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Youth Obesity and Junk Food in School Vending Machines

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Title: Youth Obesity and Junk Food in School Vending Machines


1
Youth Obesity and Junk Food in School Vending
Machines
2
The Scientific Framework
3
The Policy Problem
Background to the Problem
4
Background to the Problem
  • Obesity is a growing problem
  • Obesity can impact future health
  • Obesity can impact academic performance
  • Schools need to be a positive environment for
    children to learn healthy eating habits
  • Vending machines are of particular concern

5
The Policy Problem
6
Policy Problem
  • Senator Ralph Mannis of the Education Committee
    of the New Avery State Senate has hired you to
    evaluate the effectiveness of implementing a
    limited availability policy of junk food on
    cost-effectively combating child obesity and
    improving academic achievement within the schools
    of New Avery

7
Analysts Problem
  • Determine the effectiveness of a limited
    availability junk-food policy in school vending
    machines in terms of reducing obesity and
    improving academic performance.

Note Had to define what you meant by limited
availability policy because it determined the
direction of your research and conclusions you
came to in the study Banning ? Time limits ?
Location ? Type of foods, etc.
8
Analysts Problem
  • Examining the effectiveness of alternative
    policies to achieve the same goals
  • Identify costs and benefits of proposed policy
    (no cost-benefit analysis)
  • Identify the costs and benefits of alternative
    policies
  • Identify implementation problems, externalities
    and offsetting behavior related to the proposed
    policy

9
Step 2 Background Information
10
  • Legislative History
  • You must discuss all state and federal programs,
    bills, and laws on this issue, and identify the
    current state of policy in this area
  • Federal legislation
  • State legislation
  • Supreme Court cases

11
Federal Legislation
  • Federal
  • National School Lunch/Breakfast Program
  • 2006/2007 FMNVs
  • State describe types of programs at state level
  • 27 states ban soft drinks
  • 12 states nutritional standards
  • CA strictest ban on sodas and trans fat
  • Court
  • National Soft Drink Association v. Block
  • USDA no jurisdiction over non-cafeteria food

12
  • Political Environment
  • Identify the policys expanders and
    detractors and describe their positions on the
    policy on all dimensions

13
Proponents
  • Had to identify by name organized groups for the
    policy
  • ADA, CDC, USDA, CSPI, Action for Healthy Kids
  • Had to clearly articulate why they support the
    policy
  • School environment FMNV vending

14
Opponents
  • Had to identify by name organized groups against
    the policy
  • American Beverage Association, Snack Food
    Association, American Advertising Federation
  • School administrators
  • Had to clearly articulate why they oppose the
    policy
  • Loss of profits
  • Dont believe snack foods are to blame
  • Freedom of choice

15
Step 3 Research Design
16
Research Design
  • Objectives and Methods
  • More detailed than analysts problem
  • Frames all questions to be addressed in your
    research in a logical order
  • Description of data with the specific sources
    that you will be using to answer that objective

17
Methods
  • How will the data be presented?
  • What comparisons will be made?
  • What evaluative criteria will be used to decide?

18
Central Questions
  • What causes obesity?
  • Whats the relationship between obesity and
    academic performance?
  • Will the policy reduce obesity levels?
  • Are there alternative school-based policies that
    will reduce obesity more efficiently and with
    better results?
  • How feasible is the policy to implement?
  • Will the policy cause externalities and
    offsetting behaviors that will undermine the
    policys effectiveness?
  • How much will the policy cost to implement?
  • Will the policy have strong positive
    externalities in later life or for other
    individuals other than school children?

19
Step 4 Results and Analysis
20
Cautions
  • Need to focus on obesity, not healthier life
    styles
  • Need more than one study to answer each question
  • Restrict investigation to school-based
    interventions
  • Have to look at effectiveness at the individual
    school (school district) level, not at the state
    level
  • Before/after studies measuring BMI are best
    (Arkansas)
  • Disclaimer - consumption changes do not
    necessarily equal obesity changes
  • Causes of obesity are complex and caloric intake
    is one of many factors causing obesity

21
Cautions
  • Discussion of your results must sensibly follow
    your formulated research objectives and in
    order.
  • Your must present research results, not simply a
    literature review.
  • Must describe studies you are using.
  • Must present results of the studies and note
    study limitations.

22
Results
  • Obesity
  • Obesity has many causes FMNV play only a small
    part physical education plays a bigger role
    strongest predictor is socioeconomic status
  • Connection between obesity and educational
    performance - correlation, not causal. No
    evidence of FMNV directly impacting academic
    performance
  • General improvement in diet better academic
    performance

23
Results
  • Changes in vending machine policy
  • Some evidence of very small changes in obesity in
    before/after studies
  • Strong evidence for changes in consumption habits
    of kids (obese and non-obese)
  • Healthier options healthier choices
  • Limited access fewer FMNV consumed
  • Especially for sugared sodas

24
Alternative Policies
25
Alternative Policies
  • Changing content of vending machines
  • Changes choice set, may be expensive
  • Nutritional education
  • Limited effectiveness, expensive
  • Price changes
  • Changes consumption patterns, inexpensive
  • Physical education
  • Strongest impact, expensive
  • Multiple-pronged strategies work best

26
Costs and Benefits
27
Costs
  • Direct costs
  • Depends on how you chose to define limited
    availability
  • Vending machine contracts school revenue
  • Indirect costs
  • Reduced choice
  • Forced consumption change

28
Benefits
  • Direct benefits
  • Lessening of obesity?
  • Healthier foods choice patterns
  • Indirect benefits
  • Improvements in general health
  • Better behavior and concentration
  • Possible spillover effects to home environment
  • Potential long-term health benefits and reduced
    health care costs

29
Policy Externalities
  • Unanticipated or unintended consequences of your
    policy
  • Identify both and externalities
  • This section had to be researched and citations
    provided

30
Policy Externalities and Implementation Problems
31
Externalities
  • Positive
  • Spillover effects to home environment of better
    eating habits
  • Increase in school revenue (depending on policy
    definition)

32
Externalities
  • Negative
  • Revenue loss (depending on policy definition)
  • Loss of extracurricular vending machine funded
    programs (depending on policy definition)
  • Offsetting behavior by kids
  • Bring foods to school
  • Go off campus to eat foods
  • Over consume other healthier foods
  • Exercise less

33
Implementation problems
  • Termination of vending contracts (depending on
    policy definition)
  • Withstanding strong snack food industry lobby
  • Monitoring policy at the school level

34
Step 5 Conclusions
35
Conclusions
  • Must logically follow from your results and
    analysis of the data

36
Step 6 Recommendations
37
Recommendations
  • Must follow logically from your conclusions with
    some new insights and personal thoughts.

38
Short Policy Paper Grades
39
Short Policy Paper Grade Distribution
Mean
Frequency
Short Policy Paper Grade
Mean 89 Median 90 Minimum 54 Maximum 97
40
PAM 2300 Exam I
  • Examination Statistics

41
Grade Distribution
42
Exam I Statistics
  • N 82 students took regular test
  • Curve 15 points
  • Mean Score 86.04
  • Median Score 87.82
  • High Score 100
  • Low Score 36.58

43
Prelim 1 Results
3C 84.15
2 77.07
7B 74.27
3B 62.6
8A 51.52
3D 45.98
4C 43.98
4A 40.49
4F 37.8
4D 37.56
6C 34.51
4G 32.32
4B 30.49
9D 28.66
9C 27.74
8B 27.74
5B 25.61
9B 19.51
6B 19.15
6A 15.85
7A 15.85
3A 15.24
1D 14.27
5A 12.8
7C 10.98
8C 8.54
1C 5.98
1B 4.02
9A 3.66
1A 3.41
4E 0
Harder Questions 7B 1 student answered
correctly 3C 8 students answered correctly 2
10 students answered correctly 3D 12 students
answered correctly 8A 14 students answered
correctly 1A 1 student received no points 4E No
one answered incorrectly Harder
Questions Totaled 80 points or 22.2
Harder Questions
Easier Questions
Curve 15 or 54 points of the total 360 points
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