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Chapter 22: Specialized Teeth, Hair, Endothermy, and Viviparity

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Title: Chapter 22: Specialized Teeth, Hair, Endothermy, and Viviparity


1
Mammals
  • Chapter 22 Specialized Teeth, Hair, Endothermy,
    and Viviparity

2
Major Concept 1
  • 1. Mammalian characteristics evolved gradually
    over a 200-million-year period in the synapsid
    lineage.

3
Major Concept 2
  • 2. Two subclasses of mammals evolved during
    the Mesozoic era---the Prototheria and the
    Theria. Modern Mammals include monotremes,
    marsupial mammals, and placental mammals.

Placental Mammals
Monotremes
Marsupial
4
Major Concept 3
  • 3. The skin of mammals is thick and protective
    and has an insulation covering of hair.

5
Major Concept 4
  • 4. Adaptations of teeth and digestive tract
    allows mammals to exploit a wide variety of food
    resources.

Siberian Brown Bear - Teeth
Beaver Teeth
Orca teeth
6
Major Concept 5
  • 5. Efficient systems for circulation and gas
    exchange support the high metabolic rate
    associated with mammalian endothermy.

7
Major Concept 6
  • 6. The brain of mammals has an expanded cerebral
    cortex that processes information from various
    sensory structures.

8
Major Concept 7
  • 7. Metanephric kidneys permit mammals to excrete
    urea without excessive water loss.

9
Major Concept 8
  • 8. Complex behavior patterns enhance mammalian
    survival.

http//www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15487308/ns/technology
_and_science-science/ Article about self
recognition in elephants.
10
Major Concept 9
  • 9. Most mammals are viviparous and have
    reproductive cycles that help ensure internal
    fertilization and successful development.

11
Major Concept 10
  • 10. Primate evolution included the evolution of
    the apes and humans. Human evolution is
    documented by evidence from the fossil record,
    molecular biology, and numerous other sources.

12
Classification - Class Mammalia
  • Mammary glands hair diaphragm three middle-ear
    ossicles herodont dentiton sweat, sebaceous,
    and scent glands four-chambered heart large
    cerebral cortex.

13
Classification Subclass Prototheria
  • This subclass formerly contained the monotremes.
    Monotremes have recently been reclassified, and
    this subclass now contains only extinct species.

Pseudotribos
14
Classification - Subclass Theria
  • Technical characteristics of the skull
    distinguish members of this subclass.

Therapsid
15
Classification Infraclass Ornithodelphia
  • Technical characteristics of the skull
    distinguish members of this infraclass.
    Monotremes.

Platypus
16
Classification Infraclass Metatheria
  • Viviparous primitive placenta young are born
    early and often are carried in a marsupial pouch
    on the females belly. Marsupials.

Koalas
17
Classification Infraclass Eutheria
  • Complex placenta young develop to advanced stage
    prior to birth. Placentals.

Bengal Tiger
18
Classification Superorder Laurasiatheria
  • Order Insectivora- Diverse group of small,
    primitive mammals third-largest mammalian order.
    Hedgehogs, tenrecs, moles, shrews.

Shrew
19
Classification Order Chiroptera
Gray Bat
  • Cosmopolitan, but especially abundant in the
    tropics bones of the arm and hand are elongate
    and slender flight membranes extend from the
    body, between digits of forelimbs, to the hind
    limbs most are insectivorous, but some are fruit
    eaters, fish eaters, and blood feeders
    second-largest mammalian order. Bats

20
Classification Order Carnivora
Bullmastiff Rottweiler Mix
  • Predatory mammals usually have a highly
    developed sense of smell and a large braincase
    premolars and molars modified into carnassial
    apparatus three pairs of upper and lower
    incisors usually present, and canines are well
    developed. Dogs, cats, bears, raccoons, minks,
    sea lions, seals, walruses, otters.

21
Classification-Order Perissodactyla
  • Hoofed axis of support passes through the third
    digit. Skull usually elongate, large molars and
    premolars primarily grazers.( the Artiodactyla
    also have hoofs. Artiodactyls and perissondactyls
    are, therefore, called ungulates) (L. ungula,
    hoof). Odd-toed ungulates horses, rhinoceroses,
    zebras, tapirs.

Tapirs
22
Classification- Order Artiodactyla
  • Hoofed axis of support passes between third and
    fourth digits digits one, two and five reduced
    or lost primarily grazing and browsing animals(
    pigs are an obvious exception). Even-toed
    ungulates pigs, hippopotamuses, camels,
    antelope, deer, sheep, giraffes, cattle

Giraffe.
23
Classification- Order Cetacea
  • Streamlined, nearly hairless, and insulated by
    thick layers of fat (blubber) no sebaceous
    glands forelimbs modified into paddlelike
    flippers for swimming hindlimbs reduced and not
    visible externally tail fins (flukes) flattened
    horizontally external naris (blowhole) on top
    skull.

Dolphin
24
Classification- Order Cetacea cont.
  • Toothed whales (beaked whales, narwhals, sperm
    whales, dolphins, porpoises, killer whales)
    toothless, filter-feeding baleen whales (right
    whales, gray whales, blue whales, and humpback
    whales).

Killer Whale
25
Classification- Order Superorder Xenartha
  • (ze nar-thra) (this name is also used as the
    common order name)
  • Incisors and canines absent cheek teeth, when
    present, lack enamel brain case is long and
    cylindrical hindfoot is four toed, forefoot has
    two or three prominent toes with large claws
    limbs, are specialized for climbing or digging
    xanthrous lumbar vertebrae. Anteaters, tree
    sloths, armadillos

26
Classification- Order Lagomorpha
  • Two pairs of upper incisors one pair of lower
    incisors incisors are ever-growing and slowly
    worn down by feeding on vegetation. Rabbits,
    pikas.

Pika
27
Classification- Order Rodentia
  • Largest mammalian order upper and lower jaws
    bear a single pair of ever-growing incisors.
    Squirrels, chipmunks, rats, mice beavers,
    porcupines, woodchucks, lemmings.

Squirrel
28
Classification- Order Primates
  • Adaptations of primates reflect adaptations for
    increased agility in arboreal ( tree-dwelling)
    habitats omnivorous diets unspecialized teeth
    grasping digits freely movable limbs nails on
    digits reduced nasal freely movable limbs nails
    on digits reduced nasal cavity enlarged
    stereoscopic eyes and cerebral hemispheres.

Great Ape.
29
Classification- Order Primates cont.
  • Lemurs( Madagascar and the Comoro Islands ),
    tarsiers ( jungles of Sumatra and the East
    indies), monkeys, gibbons, great apes ( apes and
    humans)

Gibbons
30
Classification- Order Proboscidea
  • Long, muscular proboscis (trunk) with one or two
    finger-like processes at the tip short skull
    with the second incisor on each side of the upper
    jaw modified into tucks six cheek teeth are
    present in each half of each jaw teeth erupt (
    grow into place) in sequence from front to rear,
    so that one tooth in each jaw is functional.
    African and Indian elephants.

African Elephant
31
Classification- Order Sirenia
  • Large, aquatic herbivores that weigh in excess of
    600 kg nearly hairless, with thick , wrinkled
    skin heavy skeleton forelimb is flipperlike,
    and hindlimb is vestigial horizontal tail fluke
    is present horizontally oriented diaphragm
    teeth lack enamel. Manatees ( coastal rivers of
    the of the Americas and Africa) , dugongs (
    western Pacific and Indian Oceans)

Dugong
32
Evolutionary Perspective
  • The fossil record that documents the origin of
    the mammals from ancient reptilian ancestors is
    very complete and relatively uncontroversial.
  • Confirmed many macroevolutionary theories
  • age of mammals began 70mya

Therapsid
33
Evolutionary Perspective
  • Mammals evolved from a group of synapsids called
    the Therapsids.

34
Evolutionary Perspective
  • Members of the Subclass Synapsida
  • Cynognathus was a mammal-like reptile that
    probably foraged for small animals, much like a
    badger today.
  • Order Therapsida the stock from which mammals
    arose during the mid-Triassic period.

Cynognathus
35
Evolutionary Perspective
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vSyFBQmThEPk
  • Introduction to the Ultimate Mammal Family Tree

36
Evolutionary Perspective
Eomaia
  • First Mammals
  • Small (less than 10cm long)
  • Mammals from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods
    were mostly predators that fed on other
    vertebrates and arthropods
  • A few were herbivores
  • Others were omnivores
  • First evidence of hair was 60mya from fossil
    record, however, evidence suggests that hair
    arose 130mya

37
Evolutionary Perspective
  • First mammals
  • Structures important to hearing and olfactory
    senses were important to the evolution of
    mammals.
  • May indicate that first mammals were nocturnal
  • This nocturnal trait may have lead to endothermy

http//www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/10/06101
2184910.htm This article references the genes
that help with nocturnal sight
38
Evolutionary Perspective
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vAXcYXRFQ_DEfeature
    fvst
  • The development of the inner ear in mammals

39
Evolutionary Perspective
  • Subclass Theria
  • Diverged into three infraclasses
  • Infraclass Ornithodelphia monotremes
  • Infraclass Metatheria marsupials
  • Infraclass Eutheria Placental mammals

Monotremes Duckbill Platypus
Marsupials Grey Kangaroo
Placental African Lion
Eggs
40
Infraclass Ornithodelphia - Monotremes
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vOVneqhu9oZk
  • Watch Studies on the Northern and Southern
    Duckbill Platypus

41
Infraclass Metatheria - Marsupials
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v2lCKc8tURtc
  • Kangaroo Birth

42
Infraclass Eutheria Placental Mammals
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vO71VjOmFFm0
  • Lab Puppy Birth Turn the Music Down it is
    annoying Quick Video
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v_vLXVe1QOEI
  • White Lion Birth (Long Video) (530 to see the
    birth of the cubs) very interesting and
    informative.

43
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • Skin has epidermal and dermal layers
  • Functions to provide
  • Protection
  • From mechanical injury
  • From invasion by microorganisms
  • From suns ultraviolet light
  • Temperature Regulation
  • Sensory perception
  • In excretion
  • In water regulation

44
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • Hair is uniquely mammalian
  • Functions
  • Sensory Perception
  • Temperature Regulation
  • Communication
  • 2 kinds of Hair
  • Long guard hairs
  • Shorter insulating under hair

45
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • Hair because hair is composed largely of dead
    cells it must be periodically molted
  • Humans gradually
  • Arctic Fox Winter pelage is white spring molt
    pelage is grey and yellow. The pictures below
    show winter, molt, then summer.

46
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • Hair is important for the sense of touch
  • Mechanical displacement of the hair stimulates
    nerve cells
  • Guard hairs
  • Thick found around legs, nose, mouth, and eyes

47
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • Hair as protection
  • Air spaces in shaft and between hairs provide an
    effective insulating layer
  • Arrector Pili muscles contracts lifting hair
    increases the amount of air trapped and improves
    insulation. This muscle also operates in the
    fight-or-flight response to provide the
    appearance of increased size and strength.

48
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • Hair Color depends on the amount of pigment
    (melanin) deposited in it and the quantity of air
    in the hair shaft.
  • Most mammals pelage is dark above and light below
    to be conspicuous
  • Some advertise their defenses ex. Skunk

49
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • Pelage is reduced in large mammals from hot
    climates or aquatic mammals

50
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • Claws are present in all amniote classes

51
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • Glands Develop from the Epidermis of the Skin.
  • Sebaceous (oil) glands oily secretion
    lubricates and waterproofs
  • Sudoriferous (sweat) glands 2 types
  • Eccrine glands watery secretions used in
    evaporative cooling
  • Apocrine glands secrete a mixture of salt,
    urea, and water that microorganisms convert to
    odor

52
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
53
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • Sent or Musk Glands found around face, feet, or
    anus
  • Secret pheromones
  • Used in defense
  • Used in species and
  • sex recognition
  • Used in territorial behavior

A male tiger spraying to mark his territory
54
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • Mammary Gland functional in female mammals and
    are present, but nonfunctional, in males
  • Milk secreted contains water, carbohydrates
    (sugar lactose), fat, protein, minerals, and
    antibodies.

55
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • Evolution of Mammary Glands
  • Derived from apocrine glands and usually contain
    substantial fatty deposits
  • Apocrine glands secret lipids and other complex
    organic molecules

56
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • Early synapsids probably had a mammary area
    similar to that found in monotremes
  • Monotreme young suck milk from mammary hairs
    following hatching, the glands discharge milk
    into depressions on the belly, where the young
    lap it up.
  • In other mammals, mammary glands open via nipples
    or teats, and the young suckle for their
    nourishment.

57
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • The Skull and Teeth
  • Jaw Bone Single bone of the lower jaw
    articulates the mammalian jaw (Mandible)
  • Secondary Palate Soft Palate allows mammals to
    breath while chewing, breathing stops briefly
    while swallowing.

58
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • Mammals Teeth are Heterodont, meaning teeth are
    specialized for different functions.
  • Mammals have teeth set inside the sockets of the
    jaw
  • Most mammals have two sets of teeth in life
  • Milk teeth Deciduous teeth
  • Permanent Teeth

59
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
60
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • Types of Teeth
  • Incisors used for gnawing and nipping
  • Canines used for catching killing and tearing
    prey.
  • Premolars used for chewing
  • Molars used for used for chewing

61
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • Zoologist use a dental formula to characterize
    taxa

62
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • The Vertebral Column
  • Seven cervical vertebra (even in giraffes and
    whales)
  • First two vertebra are the atlas and axis
  • Five cervical vertebra follow
  • Trunk divided into thoracic and lumbar region
  • Thoracic contains the rib cage
  • Lumbar have interlocking process that give
    support, but little freedom of movement

63
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
64
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vTUlx0LVzeP0
  • Inside Natures Giants Episode 4 The Giraffe Part
    1/5 HQ
  • Giraffe Dissection of the neck
  • About a 10 min. video very informative and
    interesting
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v_5JVxtR89Gs
  • Short Giraffe video animal planet

65
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • Appendicular Skeleton
  • The Appendicular skeleton of mammals rotates
    under the body so that the appendages are usually
    directly beneath the body.
  • Bones of the pelvic girdle are fused, which is
    advantageous for locomotion.
  • The pubic symphysis loosens in females before
    birth allowing the pelvis to spread during birth

66
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
  • Muscles Because the appendages are beneath the
    bodies of most mammals the skeleton bears the
    weight of the body. Muscle mass is concentrated
    in the upper appendages and girdles.

67
Evolutionary Pressures- External Structure and
Locomotion
68
Nutrition and the Digestive System
  • The digestive tract of mammals is similar to that
    of other vertebrates but has many specializations
    for different feeding habits.
  • Cecum is a fermentation pouch where
    microorganisms aid in cellulose digestion
  • Horses, rodents and rabbits have an enlarged
    cecum
  • Ruminants have stomachs divided into 4 parts
    three are fermentation chambers (deer, cattle
    and sheep)

69
Nutrition and the Digestive System
70
Circulation, Gas Exchange, and Temperature
Regulation
  • Heart Four chambered, keep blood in systemic
    and pulmonary circuits separate
  • Shows Convergent evolution with the hearts of
    birds, both are adapted for active life styles

71
Circulation, Gas Exchange, and Temperature
Regulation
  • Most important adaptation is the exchange of
    nutrients, gases, and wastes that simply diffuse
    between fetal and maternal blood supply, no blood
    actually mixes.

72
Circulation, Gas Exchange, and Temperature
Regulation
  • High metabolic rates require adaptations for
    efficient gas exchange.
  • Mammals have
  • Separate oral and nasal cavities
  • Warming and moistening air
  • Respiratory passages are highly branched
  • Increase surface area
  • Lungs resemble a sponge versus a sac

73
Circulation, Gas Exchange, and Temperature
Regulation
  • Diaphragm Muscle that separates the thoracic
    and abdominal cavities.
  • Inspiration causes the diaphragm to contract and
    expand the rib cage this allows air to enter.
  • Expiration is normally by elastic recoil of the
    lungs

74
Circulation, Gas Exchange, and Temperature
Regulation
75
Circulation, Gas Exchange, and Temperature
Regulation
  • Two Catagories of heat producing mechanisms
  • Shivering thermogenesis muscular activity
    generates large amounts of heat, and little
    movement
  • Non-shivering thermogenesis produces heat
    through general cellular metabolism and
    metabolism of brown fat.

76
Circulation, Gas Exchange, and Temperature
Regulation
  • Thermoregulation
  • Mammals are insulated by
  • Pelage
  • Fat Deposits
  • Which are also a source of energy to sustain high
    metabolic rates

77
Circulation, Gas Exchange, and Temperature
Regulation
  • Example Walrus
  • In cold temperatures has a surface temp of 0 C
    with a body temp. of 35 C.
  • When out of icy water Walruses will increase
    peripheral blood flow quickly warming skin.

78
Circulation, Gas Exchange, and Temperature
Regulation
  • Countercurrent heat-exchange systems
  • This system allows heat to be returned to the
    body due to the close association of arteries and
    veins, heat from the blood in arteries is
    transferred to the blood in the veins to conserve
    heat returning to the body.

79
Circulation, Gas Exchange, and Temperature
Regulation
  • Hot, dry environments present far greater
    problems, because of evaporative cooling may
    upset water balances.
  • Jackrabbits and Elephant use big ears to radiate
    heat.

80
Winter Sleep and Hibernation
  • Winter sleep less active but are still
    relatively alert and easily aroused (bears and
    raccoons)
  • Hibernation - a period of winter inactivity in
    which the hypothalamus of the brain slows the
    metabolic, heart and respiratory rates. (Echidna,
    moles, chipmunks and bats)

Bears in winter sleep
Chipmunk Hibernation
81
Nervous and Sensory Functions
  • Enlarged Cerebral Cortex Due to Active lifestyle

82
Nervous and Sensory Functions
  • Sense of Touch well developed, when hair is
    displaced then stimulus is detected

83
Nervous and Sensory Functions
  • Olfactory Mammals can perceive olfactory
    stimuli over long distances during either the day
    or night to locate food, recognize members of the
    same species, and avoid predators.

84
Nervous and Sensory Functions
  • Auditory
  • Adapatations
  • Ear Flap (the Pinna)
  • External canal leading to the tympanum
  • The Middle Ear
  • Three ear ossicles that conduct sound to inner
    ear
  • Inner Ear
  • Cochlea Structure provides more surface area
    for receptor cells and gives mammals greater
    sensitivity to pitch and volume

85
Nervous and Sensory Functions
  • Vision
  • Color Vision is less well developed than in birds
    and reptiles
  • Rods dominate the retinas of most mammals,
    supporting the hypothesis that most early mammals
    were nocturnal.
  • Primates, squirrels and a few other mammals have
    well developed color vision.

86
Excretion and Osmoregulation
  • Metanephric Kidney Excrete Urea Less toxic
    than ammonia and does not require large amounts
    of water. Water is lost because urea is water
    soluble and cannot be excreted as a semisolid.
    Leading to water loss.

87
Excretion and Osmoregulation
  • Development of the Kidney from embryo to adult

88
Excretion and Osmoregulation
  • Function of the nephron of the kidney is to
    filter fluids and small solids from the blood
    through a group of capillary systems called the
    glomerulus.
  • The main adaptation in mammals is in the loop of
    the nephron where water and Na/Cl- is reabsorbed.

89
Excretion and Osmoregulation
  • Water can be lost through activity, physiological
    state, environmental temperatures, in urine and
    feces, in evaporation of sweat glands,
    respiratory surfaces and during nursing.
  • Adaptations to prevent water loss include
  • Kangaroo Rat survives without drinking water
  • Nocturnal
  • Feces are almost dry
  • The loop of the nephron reabsorbs water
  • Eats seeds high in fats and carbohydrates that
    when metabolized produce water

90
Behavior
  • Mammals have complex behaviors to enhance
    survival
  • Bristled fur, arched back, and open mouth cats
    communicate message to potential threat.
  • Tail-wagging dog wants to play or is happy
  • Wolf on back giving up in a fight with other
    wolves or avoiding a fight with other wolves

91
Behavior
Tiger Spraying to claim territory.
  • Pheromones
  • Recognize members of the same species
  • Recognize members of the opposite sex
  • Recognize the reproductive state of a member of
    the opposite sex
  • Induce sexual behavior
  • Help establish and recognize territories
  • Ward off Predators
  • Recognize young or parents

92
Behavior
  • Auditory-
  • Herd animals stay together as long as familiar
    sounds are around them (bellowing, hooves on
    grass, ruminating stomach sounds). If disrupted
    sounds they will flee.
  • Vocalizations and Tactile
  • Pre-copulatory nosing that occurs in many
    animals
  • Grooming

Elk pre-mating behavior
93
Territoriality
  • Cats rub their faces against objects and people
    to claim them, they are rubbing their scent
    glands from their faces.

94
Territoriality
  • Male California Sea Lions Establish Territories
    and defend them for breeding season. Females
    swim to shore and choose a birth site this is
    also the site of the father of next years young.
  • Embryonic Diapause Mating in California Sea
    Lions occurs 2 weeks after birth of pervious
    years young. The embryo is paused in birth and
    mothers carry their unborn for 12 months instead
    of nine months.

95
Reproduction and Development
  • Mammalian Viviparity requires a large expenditure
    of energy on the part of the female during
    development and on the part of one or both
    parents caring for young after they are born.
  • Advantages
  • Mother can roam and find food or proper climate,
    not tied to a nest
  • Evolution of the Uterus allows for viviparity

96
Reproduction and Development
  • Estrus Cycle a time during which the female is
    behaviorally and physiologically receptive to the
    male.
  • Hormonal changes stimulate the development of the
    ova in the ovary and induce ovulation

Human Estrus Cycle
97
Reproduction and Development
  • Most Mammals do not bleed or slough the uterine
    lining if fertilization does not occur
  • Monestrus have only one yearly cycle (wild
    dogs, bears, sea lions)
  • Diestrus domestic dogs cycle twice a year
  • Polyestrus rats and mice every 4-6 weeks
  • Humans, Apes and monkeys similar and if
    fertilization does not occur then menses the
    sloughing of the uterine lining occurs

98
Reproduction and Development
  • Usual Fertilization
  • Occurs in upper third of the oviduct within hours
    of copulation
  • Delayed Fertilization Females can store sperm
    for periods of up to two months.
  • Bats are different copulation in fall and
    fertilization in spring

Human Fertilization
99
Reproduction and Development
  • Modes of Development
  • Oviparous Monotremes lay eggs that are
    incubated
  • Marsupials gestation period is short due to the
    inability to maintain the hormones needed to
    support uterine lining. Gestation period is 8-40
    days. Baby Crawls into pouch and attaches to the
    nipple for 60-270 days

Long Beaked Echidna Egg laying monotreme
100
Reproduction and Development
  • Gestation Period the length of time the young
    develop in the mothers reproductive tract
  • Eutherian mammals Embryo implants deep in the
    uterine wall - maternal and fetal blood never
    mix but nutrients, gases and wastes diffuse
    between the two blood streams. Gestation periods
    range from 20days rodents to 19months African
    Elephants.
  • Elephant Birth http//www.youtube.com/watch?vF4M
    zcpX3viY

101
Interesting Videos
  • Whale Evolution
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vxCx-nwkj8fUfeature
    fvwrel
  • How did whales move from land to water

102
Interesting Video
  • See how many evolutionary features you can
    isolate in the video
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vCvrmZLGWfFsfeature
    related
  • Evolution in 5 min. There are some missing gaps
    between Cynognathus and Australopithecus

103
Interesting Video
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vTMCf7SNUb-Qfeature
    related
  • Dolphin making bubble rings

104
Resources
  • http//www.biologyjunction.com/mammals20notes20b
    i.htm
  • http//www.biologycorner.com/APbiology/evolution/c
    h19.html
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