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Developmental Theories of Learning

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Developmental Theories of Learning Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Outline Overview of Development Piaget s Stages of Development Case s Central Conceptual ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Developmental Theories of Learning


1
Developmental Theories of Learning
  • Dr. K. A. Korb
  • University of Jos

2
Outline
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • Overview of Development
  • Piagets Stages of Development
  • Cases Central Conceptual Structures

3
Jean Piaget
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • Brilliant Swiss
  • PhD in biology
  • Job administering intelligence tests to children
  • Intrigued by childrens mistakes on test
  • Realized errors were systematic and reflective of
    the childs reasoning

4
Assumptions
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • A small number of mental structures are the basis
    for thinking in a variety of domains
  • Children actively construct mental structures
  • The nature of mental structures change as
    children move to a new stage in development
  • Stage Thinking and behavior in variety of
    situations reflect the basic mental structure
  • Within a stage, the mental structures are in a
    state of equilibrium
  • Disequilibrium forces children to change their
    mental structures and enter a new stage of
    development

5
Characteristics of Stages
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • Advancement to a new stage represents a
    qualitative change in thinking
  • Changes are abrupt
  • Progress through stages in culturally invariant
    sequence
  • Each stage includes the cognitive structures and
    abilities of the previous stage
  • Children progress through the stages in exact
    order
  • Individual differences in the rate of passing
    through through stages
  • May not reach highest stage

6
Piagets Stages of Development
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
Age (in years) Key Characteristic
Sensorimotor 0-2 Thinks via senses
Pre-Operational 2-7 Can use mental symbols Thinks unidirectionally Egocentric
Concrete Operations 7-11 Thinks concretely Reversibility
Formal Operations 11 Thinks abstractly
7
SensorimotorStage
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • Sensorimotor Understand the environment from
    physical actions
  • Reflexes become more adaptive as infants learn to
    apply movements to novel situations
  • Behave in goal-directed manner
  • A-not-B error

8
Sensorimotor Stage
  • From 02(3), Laurent evidences a circular
    reaction which will become more definite and will
    constitute the beginning of systematic grasping
    he scratches and tries to grasp, lets go,
    scratches and grasps again, etc. On 02(3) and
    02(6) this can only be observed during feeding.
    Laurent gently scratches his mothers bare
    shoulder. But beginning 02(7), the behavior
    becomes marked in the cradle itself. Laurent
    scratches the sheet which is folded over the
    blankets, then grasps it and holds it a moment,
    then lets it go, scratches it again and
    recommences without interruption.
  • Quoted from Piaget (1936, as cited in Miller,
    2002)

9
Sensorimotor StageObject Permanence
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • Object Permanence Object exists even when one
    cannot sense it
  • Phase 1 If an object disappears, will not search
    for it
  • Phase 2 Only search for object if partially
    hidden or the object is taken while the child was
    engaged
  • Phase 3 A-not-B Error
  • Will search for an object in its first hiding
    spot
  • Phase 4 Continue to search for an object until
    it is found

10
Pre-Operational Stage
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • Children enter the Pre-Operational stage when
    they acquire Object Permanence
  • Reflects the ability to mentally represent
    objects
  • Pre-Operations Use symbols to represent objects
    and events
  • Egocentrism Incomplete differentiation of self
    and the world
  • Difficulty taking another persons points of view
  • Americans are stupid. If I ask them where the
    rue du Mont-blanc is, they cannot tell me.
  • Unidimensionality Focus only on one dimension of
    a problem

11
Pre-Operational Stage
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
12
Concrete Operational Stage
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • Conservation Physical properties of an object
    stay the same despite superficial changes in
    appearance
  • Performance on the conservation tasks reflects
    the presence or absence of mental operations
  • Mental operation Internalized mental action on
    an object or event

13
Concrete Operational Stage
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • Concrete Operations Perform mental operations on
    concrete objects
  • Children understand
  • Reversibility Operations are reversible and the
    object will keep the same properties despite
    transformations
  • If pour the water back into the original glass,
    there will be the same amount
  • Class inclusion One category can be included in
    another

14
Class Inclusion
  • E What is your nationality?
  • C I am Swiss
  • E How come?
  • C Because I live in Switzerland
  • E Are you also Genevan?
  • C No, that is not possible. I am already Swiss,
    I cannot also be Genevan.
  • Quoted from Miller (2002)

15
Formal Operational Stage
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • Formal operations Mental operations are not
    limited to concrete objects but can also be
    applied to verbal logical statements
  • Children can think abstractly
  • What would have happened if the British had not
    colonized Nigeria?
  • Plan a systematic approach to solving a problem
  • Determine which mixture of five colorless liquids
    produces a yellow color

16
Critique of Piaget
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • Characteristics of Stages
  • Each stage is a qualitative change in cognition
  • Catastrophe Theory Sudden changes in cognition
    may actually represent a gradual progression
  • Progress through stages in culturally invariant
    sequence
  • Not all cultures reach Formal Operations
  • Most adults rarely apply Formal Operations
    thinking
  • Each stage includes the cognitive structures and
    abilities of the previous stage
  • Egocentrism Children asked to describe one
    picture from a group so well that another child
    can select the described picture (Siegler 1986)
  • Many Concrete Operations children fail this task

17
Catastrophe Theory
18
Conclusion of Piaget
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • Contributions of Piaget
  • Children think differently than adults
  • Focus on childrens cognition
  • Main research questions
  • What mental processes cause children to think
    differently than adults?
  • How do children represent their environment?

19
Robbie Case
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • Similar to Piaget
  • Assumption that children develop in stages
  • Develop more sophisticated mental structures in
    each stage
  • Different from Piaget
  • Case incorporated elements of Information
    Processing Theory into the stages

20
Robbie Case
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • Advancement to a new stage is the result of
    increased capacity in working memory
  • Increased efficiency by automatizing processes
  • Brain maturation increases working memory
    capacity
  • Each stage is represented by a different central
    conceptual structure
  • Central Conceptual Structures Mental network of
    concepts used to represent and assign meaning to
    problems
  • Apply within culturally defined domains

21
Central Conceptual StructureNumbers
Predimensional Stage
From Case (1996)
22
Central Conceptual StructureNumbers
Unimensional Stage
From Case (1996)
23
Item 6 years 8 years 10 years
Unidimensional Unidimensional Unidimensional Unidimensional
1 number after 7 1.00 .95 1.00
Count forward .85 1.00 .95
Count backward .85 1.00 1.00
Overall .89 .97 .99
Bidimensional Bidimensional Bidimensional Bidimensional
Four numbers before 60 .30 .70 .90
Which is bigger 69 or 71 .35 .75 .75
How many in between 7 and 9 .25 .75 .90
Overall .28 .66 .86
Integrated Bidimensional Integrated Bidimensional Integrated Bidimensional Integrated Bidimensional
Nine numbers after 999 .15 .25 .50
Which difference is bigger 9 and 6 or 8 and 3? .00 .25 .50
How much is 36-19? .00 .25 .65
Overall .04 .24 .49
From Okamoto Case (1996)
24
Central Conceptual Structures
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • Cases stages
  • Predimensional Two independent schemas of
    quantity
  • Non-numerical, Counting
  • Unidimensional Merged schemas, but represent on
    one dimension
  • Bidimensional Can compare two mental number
    lines together
  • Integrated Bidimensional Generalize
    relationships to entire number system
  • Through development
  • Children consider more elements
  • Elements become more organized into a structure

25
Domains of Thought
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • Numerical Counting and non-numerical
    representation
  • Social Theories of mind and scripts of the
    sequence of events
  • False belief task
  • Spatial Represent a 3D object on paper and
    represent the relative locations of objects

26
From Case, Stephenson, Bleiker, Okamoto (1996)
C
A
B
D
27
Implications for Instruction
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • The learning environment should support the stage
    where the learner is at
  • Interaction with peers fosters cognitive
    development
  • Provide a learning situation in which the child
    experiences disequilibrium

28
Developmental Overview
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • Learning Outcomes More advanced cognitive
    structures that assist in thinking and accurately
    representing the environment
  • Role of the Learner Actively develop cognitive
    structures Experience disequilibrium
  • Role of the Instructor Ask probing questions to
    illustrate the inconsistencies in childrens
    thinking
  • Inputs for Learning Concrete materials to
    manipulate Cognitive conflicts that prompt
    disequilibrium
  • Process of Learning Progression through stages
    of cognitive development

29
Revision
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  • Describe Piagets four stages of cognitive
    development.
  • What teaching modifications should you make for
    each stage?
  • Describe Cases four stages of cognitive
    development.
  • What teaching modifications should you make for
    each stage?
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