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Chordates, Fishes,

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Chordates, Fishes, & Amphibian Notes Chapter 30 & 31 Biology I. Chordates A. Characteristics of Chordates: a. hollow nerve cord (dorsal back) b. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chordates, Fishes,


1
Chordates, Fishes, Amphibian Notes
  • Chapter 30 31
  • Biology

2
I. Chordates
  • A. Characteristics of Chordates
  • a. hollow nerve cord (dorsal back)
  • b. notochord long supporting rod that runs
    through the body below the nerve cord becomes
    the backbone in some animals
  • c. pharyngeal pouches structure near mouth
    some form gills
  • d. a tail

3
II. Nonvertebrate Chordates
  • Tunicates
  • Soft bodied live in ocean
  • Filter feeders
  • sea squirts
  • Lancelets
  • a. small, fishlike
  • b. live with body half buried in ocean sand
  • c. gill slits for breathing

4
Tunicate Anatomy
ADULT
LARVA
5
Lancelet Anatomy
6
III. Vertebrate Chordates
  • Fish (fish are most diverse chordate group)
  • Groups of fishes
  • 1. Jawless Fish no true teeth or jaws
  • -Most are extinct!
  • 2. Sharks skeleton made of cartilage, not bone
    (ex sharks, rays, skates)
  • 3. Bony Fishes skeleton made of calcified bone

7
b. General Characteristics of All Fish
  • Live in water
  • Have paired fins
  • Have scales
  • All modes of feeding
  • Digestion pathway
  • Mouth ? esophagus ? stomach ? pyloric ceca ? anus
  • Liver pancreas secrete enzymes into digestive
    system that helps break down food
  • Respiration gills

8
Characteristics cont
  • 8. Circulation closed heart pumps in a single
    loop
  • i. Flow of blood (?? gills ? rest of body ? ?)
  • ii. The heart contains an
  • atrium collects blood
  • ventricle pumps blood to body
  • 9. Excretion kidneys remove wastes control
    amt. of water in the body
  • 10. Movement paired sets of muscles
  • i. Swim bladder gas filled organ that controls
    position in water (buoyancy)

9
Vertebrate Chordates
10
Characteristics cont
  • 11. Response well developed
  • i. Brain contains
  • cerebrum voluntary activities
  • cerebellum coordinates body movements
  • medulla oblongata controls internal
    organs
  • 12. Reproduction eggs fertilized externally or
    internally

11
B. Amphibians (double life live in water on
land)
  • Groups of amphibians
  • 1. Frogs
  • 2. Salamanders
  • b. General Characteristics
  • 1. Live in water when young (tadpoles)
  • 2. Live on land as adult
  • 3. Moist skin with mucous gland
  • 4. No scales or claws

12
Amphibian Characteristics cont
  • 5. Respiration
  • i. Young gills breathe through skin
  • ii. Adults have lungs some through skin
  • 6. Circulation
  • i. Closed
  • ii. Double loop
  • iii. 3 chambers (left right atria a
    ventricle)

L. Atrium
R. Atrium
Lungs
Lungs
Ventricle
13
Amphibians cont
  • 7. Excretion
  • i. kidneys
  • ii. ureters
  • iii. urinary bladder
  • iv. cloaca
  • v. outside
  • 8. Reproduction
  • i. external fertilization
  • ii. eggs without shells dry out if not in
    water

Adults become sexually mature in 1-2 yrs.
Hatch within days to weeks after laid
Jelly makes eggs difficult to grasp by predators
14
Amphibians cont
  • 9. Response well developed, similar to fish
  • i. Nictitating membrane clear membrane that
    covers eyes
  • ii. Tympanic membrane eardrums (respond to
    sound)
  • 10. Niche live near water warm, moist places
    some poisonous declining population)

A frog's eyes ears are among its most important
sensory organs. Transparent eyelids called
nictitating membranes protect the eyes underwater
and keep them moist in air. Tympanic membranes
receive sound vibrations from air as well as
water.
15
C. Reptiles
  • a. Groups of reptiles
  • 1. Lizards
  • 2. Snakes
  • 3. Crocodiles
  • 4. Turtles Tortoises
  • b. General Characteristics of Reptiles
  • 1. Dry, rough scaly skin
  • 2. Lungs
  • 3. Terrestrial (land) eggs with several
    membranes (Amniotic egg)
  • 4. Dinosaurs were reptiles??

16
Reptiles cont
  • 5. Temperature control
  • i. Ectotherms depend on outside and behaviors
    to control body temperature
  • 6. Carnivores
  • 7. Respiration 2 spongy lungs with muscles
    around rib cage
  • 8. Circulation double loop 4 chambers (2
    atria and 2 ventricles)
  • See page 801 in text

The gaboon viper, like all snakes, is entirely
carnivorous. It eats mice and other small mammals
by stretching its jaws wide and swallowing its
prey whole.
17
Reptiles cont
  • 9. Excretion produce urine conserve water by
    absorbing before urination
  • 10. Response well developed
  • 11. Movement well developed strong muscles to
    run or walk
  • 12. Reproduction internal fertilization eggs
    develop outside female body
  • 13. Niche many habitats are being destroyed

18
Shell ? protection Embryo ? developing
reptile Amnion ? cushions embryo produces a
protected, watery environment Allantois ? stores
waste produced by embryo Chorion ? regulates O2
CO2 transport Yolk Sac ? food source for embryo
After a female box turtle digs a hole in the
ground for her nest, she lays her eggs, dropping
them one by one and gently lowering them into the
hole with her hind feet. When she finishes, she
will cover up her nest and leave without ever
looking back.
19
D. Birds
  • a. Groups of birds (many species!)
  • 1. Birds of prey hawks eagles
  • 2. Parrots
  • 3. Ostriches
  • 4. Perching birds songbirds (most common
    gt5,000 species)
  • 5. Pelicans

20
b. General Characteristics of Birds
  • 1. Reptile - like
  • 2. Endothermic control body temperature
    internally
  • 3. Outer covering of feathers vary in
    structure function
  • 4. Front limbs are wings
  • 5. Legs with scales
  • 6. Strong lightweight bones with air spaces

21
Birds cont
  • 7. Digestion pathway (mouth? crop? gizzard?
    stomach ? small intestine ? cloaca)
  • 8. Respiration air sacs and lungs
  • 9. Circulation 4-chambered hearts 2 separate
    loops

Crop
22
Birds cont
  • 10. Excretion similar to reptiles
  • 11. Response well developed complex sense
    organs (ex eyes)
  • 12. Movement fly, walk, /or run
  • 13. Reproduction
  • i. internal fertilization with cloaca
  • ii. amniotic eggs with hard outer shell
  • 14. niche - migration

Compared to reptiles, birds have an enlarged
cerebellum that coordinates the movements of
wings and legs.
23
E. Mammals
  • a. Groups of mammals
  • 1. Monotremes (platypus) Marsupials
    (kangaroo)
  • 2. Placental mammals (Ex rodents, sea lions,
    armadillos, bats, elephant, monkeys, whales,
    humans)
  • i. young develop inside placental mammals
    nutrients wastes gases exchange through
    mothers placenta

24
Mammals cont
  • b. General Characteristics of mammals
  • 1. Mammary glands produce milk for young
  • 2. have hair
  • 3. breathe air
  • 4. 4-chambered hearts
  • 5. Endotherms generates its own body heat

Mammalian Heart All mammals have a four-chambered
heart that pumps blood in two separate circuits
around the body.
25
Mammals cont
  • 6. have fat layer below skin to help control body
    temperature
  • 7. jaws and teeth
  • 8. respiration diaphragm (muscle below lungs)
  • 9. Circulation 4-chambered heart (2 separate
    loops)
  • 10. Excretion kidneys

26
Mammals cont
  • 11. Response most highly developed brains
    large
  • i. cerebral cortex thinking complex
    behaviors
  • ii. highly developed senses

Mammalian Brain Mammals have large brains in
proportion to their body size. Most of the brain
is taken up by an enlarged cerebrum, which
contains a well-developed cerebral cortex.
27
Mammals cont
  • 12. Endocrine glands secrete hormones that
    control body processes
  • 13. Immune system helps fight disease
  • 14. Reproduction
  • i. internal fertilization
  • ii. care for young
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