Ancient Greek architects strove for the precision and excellence of workmanship that are the hallmarks of Greek art in general. The formulas they invented as early as the sixth century B.C. have influenced the architecture of the past two millennia. The - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ancient Greek architects strove for the precision and excellence of workmanship that are the hallmarks of Greek art in general. The formulas they invented as early as the sixth century B.C. have influenced the architecture of the past two millennia. The

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Title: Ancient Greek architects strove for the precision and excellence of workmanship that are the hallmarks of Greek art in general. The formulas they invented as early as the sixth century B.C. have influenced the architecture of the past two millennia. The


1
Although the ancient Greeks erected buildings of
many types, the Greek temple best exemplifies the
aims and methods of Greek architecture. Although
the ancient Greeks erected buildings of many
types, the Greek temple best exemplifies the aims
and methods of Greek architecture. The temple
typically incorporated an oblong plan, and one or
more rows of columns surrounding all four sides.
The vertical structure of the temple conformed to
an order, a fixed arrangement of forms unified by
principles of symmetry and harmony. There was
usually a pronaos (front porch) and an
opisthodomos (back porch). The upper elements of
the temple were usually made of mudbrick and
timber, and the platform of the building was of
cut masonry. Columns were carved of local stone,
usually limestone or tufa in much earlier
temples, columns would have been made of wood.
Marble was used in many temples, such as the
Parthenon in Athens, which is decorated with
Pentelic marble and marble from the Cycladic
island of Paros. The interior of the Greek temple
characteristically consisted of a cella, the
inner shrine in which stood the cult statue, and
sometimes one or two antechambers, in which were
stored the treasury with votive offerings.
A third order of Greek architecture, known as the
Corinthian, first developed in the late Classical
period, but was more common in the Hellenistic
and Roman periods. Corinthian capitals have a
bell-shaped echinus decorated with acanthus
leaves, spirals, and palmettes. There is also a
pair of small volutes at each corner thus, the
capital provides the same view from all sides.
Ancient Greek Architecture
Ancient Greek architects strove for the
precision and excellence of workmanship that are
the hallmarks of Greek art in general. The
formulas they invented as early as the sixth
century B.C. have influenced the architecture of
the past two millennia. The two principal orders
in Archaic and Classical Greek architecture are
the Doric and the Ionic. A third being the
Corinthian. Although the ancient Greeks
erected buildings of many types, the Greek temple
best exemplifies the aims and methods of Greek
architecture. The temple typically incorporated
an oblong plan, and one or more rows of columns
surrounding all four sides.
The Corinthian capital, an elaborate variation of
the Ionic capital, is decorated with acanthus
leaves (an herbal shrub) and sometimes volutes on
both sides. The story of the Corinthian capital
is that an architect saw a basket that had been
left unattended while an acanthus plant grew up
around it. Pleased by the decorative effect, he
copied it for a capital.
Corinthian
http//faculty.etsu.edu/kortumr/08hellenistic/htmd
escriptionpages/05olympieum.htm
Uncovering the Legacy of Ancient Greece Lesson
plan http//artsedge.kennedy-center.org/content/35
88/
The Corinthian temple came to embody Hellenistic
splendor.  The Corinthian column first appeared
in the Hellenic period, probably as a decorative
feature. Taller and more ornamented than either
the Doric or Ionic column, the Corinthian order
was preferred for the grandiose temples erected
for Hellenistic kings, as manifestation of their
earthly majesty and the authority of whatever
deity with whom they claimed kinship.
http//www.odysseyadventures.ca/articles/greektemp
le/greek_temple.htm
http//www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/arts/architec/
MiddleAgesArchitectural/ClassicalArchitecture/Arch
itectureGreekTemple/ArchitectureGreekTempleStyle.h
tm
The vertical structure of the temple
conformed to an order, a fixed arrangement of
forms unified by principles of symmetry and
harmony.
(Later, the Romans added the Tuscan, a simplified
Doric, and the Composite, combining the Ionic
with the Corinthian.)
http//www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/grarc/hd_grarc.ht
m
2

Just so afterwards, when they desired to
construct a temple to Diana in a new style of
beauty, they translated these footprints into
terms characteristic of the slenderness of women,
and thus first made a column the thickness of
which was only one eighth of its height, so that
it might have a taller look. At the foot they
substituted the base in place of a shoe in the
capital they placed the volutes, hanging down at
the right and left like curly ringlets, and
ornamented its front with cymatia and with
festoons of fruit arranged in place of hair,
while they brought the flutes down the whole
shaft, falling like the folds in the robes worn
by matrons
In the first, the Doric order, the columns
are fluted and have no base. The capitals are
composed of two parts consisting of a flat slab,
the abacus, and a cushion-like slab known as the
echinus. On the capital rests the entablature,
which is made up of three parts the architrave,
the frieze, and the cornice. The architrave is
typically undecorated except for a narrow band to
which are attached pegs, known as guttae. On the
frieze are alternating series of triglyphs (three
bars) and metopes, stone slabs frequently
decorated with relief sculpture. The pediment,
the triangular space enclosed by the gables at
either end of the building, was often adorned
with sculpture, early on in relief and later in
the round.
The Doric order mainly used by the Dorians
(southern Italy and Sicily "Magna Graecia") and
in Athens (Parthenon). Some characteristic
elements are the triglyphs and metopes and the
column capitals ( with the convex echinus and the
square abacus)
A characteristic elements of the Doric order the
Triglyphs and the usually decorated Metopes
The Doric columns are carved with channels called
flutes (usually 20) these channels meet in sharp
ridges (so called arrises) whereas in the Ionic
order they are separated by bands (fillets) and
the flutes are deeper.
Doric
Ionic
In the Ionic order of architecture, bases
support the columns, which have more vertical
flutes than those of the Doric order. Ionic
capitals have two volutes that rest atop a band
of palm-leaf ornaments. The abacus is narrow
and the entablature, unlike that of the Doric
order, usually consists of three simple
horizontal bands. The most important feature of
the Ionic order is the frieze, which is usually
carved with relief sculpture arranged in a
continuous pattern around the building. Ionic
order was more popular among Greeks in Asia Minor
and in the Greek islands.
Wishing to set up columns in that temple, but
not having rules for their symmetry, and being in
search of some way by which they could render
them fit to bear a load and also of a
satisfactory beauty of appearance, they measured
the imprint of a man's foot and compared this
with his height. On finding that, in a man, the
foot was one sixth of the height, they applied
the same principle to the column, and reared the
shaft, including the capital, to a height six
times its thickness at its base. Thus the Doric
column, as used in buildings, began to exhibit
the proportions, strength, and beauty of the body
of a man.
Now only seven columns are standing. The Roman
colonists removed the interior columns to reuse
in the construction of the south-west portico in
the Forum. As they also modified the structure of
cellae, we don't know how the inside was
originally arranged.
ltLocationgt Ancient Corinth Site, Korinthos,
Greece This Doric peristyle temple, constructed
around 550 BC, is one of the oldest standing
temples in Greece.
3
The Parthenon (the epitome of the Doric Order)
Temple of Hera at Selinunte, Sicily
Metopes and Triglyphs of the Hephaistion in the
Athenian Agora.
Columns of the Parthenon showing the entablature
resting on the capitals
Hephaistion in the Athenian Agora
Tumbled column drums at Olympia.
Plan of the Hera Temple.
4
Erechthion, Acropolis Athens
Olympieum.  Athens, late 6th century BC to 130
AD. Corinthian
Ionic capitals of the Erechthion.
http//www.greek-islands.us/athens/acropolis/
Base of a column from the Erechthion.
Corinthian Temple remains
The temple of Zeus at Athens (started in the
2d cent. BC and completed by Emperor Hadrian
in the 2d cent. AD) was perhaps the most
notable of the Corinthian temples.
Example of each of the three Orders.
http//www.the-artfile.com/ArtFile/history/greek/c
olumns.shtml
http//www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Corinthian_order
.aspx
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