NIPM GOLDEN JUBILEE CELEBRATION NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON NEW WORLD OF BUSINESS - HR IMPERATIVES 13-14 February 2004, MUMBAI - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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NIPM GOLDEN JUBILEE CELEBRATION NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON NEW WORLD OF BUSINESS - HR IMPERATIVES 13-14 February 2004, MUMBAI

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... telecom Violation of ILS (Industrial Relations Ordinance 2002) ... 2003-2004 6.6 93.4 Nepal, 2001 7.2 92.8 India, 1999-2000 24.7 75.3 Bangladesh, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: NIPM GOLDEN JUBILEE CELEBRATION NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON NEW WORLD OF BUSINESS - HR IMPERATIVES 13-14 February 2004, MUMBAI


1
Workers Rights Situation in Asia and the
Pacific, (with specific reference to South Asia)
Pong-Sul AHN Senior Specialist on
WorkersActivities ILO Subregional Office for
South Asia
2
Overview of Key Labour Issues in South Asia
3
Key labour Issues
  • Impacts of globalisation
  • Expansion of the informal economy
  • Poverty
  • Political uncertainty
  • Migration
  • Gender issues
  • OSHE issues
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Unemployment and underemployment

4
Impacts of Globalisation
  • privatisation, liberalisation of financial
    market, flexible labour market

5
The Poverty Line in South Asia, 2000
6
Income Distribution Pattern
7
Workforce in the Informal and the Formal Sector
in South Asia
Countries/ Year of data source of workforce in informal economy of workforce in formal economy
Bangladesh, 1999-2000 75.3 24.7
India, 1999-2000 92.8 7.2
Nepal, 2001 93.4 6.6
Pakistan, 2003-2004 70 30
Sri Lanka, 1996/97 69.9 30.1
8
Male and Female Labour Force Participation in
South Asia
9
Employment/ Underemployment Situation in India
  • In India, as of 2004, out of 406 million labour
    force, 397 million are employed and around 9
    million are openly unemployed
  • Over 40 million job seekers are registered with
    945 employment exchanges in the country.
  • Over 4 crore job seekers are registered with the
    945 employment exchanges
  • 70 of these job seekers are young educated
    unemployed
  • One fourth of them are young women

10
  • Every year 7-8 million job seekers enter the
    work force
  • High underemployment and lack of employment
    opportunity
  • Educated unemployment (14.7) is much higher
    than the normal unemployment rate of around 2.235
  • Around 9 million open unemployed plus 123
    million working poor

11
Adult Literacy of Male and Females,
12
Number of Registered Trade Unions and their
Membership in India
Year Number of Registered Trade Unions of Union Submitting return Membership of Union Submitting Returns (000s) Membership of Union Submitting Returns (000s) Membership of Union Submitting Returns (000s) Average Membership per Union of Women
Year Number of Registered Trade Unions of Union Submitting return Men Women Total Average Membership per Union of Women
1961 11312 60.23 3618 395 4013 586 9.84
1971 22485 40.16 5083 387 5410 606 7.15
1981 37539 17.80 5012 385 5397 808 7.13
1991 53535 15.72 5507 594 6101 725 9.74
1995 57952 14.08 5675 863 6538 801 13.20
1996 58988 12.28 4250 1351 5601 773 24.12
1997 60660 14.63 6504 905 7409 835 12.21
1998 61992 11.94 6104 1145 7249 979 15.80
1999 64817 12.58 5190 1218 6407 786 19.01
13
Trade Union Membership in Bangladesh, 2004
SL. Names of Federations Membership Membership Membership Nos. of Executive Committees Nos. of Executive Committees Nos. of Executive Committees
Total Women Women Total Women Women
Total Member Total Member
1 BMSF 205007 65000 31.7 30 4 13.3
2 BJSD 220000 32000 14.6 30 2 6.7
3 BFTUC 106150 22650 21.3 30 4 13.3
4 BLF 102000 20000 19.7 30 2 6.7
5 JSL 215000 10000 4.7 30 1 3.3
6 BTUC 80970 9000 11.1 39 2 5.1
7 BSSF 249616 4999 2.2 30 1 3.3
8 JSF 38000 12500 32.9 30 3 10
9 JSFB 20000 1000 5 45 1 2.2
10 BSF 5989 593 9.9 25 7 28
11 BJSF 7000 950 13.6 30 4 13.3
12 JSJ 45000 2000 4.4 31 3 9.7
13 BJSJ 7000 950 13.6 30 4 13.3
Total membership, 1301732 181642 13.9 410 38 9.3
14
Trade Union Situation in South Asia
  • Low unionisation rate
  • India - 3 , Pakistan - 2.69 , Bangladesh -
    3
  • Nepal - 5 , Sri Lanka - 22
  • Weak capacity of trade unions finance,
    staffing, administration, etc
  • Political affiliation
  • Non-implementation of labour law
  • Negative Impacts of the Informal economy

15
Causes of Accidents in Bangladesh, 2006
Causes Killed Injured
Landslide/ collapse 69 245
Fire Accidents 85 829
Electrocution 33 11
Road Accidents 82 170
Boiler or cylinder blasts 10 118
Slipping from the roof 16 34
Gas Suffocation 14 --
Rolling with ribbon of machine 3 --
Thunderbolt 12 45
Trawler Capsize 502 1500
Others 15 204
16
Sector Wise Accidents in Bangladesh
Killed Injured
Garments 121 1150
Construction 105 161
Ship breaking 14 05
Transport 12 01
Fishermen 500 1500
Migrant Workers 13 --
Shop Workers 07 08
Port Workers 09 05
Stone collectors 11 30
Tea Workers 02 02
Electric Workers 08 01
Rice mills workers 07 30
Cleaners 12 --
Others 24 185
Total 845 3078
17
Child labour in South Asia
  • Bangladesh in 2000, 19 percent of about 6.3
    million children between 5 and 14 years are child
    labour
  • Nepal, in 1996, an estimated 2.6 million children
    were working.
  • Pakistan, 3.6 million in 1999
  • India, around 10.2 million in 2000

18
Ratification and Implementation of ILO Core
Conventions in South Asia, 2006
FOA FOA Forced labour Forced labour Discrimination Discrimination Child labour Child labour
Country No.87 No.98 No.29 No.105 No.100 No.111 No.138 No.182
Bangladesh O O O O O O X O
India X X O O O O X X
Nepal X O O X O O O O
Pakistan O O O O O O O O
Sri Lanka O O O O O O O O
19
Workers Rights Situation in South Asia
20
AFHANISTAN
  • TRADE UNIONS
  • CCNUAE Central Council of National Union of
    Afghanistan Employees
  • AAFTU (1) All Afghanistan Federation of Trade
    Unions
  • AAFLU (2) All Afghanistan Federation of Labour
    Union
  • ALO Afghanistan Labour Organisation

21
  • MAIN LABOUR ISSUES
  • Unemployment
  • Lower level of living standards in sheltering,
    schooling, medicare, etc
  • Return migration
  • Layoffs in the public/civil service sectors
  • No labour law and social dialogue mechanism

22
  • ILO/ACTRAV Activities
  • Training on a new labour law submitted
  • IT training for youth and women to network trade
    unions inside and outside the country
  • Establishment of independent and democratic
    national union umbrella
  • ? Establishing a tripartite social dialogue
    mechanism

23
IRAN
  • WORKERS ORGANISATIONS
  • Syndicates (trade union)
  • Islamic labour councils at workplaces
  • (1) Workers House
  • (2) Independent trade unions Journalists,
    Musicians, food industries, Truck/ bus drivers,
    etc

24
  • MAIN LABOUR ISSUES
  • Privatisation
  • An open market policy to join WTO
  • Unemployment, especially for women and youth
  • Contract labour system
  • Violation of FOA, not recognising independent
    unions

25
Representatives of different trade unions in Iran
26
  • ILO/ACTRAV Activities
  • Realising freedom of association by launching a
    ratification campaign on ILO Con. No.87 and No.98
  • Strengthening the capacity of NLAC
  • Increasing the participation of women in trade
    unions
  • Capacity-building of newly organised trade unions

27
BANGLADESH
  • TRADE UNIONS
  • National Coordination Committee for Workers
    Education (NCCWE) affiliating 16 federations

28
  • MAIN LABOUR ISSUES
  • Job insecurity in the RMG sector after the
    termination of MFA
  • Violation of labour rights
  • Denial of Freedom of association in EPZs
  • Privatisation
  • Out-migration from Bangladesh
  • Universal application of a minimum wage
  • Child labour

29
  • ILO/ACTRAV Activities
  • ? Strengthening the capacity of NCCWE as a
    national union umbrella
  • ? Developing training modules on amended labour
    law
  • Increasing the participation of women in the
    activities and decision-making bodies of trade
    unions
  • ? Organising workers in informal economy
  • social compliance in the garment sector

30
INDIA
  • 1. Trade unions in the formal sector
  • Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS)
  • Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC),
    with an affiliation of ICFTU
  • Hind Mazdoor Sabha (HMS), with an ICFTU
    affiliation
  • All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC), with a
    membership of WFTU
  • Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU)
  • Self-employed Womens Association (SEWA)
  • 2. Trade unions in the informal economy
  • National Centre for Labour (NCL)
  • Working Womens Forum (WWF)

31
  • MAIN LABOUR ISSUES
  • Violation of freedom of association in the public
    sector, textile and garment, and EPZs
  • Lack of social security system for informal
    workers
  • Child labour
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Downgraded working and living standards in tea/
    coffee plantation, rubber, RMG
  • Privatisation in civil aviation, banks and
    insurance, telecom

32
  • ILO/ACTRAV Activities
  • Organising the unorganized workers
  • ? Gender mainstreaming and women empowerment in
    trade union
  • ? Capacity-building of trade unions through the
    middle-level leadership training

33
NEPAL
  • TRADE UNIONS
  • General Federation of Nepalese Trade Unions
    (GEFONT)
  • Nepal Trade Union Congress (NTUC)
  • Democratic Confederation of Nepalese Trade Unions
    (DECONT)
  • All Nepal Federation of Trade Unions (Maoists)
  • Confederation of Nepalese Professionals (CONEP)

34
  • MAIN LABOUR ISSUES
  • Privation in hotel tourism industry and
    financial sector
  • Youth unemployment
  • Non-implementation of collective agreement
  • Poverty and downgraded livelihoods
  • Political uncertainty

35
(No Transcript)
36
  • ILO/ACTRAV Activities
  • establishing comprehensive social security
  • Ratification of ILO convention No.87
  • ? Organising the Informal economy workers
  • ? respect for trade union rights and collective
    bargaining

37
PAKISTAN
  • TRADE UNIONS
  • Pakistan Workers Confederation (PWC)
  • All Pakistan Trade Union Congress (APTUC),
    affiliated to WCL
  • All Pakistan Trade Unions Federation (APTUF),
    affiliated to WFTU
  • Pakistan Trade Unions Federation (PTUF)
  • Pakistan Labour Fedeation (PLF)

38
  • MAIN LABOUR ISSUES
  • Privatisation on electricity, PIA, telecom
  • Violation of ILS (Industrial Relations Ordinance
    2002)
  • Exempting labour inspection in industrial zones
  • OSH issues

39
  • ILO/ACTRAV Activities
  • ? Capacity-building of the Pakistan Workers
    Confederation (PWC) after the merger in Sept. 05
  • Training union office bearers on ILS
  • Increasing the participation and leadership
    development of women in trade unions
  • Organising the informal economy workers
  • Youth employment and poverty reduction

40
SRI LANKA
  • TRADE UNIONS
  • National Association for Trade Union Research and
    Education (NATURE) established in 1998 with
    affiliation of 18 national federations

41
  • MAIN LABOUR ISSUES
  • Violation of freedom of association in EPZs and
    public sector like port and dock
  • Inflation-linked wage negotiation
  • Social costs of migration
  • Unemployment against youth and women

42
  • ILO/ACTRAV Activities
  • ? Strengthening the capacity-building of the
    NATURE
  • Trade union second-level leadership training
  • Organising the Tsunami-affected people through
    vocational training
  • Dispute settlement in the public sector
  • ? Participation of women in the decision-making
    of trade unions

43
THANK YOU
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