to another.
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96
Deploying Web Applications
97
Deploying Web Applications
  • Microsoft ASP.NET applications can take
    advantage of many different technologies, such as
    private and shared assemblies, interoperation
    with COM and COM, event logs, message queues,
    and so on.
  • An ASP.NET application is defined as all the Web
    pages (.aspx and HTML), handlers, modules,
    executable code, and other (such as images and
    configuration) that can be invoked from a virtual
    directory and its subdirectories on a Web server.
  • An ASP.NET application includes the project DLL
    (if the code-behind features of .aspx are used)
    and typically other assemblies that are used to
    provide functionality for the application. These
    assemblies are located in the bin folder
    underneath the virtual directory of the
    application.

98
Deploying ASP.NET Application
  • The Microsoft .NET Framework makes deployment of
    Web applications much easier than before.
  • Configuration settings can be stored in a
    configuration file (Web.config), which is a text
    file based on Extensible Markup Language
    (XML)these settings can be modified after the
    Web application is deployed without requiring the
    Web solution to be recompiled.

99
Deploying ASP.NET Application
  • ASP.NET allows changes to be made to assemblies
    without requiring that the Web server be stopped
    and restarted.
  • When a newer version of a Web.config, .aspx,
    .asmx, or other ASP.NET file is copied to an
    existing Web application, ASP.NET detects that
    the file has been updated. It then loads a new
    version of the Web application to handle all new
    requests, while allowing the original instance of
    the Web application to finish responding to any
    current requests. After all requests are
    satisfied for the original application, it is
    automatically removed. This feature eliminates
    downtime while updating Web applications.

100
Deploying ASP.NET Application
  • There are a number of different ways for
    deploying all of these elements from your
    development or test environment to the production
    Web server(s).
  • For simple Web applications, it is often
    appropriate to copy the files to the target
    computer, using XCOPY, Microsoft Windows
    Explorer, FTP, or the Microsoft Visual Studio
    .NET development system Copy Project command on
    the Project menu.
  • For more complex solutions, such as those that
    include shared assemblies or those that rely on
    specific Microsoft Internet Information Services
    (IIS) settings to be in place, using Windows
    Installer technology might be a better choice.

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Tic Tac ToeHomework Assignment
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