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Who is an Engineer?

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Mechanical engineers received formal recognition in 1847. Electrical Engineering Understanding of magnetism and static electricity commenced after American ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Who is an Engineer?


1
Who is an Engineer?
  • Engineer means a person who, by reason of his
    special knowledge and use of mathematical,
    physical, and engineering sciences and the
    principles of engineering analysis and design,
    acquired by education and experience, is
    qualified to practice engineering
  • Individual who combine knowledge of science,
    mathematics and economics to solve technical
    problems that confront society.
  • Practically
  • Engineers convert scientific theory into useful
    application.
  • Engineers help to provide for mankinds material
    needs and well being.

2
Engineering and science
  • Engineering and science have developed in a
    parallel, complementary fashion, they work hand
    in hand. Scientist uses knowledge to acquire new
    knowledge, the engineer applies this knowledge to
    develop things for society. Hence they provide
    feedback to science in areas where new knowledge
    is needed.

3
What is the distinguishing characteristics of
engineers from other professionals?
  • solving problems?
  • making analysis?

4
  • Contribution of mathematics to the development
    of Engineering discipline
  • Advances made in mathematics e.g. accurate
    measuring of distances, angle, weight, and time
  • Ability of mathematics to represent reality in
    abstract terms (abstract models)
  • Military Engineering
  • The first engineers were military engineers.
    During periods of conflict the engineers made
    instruments of war. During the periods of peace,
    they were involved in many military and civil
    activities such as building roads, bridges,
    canals and cathedrals etc.

5
  • The modern era of engineering
  • Civil Engineering
  • Civil engineering is the oldest of the main
    disciplines of engineering.
  • The first engineering school was opened in 1747
    in France.
  • They used the same principles of Military
    Engineering for nonmilitary purposes, hence the
    name civil.

6
Mechanical Engineering
  • Mechanical engineering was the second branch
    of engineering to emerge in the last part of the
    1700s. The invention of the steam engine was the
    starting point for the Industrial Revolution. All
    types of machinery were being developed and a new
    kind of engineer, one dealing with tools and
    machines, was born. Mechanical engineers received
    formal recognition in 1847.

7
Electrical Engineering
  • Understanding of magnetism and static electricity
    commenced after American scientist Benjamin
    Franklins famous kite-flying experiment in 1752.
  • . The original electric cell was invented by
    Italian scientist Alessandro Volta in 1800.
  • . The Grammes invention of dynamo and electric
    motor in 1872.
  • . The transistor and the vacuum tube appeared by
    the mid 1900s.
  • By the end of the 1900s electrical and
    electronics engineers outnumbered all other types
    of engineers in the world.

8
Chemical Engineering
  • In the 19th century industry started using more
    and more chemical processes in metallurgy, food
    production and textiles.
  • At the end of the century increased use of
    chemicals in the industry eventually created a
    new industry whose main function was the
    production of chemicals.
  • Chemical engineers combine the skills of both the
    chemist and the engineer.
  • They are involved in the design and operation of
    facilities producing chemical products (drugs,
    paints, acids, dangerous chemicals, fertilizers,
    solvents, fuels etc.).
  • They oversee the production of material goods
    which use chemicals in their manufacturing
    process (batteries, plastics, medicines,
    textiles, concrete, paper etc.)
  • They also oversee the processes in which control
    of chemistry is highly important to the final
    product (brewing, food processing, oil refining,
    mining etc.).
  • Around 1900, the term "Chemical Engineer" was
    being used, but it wasn't until the development
    of the petroleum industry that chemical
    engineering became recognized as a unique
    engineering discipline.

9
Industrial Engineering
  • Accreditation Board for Engineering and
    Technology (ABET) defines IE as
  • the profession in which a knowledge of the
    mathematical and natural sciences gained by
    study, experience and practice is applied with
    judgment to develop ways to utilize economically,
    the materials and forces of nature for the
    benefit of mankind.
  • The Institute of Industrial Engineers (AIIE)
    defines IE as
  • concerned with the design, improvement and
    installation of integrated systems of people,
    materials, equipment and energy. It draws upon
    specialized knowledge and skill in the
    mathematical, physical and social sciences
    together with the principles and methods of
    engineering analysis and design to specify,
    predict and evaluate the results to be obtained
    from such systems.
  • Both definitions describe industrial engineering
    as a broad field concerned with integrating all
    the different aspects in a service or production
    environment.

10
Emergence of Industrial Engineering the
Industrial Revolution
The industrial revolution got its start in Great
Britain (followed by countries such as Germany,
the US and France), during the 18th century,
which at the time was the most powerful empire
with plenty of colonies. So, it was inevitable
that the country with the most wealth would led
in this revolution.
  • Factors contributing to industrial revolution
    include
  • New machinery was developed (steam engine - James
    Watt in 1785)
  • A new source of power to run machines was
    developed
  • Raw materials to build machinery, such as iron,
    came into use
  • New communication medium was invented, the
    telegraph
  • The factory system produced wealth for workers as
    well as the owners of the factories. Individuals
    could make higher wages in factories than under
    the cottage system. Thus there was a ready
    supply of labor for factory production

11
In spite of the increased wealth that the
industrial revolution generated, the factory
system, that replaced the cottage system, had
many shortcomings that were detrimental to its
workers and the society. Rather than performing
many tasks (as in the cottage system) work
became specialized and resulted in employee
dissatisfaction due to highly repetitive and
routine automated jobs.. Hours of work were
extremely long (even for children at their 7 and
pregnant women). The 14-hour day without any
holidays were usual.. Factories were usually
unsafe and unhealthy. Lighting and ventilation
were poor, and toxic materials were often touched
or inhaled. Heat, noise etc. were unbearable..
Pollution. The factories and industry has
increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere by two-folds, nuclear and other
chemical wastes were developed. . Many people
driven to the cities to look for work, in return
ended living in the overpopulated cities that
could not support them.. In our drive for
consumerism, our planets natural resources are
still being depleted and global warming is at an
alarming rate.
12
  • The industrial revolution resulted in mass
    production of products through
  • interchangability of parts and specialization of
    labor.
  • Since more items were manufactured, prices
    dropped and demand increased.
  • During the early part of industrial revolution,
    it was recognized that business and management
    practices that had worked well for small shops
    and farms simply were inadequate for large,
    complex manufacturing organizations. The need for
    technically trained people who could plan,
    organize, and direct the operations of large
    complex systems led to the development of what is
    now called industrial engineering.

13
  • When the US entered World War II, the government
    enlisted scientist to study the war plans,
    production methods, and logistics. These
    scientists developed a number of techniques for
    modeling and predicting optimal solutions. Hence
    the born of Operations Research (OR).
  • Starting from 1960s Universities began to add
    Operations Research techniques to the curriculum
    of Industrial Engineering. With these analytical
    methods and the advancing technologies for the
    computer, modeling complex production and service
    systems became easier.
  • In the future IEs will be using more of the OR
    techniques coupled with advanced modeling
    packages to analyze production and service
    problems.
  • Companies will expect the IE to develop a
    representative model of their systems and give
    accurate predictions about future performance.

14
  • Industrial Engineer is a systems integrator
  • a big - picture thinker.
  • Systems Approach
  • of
  • Industrial Engineering
  • fenomenon called SYNERGY

15
  • People
  • This area is what sets Industrial Engineering
    apart from the other Engineering disciplines.
  • . is the employee motivated? feeling part of the
    company? what level of pay should be offered for
    the work?
  • . is the job designed correctly for a human
    operator? Ergonomics
  • . is the operation safe?
  • . does the job require the employee to get more
    training?
  • . is there good communication between management
    and their employers?

16
  • The need for Industrial Engineers in todays
    highly competitive world is growing. Why?
  • Industrial Engineers are the only engineering
    professionals trained as productivity and quality
    improvement specialists.
  • They improve efficiency and effectiveness of
    handling the operations and provide PROACTIVE
    policies.

17
  • Average Income 
  • According to the U.S. Department of Labor's
    Occupational Outlook Handbook, the median annual
    earnings of industrial engineers were 52,610 in
    1998. The middle 50 percent earned between
    42,690 and 73,870.
  • Salaries are Rising 
  • According to the IIE 2000 Salary Survey, IIE
    members reported that they bring home an average
    total annual compensation of 76,000, up from
    1998's average 71,000.

18
Assume 3 different Foods (A,B,C) to be served in
EMU Merkez Cafeteria
  • Cost of preparing 1 gr of Food A is 0.0090
  • Cost of preparing 1 gr of Food B is 0.0095
  • Cost of preparing 1 gr of Food C is 0.0085
  • A student should EXACTLY be served with 350 gr of
    a meal
  • A Meal should contain AT LEAST 150 mg of Vitamin
    B11
  • A Meal should contain AT LEAST 140 mg of Vitamin
    E
  • A Meal should contain AT LEAST 120 mg of Vitamin
    D
  • 1 gr of Food A contains 1 mg of Vitamin B11, 1.5
    mg of Vitamin E, 0.5 mg Vitamin D
  • 1 gr of Food B contains 2 mg of Vitamin B11, 2.5
    mg of Vitamin E, 0.4 mg Vitamin D
  • 1 gr of Food C contains 1.8 mg of Vitamin B11,
    3.5 mg of Vitamin E, 0.2 mg Vitamin D
  • GIVEN ALL THESE DATA, WHATS THE PROBLEM TO SOLVE
    ?
  • TELL ME ONE FEASIBLE SOLUTION.
  • WHATS THE COST OF YOUR SOLUTION?

19
  • Minimize Z 0.009 X1 0.0095 X2 0.0085 X3
  • Subject to
  • X1
    X2 X3 350
  • 0.0010X1 0.0020X2
    0.0018X3 gt 0.150
  • 0.0015X1 0.0025X2
    0.0035X3 gt 0.140
  • 0.0005X1 0.0004X2
    0.0002X3 gt 0.120
  • X1 gt 0

  • X2 gt 0

  • X3 gt 0
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