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Global Environmental Problems

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Global Environmental ... Third Generation Issues Global in Scale Long-term in Scope Significant Scientific Uncertainty Large Economic Stakes Complex ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Global Environmental Problems


1
Global Environmental Problems
2
International Environmental Politics
  • Environmental policy is about what government
    does and does not do to address environmental
    problems
  • Environmental politics is the clash of values
    interests that occurs in the course of
    formulating and implementing policy
  • What does this suggest about international
    environmental politics and policy?

3
Third Generation Issues
  • Global in Scale
  • Long-term in Scope
  • Significant Scientific Uncertainty
  • Large Economic Stakes
  • Complex Institutional Management

4
Global Environmental Problems
  • Climate Change
  • Ozone Depletion
  • Biodiversity Loss
  • Ocean Exhaustion

5
WHY NOT IMPOSE INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL
REGULATIONS?
  • Sovereignty
  • No Supra-National Authority
  • U.N.
  • World Court

6
Ozone, CFCs, and Montreal
  • Why was it possible to construct an international
  • regime to respond to Ozone Depletion
  • Immediate scope and tangibility of the problem
  • Small set of CFC producers
  • Industry interested in product change
  • Relatively Low Cost to Industry
  • No net economic impact on states
  • Developed-Developing states rift healed by funding

7
Global Climate Fluctuations
8
Kyoto Treaty
  • Treaty Text
  • GHG Emissions Reductions
  • 1990 target year
  • Industrial Countries 5 reduction from 1990
  • emissions levels by 2012
  • US 7
  • European Union 8
  • Japan 6
  • Emissions trading allowed
  • Industrializing Countries voluntary reductions

9
US GHG Problem
  • 90 of US GHG emissions fossil fuel combustion
  • US reduction strategy must involve
  • Energy efficiency/conservation
  • Removing subsides from fossil fuel
    extraction/production
  • ( 100 billion/year)
  • Develop alternative energy sources

10
Policy Problem
  • Convincing the government there is a problem
  • Devising an effective course of action
  • Getting other governments to do likewise

11
Bush CO2 Plan
CO2 MT per million
Year
12
Bush CO2 Plan
CO2 MT per million
Year
13
Bush CO2 Plan
CO2 MT Emissions
Year
14
Biodiversity Loss
  • Continental-Scale Ecosystem Destruction
  • Human Population Growth
  • Economic Development
  • Mining, forestry, agriculture
  • Ebola virus killing off African primates
  • Climate Change

15
Biodiversity Loss
  • Consumptive Use
  • Bio-Homogenization
  • Economic Globalization
  • Alien Invasions
  • Fungus decimating amphibian populations
  • West Nile Virus decimating bird populations
  • Plus dozens of other species
  • Sudden Oak Death Syndrome
  • Wooly Adelgid

16
Ocean Exhaustion
  • Consumption
  • Collapsing Fish Populations
  • collateral damage
  • Leatherback turtles
  • Pollution
  • Eutrophication
  • Dying Coral reefs
  • Toxins, Viruses, Bacteria
  • Sea otter decline
  • Habitat destruction
  • Bottom trawling
  • Coastal wetlands
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