Theories of learning: 1) Operant conditioning 2) Cognitive theory/insight 3) learning Which one is most suitable? Observational learning - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Theories of learning: 1) Operant conditioning 2) Cognitive theory/insight 3) learning Which one is most suitable? Observational learning

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Title: Theories of learning: 1) Operant conditioning 2) Cognitive theory/insight 3) learning Which one is most suitable? Observational learning


1
Theories of learning1) Operant
conditioning2) Cognitive theory/insight 3)
learningWhich one is most suitable?Observationa
l learning
2
By the end of the lesson you should know
  • What Operant conditioning is
  • What Positive and negative reinforcement is in a
    sports context
  • What punishment is in a sports context

3
Operant Conditioning
  • Operant operating producing effects.
  • Operant Conditioning
  • A process of behaviour modification in which the
    likelihood of a specific behaviour is increased
    or decreased through positive or negative
    reinforcement each time the behaviour is
    exhibited, so that the subject comes to associate
    the pleasure or displeasure of the reinforcement
    with the behaviour.
  • Think of some examples in your day to day life
    when this occurs.

4
Examples
  • Pleases and thankyous!
  • Dogs pooing! You weeing/pooing!
  • Being told off at school compare you to yr.7s
    operant conditioning is different.
  • Trying to shape behaviour , by either a reward or
    punishment.

5
Sporting Examples
  • A cricket batsman will attempt to play a certain
    type of shot each time the bowler pitches the
    ball in a certain area.
  • A netball centre will pass the ball to a specific
    teammate depending on the agreed call being made
  • Can you now think of your own sporting examples?

6
Stimulus Response (S-R) Bond
  • The individual creates an S-R bond dependant on
    the success s/he is having.
  • The Stimulus provided from a coach can be 1 of
    three things in order to get the response right
    and strengthen the bond.
  • 3 types of Stimulus
  • Positive reinforcement Use of a stimulus to
    create feelings of satisfaction to encourage the
    repetition of the action
  • Negative reinforcement When the stimulus is
    withdrawn when the desired response occurs
  • Punishment Giving a stimulus to prevent a
    response reoccurring (Coach Carter) weakens
    response.
  • Using the book try to think of different examples
    of the 3 types of stimulus that a coach would use
    to reinforce the correct response.

7
Throwing a ball in a bin
  1. Provide positive reinforcement
  2. Provide negative reinforcement
  3. Provide punishment!!!!

8
Exam questions
  • (c) Explain how a coach could use operant
    conditioning to strengthen the stimulusresponse
    bond. (5 marks)
  • (a) Explain the terms negative reinforcement and
    punishment, giving examples of each from a team
    game. (4 marks)
  • (b) Using examples, explain how a coach could use
    positive reinforcement to improve the performance
    of his players. (2 marks)
  • (c) Reinforcement is a feature of operant
    conditioning. What else does the coach need to
    consider for operant conditioning to be
    effective? (3 marks) -
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