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Tudor Times

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Under Henry VII, French wines were imported in greater quantities - but only ... Lady of the May as well as the popular folk heroes, Robin Hood and Maid Marian. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Tudor Times


1
Tudor Times
By Samuel Mugridge 8Ir
2
Henry VIII Wives
3
Henrys Wives
  • Henry VIII - Born 1491 Died 1547.
  • Second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York.
  • Had six wives
  • Catherine of Aragon, Spanish princess, widow of
    his brother Arthur. Married in 1509 when he
    became king. Desparate to have a son to take over
    the throne when he died as did not think a woman
    would be suitable.. Divorced Catherine in 1533
    because she was too old to produce a son (they
    already had a daughter, Mary.
  •  
  • Married Anne Boleyn, who was already pregnant by
    him in 1533, she gave birth to another daughter.
    Executed for infidelity.
  •  
  • Married Jane Seymour by end of the same month,
    died giving birth to Henrys lone male heir,
    Edward in 1536.
  •  
  • 1540 married Anne of Cleves, whom Henry found
    homely, marriage wasnt consummated.
  •  
  • July 1540 married adulterous Catherine Howard,
    executed for infidelity in March 1542.
  •  
  • Married Catherine Parr in 1543 who provided for
    Henry and his children until he died in 1547.
  •  
  • Henry was a catholic and would not have anything
    bad said against the catholic religion. When he
    wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon the pope
    would not agree. Henry had already been pursuing
    Anne of Boleyn, she became pregnant and if they
    did not get married before the birth the baby
    would be illigitamate and would not be considered
    to take over as King. Henry insisted that the
    leading Churchman in England, Thomas Cramer, who
    was made Archbishop of Canterbury in 1533, to
    grant the annulment of the marriage. The
    marriage was annulled and Henry married Anne, but
    she gave birth to a daughter. Henry had Anne
    beheaded (he had accused her of having over 1000
    lovers and of practising witchcraft).
  •  

4
Jane Seymour was the next wife, she did produce a
son, Edward in 1537. She died giving birth.
Henry was to have three more wives but no more
children.
5
Food and Drink
  • Everyone in Tudor England ate bread and
    cheese - the difference between rich and poor was
    the quality of bread and cheese.  'Carter's
    bread was the name given to the cheapest bread
    it was a mixture of rye and wheat.  The middle
    classes ate 'ravel', also called 'yeoman's bread
    which was made of wholemeal.  The most expensive
    bread was called 'marchet' and made of white
    wheat flour.  Marchet, was eaten in royal
    households especially at banquets.  Beer was
    drank by everyone, poor or rich  It was brewed
    without hops and was not particularly alcoholic. 
    People drank beer liberally.  However, water was
    considered unhealthy.  Under Henry VII, French
    wines were imported in greater quantities - but
    only aristocrats drank them.     The poor and
    wealthy alike lived off the land.  England was
    self-sufficient this was dependent on good
    harvests. England did not need to rely on
    imports of food.  Most peasants had small bits of
    land, in villages and towns.  They kept chickens,
    pigs, and perhaps a cow.  Those with animals
    slaughtered them in November.  The meat was
    smoked, dried, or salted - kept for meals in the
    cold months.  Bacon was the most common meat of
    poor people.  Smoked bacon and salted beef were
    most popular during the winter.     Meat wasnt
    eaten on Fridays, fish was eaten - dried cod or
    slated herring was most likely to be eaten. 
    Vegetables were plentiful - particularly beans,
    peas, carrots, and onions.  Fruits were
    available, too - apples, plums, pears,
    strawberries, and cherries. Potatoes were not
    available then (Raleigh brought them to England
    in Elizabeth's reign) and tomatoes were unknown. 
    Diets were most interesting and varied in the
    warmer months but during the cold weather diet
    consisted of preserved meats and little else.

6
Pastimes and Entertainment
  • The most festive time of the year
    was the twelve days of Christmas.  The greatest
    celebration was at the Tudor court, but homes
    across England - rich and poor - celebrated as
    best they could.  The King, as well as wealthy
    noblemen, had a Lord of Misrule.  (Also, villages
    and cities had an appointed Lord of Misrule as
    well.)  This man was in charge of arranging games
    (like Blindman's Bluff) and jests (like mumming
    and costume parties.)     Mumming, in
    particular, was a favorite pastime of Tudor
    England, especially during the major holidays
    (namely, Christmas and May Day.)  This
    entertainment was centuries old and included
    giants, minstrels, morris dancers, and various
    musicians. This included various games and song
    dances (like 'London Bridge is Broken Down',
    known to us as the rhyme 'London Bridge is
    Falling Down.')  They also performed the
    ever-popular St George and the Dragon story,
    particularly at Christmas.  May Day was less
    religious various people were made Lord and Lady
    of the May as well as the popular folk heroes,
    Robin Hood and Maid Marian.  These figures would
    lead dances around the maypole. Gambling
    was very popular.  Late in Henry VII's reign,
    parliament passed a law prohibiting servants and
    apprentices from gambling (namely dicing and
    playing cards.)  It was believed that gambling
    led to idleness and crime, though only in the
    lower classes.  Many noblemen lost large sums,
    including the Tudor kings.  Henry VII was
    well-known for his love of gambling.        
    Card games were also popular.  It is believed
    that playing cards was invented in 1400, as there
    is not mention of them previously.  All classes
    played card games, the most popular were
    Primero, Prime (related to Primero), Gresco,
    Gleke or 'Cleke, Loadum, Noddy (played mostly by
    gamblers), New Cut, Putt, All Fours, Post and
    Pair, Ruff, and Trump.     Tudor people played
    many indoor games and many more outdoor games. 
    There was an early form of tennis, played mostly
    by the nobility.  Henry VIII played it more than
    his father, particularly at Windsor.  Henry VII's
    favorite pastimes were chess, cards and dicing,
    and shooting the butts.  Tennis was played as it
    is today on a covered court.  These courts were
    very expensive to build and maintain, which meant
    that only the rich could play.  Henry VIII spent
    a lot of money building courts at Hampton Court
    and Whitehall.     Poorer people played Balloon
    Ball, Hand Ball, Ring Ball, and Bandy Ball. 
    Essentially, these were games where balls were
    hit with bats or hands.  Also, they would compete
    to drive the ball through rings set in the
    ground.    Football was also played in the 16th
    century.  It was played by tradesmen on fields
    outside their cities.  Eventually, they would
    make their way onto city streets.  One
    commentator, Thomas Elyot, called it 'nothing but
    beastly fury and extreme violence.'  But it was
    not as violent as cudgel-play.  This was played
    by two opponents who held long sticks.  The
    object was to draw first blood from your
    opponent's head.  People also wrestled, though
    rules varied from town to town.  Some people
    liked to kick their opponents in the shins while
    others only allowed holds above the waist.
           There were also popular throwing games,
    resembling the modern horseshoes.   Under Henry
    VIII, archery became increasingly popular.  The
    young king was known as the best archer in
    England.  Henry VIII wanted to share his love of
    archery with all his countrymen - so he decreed
    that every male subject must keep a longbow in
    his home.  Fathers were also required to teach
    their sons to shoot properly.  In this respect,
    Henry followed his own advice - Edward VI was a
    good archer as well.

7
Great Households
  •   In Tudor England, a persons social status
    was determined by how good their house was and
    how many servants they had. The best street to
    live in was in London and it was called The
    Strand. They would also have large estates in
    the countryside. The better they managed their
    households determined how important their job,
    given to them by the king, would be. These
    nobles would be used to maintain peace and
    government in their part of England particularly
    in the north where Henry VII had no family.
  •  

8
Bibliography
  • Picture of Henrys Wives www.schoolhistory.co.u
    k
  • Front cover picture and food and drink picture -
    www.englishhistory.net
  • Picture of Henry VIII - Eyewitness History of
    the World 2.0
  • Information on Food and Drink, Pastimes and
    Entertainment, and Great Households -
    www.englishhistory.net
  • Information on Henrys wives and Family tree
    Living through History, the Making of the United
    Kingdom
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