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Independence and the New State

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Major revolutions: US revolution 1776; French Revolution 1789 ... Spain immediately denounced French revolution, placed intellectual quarantine on ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Independence and the New State


1
Independence and the New State
  • The Río de la Plata in the Age of Revolution
  • National Unification and Disunion

2
The Río de la Plata in the Age of Revolution
  • Major revolutions US revolution 1776 French
    Revolution 1789
  • Death of monarch by guillotine shatters concepts
    of absolutism
  • Spain immediately denounced French revolution,
    placed intellectual quarantine on Spain and its
    colonies
  • Crown cracking down just as Río de la Plata
    beginning to feel the benefits and strains of
    Bourbon Reforms
  • Catholic Church weakened by expulsion of Jesuits
  • Creoles and Peninsulares fighting over new wealth
    in Bs. As.
  • Northwest and Cuyo impacted by opening of trade
    in Bs. As.

3
The Río de la Plata in the Age of Revolution
  • Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Upset the balance of power within Europe by
    making war on its neighbors including Spain and
    Portugal
  • Spain attacked by Bonaparte in 1793 and shifted
    back and forth between supporting France and
    supporting Great Britain
  • Colonies trade affected by shifting European
    alliances
  • Napoleon captures Spain and Portugal

4
The Río de la Plata in the Age of Revolution
  • British blockades
  • Began when Spain joined France against Great
    Britain
  • Attacked Buenos Aires in 1797
  • in less than a year exports decreased from 5.5
    million pesos to less than 500,000 pesos
  • Convinced Creoles of advantages of free trade
  • Creoles also heartened by improved ability to
    compete with Spanish exporters of hide

5
The Río de la Plata in the Age of Revolution
  • Expulsion of other invasions promoted a sense of
    independence
  • 1775-1776 worked to push Portuguese out of area
  • 1806 Porteños worked to repel British invasion
    of Buenos Aires without Spanish help

6
Sir Home Popham
7
The Río de la Plata in the Age of Revolution
  • The struggle for Independence within the Río de
    la Plata
  • Why two declarations of Independence?
  • Why did parts of the Río de la Plata break away?

8
National Unification and Disunion
  • Who should rule independent Argentina?
  • Based on Centralist (Unitarian) vs. States
    rights (Federalist) disputes
  • Where should the government be located?
  • How much independence would provinces have?
  • Who would control the revenues of the port of Bs.
    As.
  • What would be the relationship between the city
    and the countryside?
  • Early efforts at nation building
  • 1813 Assembly attempt by Bs. As. to implant
    liberal ideology
  • Abolished entailed estates (mayorazgo)
  • Limited power of the Roman Catholic Church
  • Freed Indians from tribute, encomienda
  • Limited African slavery

9
Early Nineteenth Century Education
10
National Unification and Disunion
  • Early efforts at nation building (cont)
  • Congress of Tucumán 1816 new declaration of
    independence
  • Efforts to reassure interior provinces under
    attack by Spanish
  • Most riverine provinces did not attend
  • Uruguay, Entre Ríos, Santa Fe, and Corrientes
  • Impediments to Nation Building
  • Region not actually independent, porteño troops
    fighting in Uruguay to keep Brazilians out
  • Buenos Aires believes in free trade, but not free
    navigation of rivers
  • Uruguay created in 1828 by British to ensure free
    navigation

11
National Unification and Disunion
  • By 1820 initial efforts at Triumvirates, etc.
    fail
  • Tucumán declared itself Republic of Tucumán
  • Caudillos in Santa Fe (Estanislao López), La
    Rioja (Facundo Quiroga) attacking enemies
  • Treaty of Pilar
  • Agreement of caudillo of riverine provinces
    (Santa Fe, Buenos Aires, Corrientes) to create
    basis for peace
  • Based on federalism and free navigation of rivers

12
National Unification and Disunion
  • Rivadavian Era (Buenos Aires)
  • Last gasp of Unitarian liberalism in Buenos Aires
    before the rise of caudillos
  • Came to power (1821-1825) during federalist
    period of extremely weak central government
  • Minister of Government for Bs. As. Governor
    Martín Rodríguez
  • Became President of Argentina in 1826 for brief
    period

13
National Unification and Disunion
  • Planned to strengthen economy of Bs. As. And
    Argentina
  • Got British investors to form Río de la Plata
    Mining Association to mine in La Rioja lost
    their shirts
  • Founded the University of Buenos Aires
  • Expropriated hospitals and schools from the
    Church and created the Sociedad de Beneficencia
    in 1823 to run them
  • Contracted Argentinas first foreign loan 1824 -
    1 million
  • Created system of emphyteusis to gain additional
    revenues for Bs. As.
  • Promoted foreign immigration

14
National Unification and Disunion
  • Rivadavia as President
  • Tried to make Buenos Aires the federal capital
  • Wanted receipts from Bs. As. Port turned over to
    national government
  • Opposed by Buenos Aires province, particularly
    the head of the militia, Juan Manuel de Rosas
  • Supported by the provinces of the Northwest and
    Cuyo
  • Rivadavia forced to resign when confronted by
    opposition from caudillos from Bs. As. and
    coastal region
  • Facundo Quiroga took up the slogan Religion or
    Death

15
Bernardino Rivadavia
16
(No Transcript)
17
Changes in Trading Routes from 18th c.
18
United Provinces 1816
19
A Buenos Aires Estancia 1833
20
Juan Manuel de Rosas as a child
21
River Plate area during Rosas era
22
New European Estancias 1880s
23
President Roca family visiting an Estancia 1899
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