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The Why and How of Differentiated Instruction

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Title: The Why and How of Differentiated Instruction


1
The Why and How ofDifferentiated Instruction
Leading and Learning November 21-22, 2008
2
  • Change is constant in education. What teaching
    practices have you explored in an attempt to
    address the changing needs of your students?

3
Changes in Teaching Practice
4
Workshop Objectives
  • Reflect on the changes in education that impact
    student learning
  • Make connections between where we have been and
    where we are going
  • Explore differentiated instruction as an
    effective teaching practice

5
Shift in Education
  • Curriculum
  • Instruction
  • Assessment

6
Students with Special Needs in Red Deer Public
07/08
  • 440 students with severe special needs
  • 500 students with mild moderate special needs
  • 95 children with severe special needs
  • 56 children with mild-moderate special needs
  • Students with behavior disorders
  • Majority in regular classrooms

7
English as a Second Language
  • 37 500 students in Alberta
  • 1500 new students per month
  • 200 students in RDPSD
  • 35 increase in one year

8
Societal Changes
  • Technology advancement
  • Family structure
  • Economical influences
  • Societal expectations

9
Why examine teaching practice?
  • Increased student diversity
  • Increased awareness that students of same age
    differ in readiness, learning styles, interests,
    etc.
  • Decreased stigmas about being different
  • Decreased exclusion from curriculum, programs and
    activities of the school
  • Increased accountability for student achievement.

10
Learning Result
Teacher
11
Getting students in the zone!
  • Too Easy
  • I get it right away
  • I already know how
  • This is a cinch
  • Im sure to make an A
  • Im coasting
  • I feel relaxed
  • Im bored
  • No big effort
  • On Target
  • I know some things
  • I have to think
  • I have to work
  • I have to persist
  • I hit some walls
  • Im on my toes
  • I have to re-group
  • I feel challenged
  • Effort leads to success
  • Too Hard
  • I dont know where to begin
  • I cant figure it out
  • Im spinning my wheels
  • Im missing key skills
  • I feel frustrated
  • I feel angry
  • This makes no sense
  • Effort doesnt pay off

THIS is the place to be..This is the achievement
zone..
12
Responsive Teaching
What do we want students to know and be able to
do? Curriculum
How will we respond when students are or are
not achieving the objectives? Instruction
How will we know each student has acquired the
intended knowledge and skills? Assessment
13
Curriculum and Instruction A Planning Guide
Adapted from Tomlinson 05
14
Plan questions
Identify what achievement looks like prior to
teaching
Provide specific, descriptive feedback to promote
next steps in learning
Assessment
Adjust teaching based on assessment evidence
Use Exemplars
Involve students in peer and self assessments
15
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16
Differentiation
Is a teacher's response to learners need
Respectful tasks
Continual assessment
Flexible grouping
  • Interesting
  • Engaging
  • Challenging
  • In the ZONE

Preassessment
Graffiti
Four Corners
Jigsaw
Rally Table
Formative
Round Robin
Place Mat
Gallery Walk
Summative Assessment
Think, write, pair, share
Think Pair Share
17
  • Process

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21
Product
According to students
Readiness
Interests
Learning Profile
Environment
Carol Ann Tomlinson (2006)
22
Teaching according to
INTEREST
LEARNING PROFILE
ENVIRONMENT
READINESS
  • Interest Surveys
  • Interest Centers
  • Self-Selection
  • Still/Active
  • Flexible/Fixed
  • Warm/Cool
  • Quiet/Noisy
  • Many Displays/
  • Few Displays
  • Areas of Strength
  • and Weakness
  • Work Preferences
  • Self Awareness

Content Knowledge
Skills
Concepts
23
Product
According to students
Readiness
Interests
Learning Profile
Environment
Carol Ann Tomlinson (2006)
24
Time is a factor!
Grading Meetings Teaching Recess Duty
Report Cards Phone Calls
Conferences Planning
25
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26
LO-PREP Tools are Your Solution!
27
Quick Assessments
  • Fist of 5
  • Hardest First
  • Continuum Line
  • Four Corners
  • Graphic Organizers
  • Cards
  • Voting Techniques

28
Windshield Check
  • Clear I get it!
  • Bugs I get it for the most part, but I still
    have a few questions.
  • Mud- I still dont get it.

29
Directions Complete the chart to show what you
know about Voice. Write as much as you can.

Definition
Words that come to mind
Writing with Voice
Non-Examples
Examples
Useful for Pre - Assessment
30
Picture
Words
Voice
31
Knowledge Rating Chart
  • Ive never heard of this before
  • Ive heard of this, but I am not sure how it
    works
  • I know about this and how to use
  • ____ Direct Object
  • ____ Direct Object Pronoun
  • ____ Indirect Object
  • ____ Indirect Object Pronoun
  • ____ Object of Preposition
  • ____ Adjective
  • ____ Interrogative Adjective

Example of Pre-assessment Readiness
32
Questions
33
Cubing Generic Cubes
Who
Compose
When
Where
Why
How
Create
34
My Family in the Past and Present Cube
35
Leveled Writing Prompts
  • Our school is considering having longer class
    periods. Do you believe this is a good idea? Why
    or why not?
  • As Canadians, we enjoy many freedoms. Which
    freedom do you believe is the most important?
    Why?
  • People have many choices of what to do during
    free time. What is your favorite thing to do
    during free time, and why is the best choice?

36
Leveled Questions with Reading
  • What were your feelings after reading the opening
    chapter(s) of this book?
  • Return to a place in the story that you loved,
    hated, or questioned. How did this event change
    the way you looked at the story?
  • What was the author trying to say
  • about life and living through this novel?

37
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39
Exit Cards Decimals and Fractions
  • Name___________
  • How is a decimal like a fraction?
  • How are they different?
  • Whats a light bulb moment for you as youve
    thought about fractions and decimals?

40
Student Survey
  • At school, I like _____________________
  • Because___________________________
  • I do not like_________________________
  • Because___________________________
  • If I have free time, I prefer to __________ or
    _____________.
  • My favorite thing to read is_____________.

Carolyn Chapman / Rita King 2005
41
Student Survey
  • Name ________ Date_________
  • Answer the following questions with either a yes
    or no answer or fill in the blank.
  • Yes NO
  • I like to read. 4 3 2 1
  • I like to make up songs. 4 3 2
    1
  • I am challenged by things that are difficult to
    do. 4 3 2 1
  • Taking things apart and reassembling
    4 3 2 1
  • them intrigues me.
  • I like to play outside.
    4 3 2
    1
  • I prefer to work by myself.
    4 3 2 1
  • I enjoy working with others. 4 3 2 1
  • I like to draw my own pictures. 4 3 2
    1
  • I like school. 4 3 2 1

Carolyn Chapman / Rita King 2005
42
Interest Inventory
  • What is your favorite activity or subject at
    school? Why? Your least favorite? Why?
  • What are your best subjects What makes them
    easiest for you?
  • What subjects are difficult for you? What makes
    them the hardest?
  • What subject make you think and work the hardest?
    Why is it the most challenging?
  • What are your favorite games or sports?
  • If you could learn about anything you wanted to,
    what would you choose to learn about?

Diane Heacox, 2002
43
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45
Other LO-PREP Tools
  • Flexible groups
  • Varied materials
  • Open-ended activities
  • Jigsaw
  • Digital Images
  • Interactive Websites
  • Online reading

46
Collaborate to add one high-prep per term
  • Cubing
  • Learning contracts
  • Varying organizers
  • Tiered activities
  • Choice boards
  • Literature circles
  • Learning stations

47
Cubing Multiple Cubes
Compose
Create
48
Poetry Contract
49
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50
Planning Tiered Assignments
Concept to be Understood OR Skill to be Mastered
Create on-level task first then adjust up and
down.
Below-Level Task
On-Level Task
Above-Level Task
Adjusting the Task
51
Graphing and Measuring Student Choices
  • Find a friend measure the length and width of
    the classroom. Draw onto paper in centimeters.
  • Work at the Graphing Centre to complete 2
    activities. Place into your Math folder when
    done.
  • Measure your height, the height of 2 friends and
    the height of an adult. Rank order from smallest
    to tallest.

52
Writing BingoTry for one more BINGO this month.
Be sure to use your writing goals and our class
rubric to guide your work.

Recipe
Directions to one place to another
Thank- you Note
Rules for a game
Letter to the editor
Email request for Information
Invitation
Letter to a pen pal, friend or relative
Skit or scene
Interview
FREE YOUR Choice
Newspaper Article
Schedule for your work
Short Story
Grocery or shopping list
Advertisement
Cartoon Strip
Instructions
Greeting Card
Poem
Proposal to Improve Something
Letter to Your Teacher
Design a web page
Journal for a Week
Book Think Aloud
53
Interest-Based Assignment
  • Select a person in one of the folders and write a
    composition describing that person as thoroughly
    as you can,

Athletes
Scientists
Authors
Musicians
Artists
Political Leaders
Film Stars
54
Product
According to students
Readiness
Interests
Learning Profile
Environment
Carol Ann Tomlinson (2006)
55
Set a Goal!
  • It is perfectly acceptable to take small steps
  • AS LONG AS WE ARE
  • STEPPING
  • FORWARD!

56
  • If you want to feel safe and secure, continue to
    do what you have always done. If you want to
    grow, go to the cutting edge of our profession.
    Just know that when you do, there will be a
    temporary loss of sanity. So know when you dont
    quite know what you are doing, you are probably
    growing.
  • Madeline Hunter

57
Give Yourself a Hand
You deserve it. Teachers ROCK!
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