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History of Christianity

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... and the Christian church has been officially divided into West ... He had experienced a personal conversion to the doctrine of justification by faith ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of Christianity


1
History of Christianity
2
  • Christian history begins with Jesus of Nazareth,
    a Jew who was born in a small corner of the Roman
    Empire.
  • Little is known of his early life, but around the
    age of 30, Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist
    and had a vision in which he received the
    blessing of God.

3
  • After this event, he began a ministry of
    teaching, healing, and miracle-working. He spoke
    of the "kingdom of God," condemned religious
    hypocrites and interpreted the Mosaic law in new
    ways.

4
  • He spoke before crowds of people, but also chose
    12 disciples whom he taught privately. They
    eagerly followed him, believing him to be the
    long-awaited Messiah who would usher in the
    kingdom of God on earth.

5
  • After just a few years, however, opposition
    mounted against Jesus, and he was ultimately
    executed by crucifixion by the Romans.

6
  • Most of Jesus' followers scattered, dismayed at
    such an unexpected outcome.
  • But three days later, women who went to anoint
    his body reported that the tomb was empty and an
    angel told them Jesus had risen from the dead.
  • The disciples were initially sceptical, but later
    came to believe. They reported that Jesus
    appeared to them on several occasions and then
    ascended into heaven before their eyes.

7
  • The remainder of the first century AD saw the
    number of Jesus' followers, who were soon called
    "Christians," grow rapidly.
  • Instrumental in the spread of Christianity was a
    man named Paul, a zealous Jew who had persecuted
    Christians, then converted to the faith after
    experiencing a vision of the risen Jesus.

8
  • Taking advantage of the extensive system of
    Roman roads and the time of peace, Paul went on
    numerous missionary journeys throughout the Roman
    Empire. He started churches, then wrote letters
    back to them to offer further counsel and
    encouragement. Many of these letters would become
    part of the Christian scriptures, the New
    Testament."

9
  • In the second and third centuries AD, Christians
    struggled with persecution from outside the
    church and doctrinal debates from within the
    church.

10
  • Christian leaders, who are now called the
    "church fathers," wrote defences of the false
    claims made against Christians (apologetics) as
    well as arguments against false teachings
    spreading within the church (polemics).
  • Doctrines were explored, developed, and
    solidified, the canon of the New Testament was
    formed, and the notion of "apostolic succession"
    established a system of authority to guard
    against wrong interpretations of Christian
    teachings.

11
  • A major turning point in Christian history came
    in the early 4th century AD, when the Roman
    Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity.

12
The Christian religion became legal, persecution
ceased, and thousands of pagans now found it
convenient to convert to the emperor's faith.
  • Allied with the Roman Empire, Christianity
    gradually rose in power and hierarchy until it
    became the "Christendom" that would encompass the
    entire western world in the Middle Ages and
    Renaissance.

13
  • Emperor Constantine hoped Christianity would be
    the uniting force of his empire.
  • However, there were still disputes over the
    nature of Jesus. God or less than God but more
    than Man.

14
  • In 325 AD, Constantine called the Council of
    Nicea so that the bishops could work out their
    differences. They declared the Son (Christ) to be
    of "one substance" with the Father.

The Nicene Creed
We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty,
maker of heaven and earth, of all that is, seen
and unseen.  We believe in one Lord, Jesus
Christ, the only Son of God, eternally begotten
of the Father, God from God, light from light,
true God from true God, begotten, not made, of
one Being with the Father through him all
things were made. For us and for our salvation
he came down from heaven, was incarnate of the
Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary and became truly
human.  
For our sake he was crucified under Pontius
Pilate he suffered death and was buried. On
the third day he rose again in accordance with
the Scriptures he ascended into heaven and is
seated at the right hand of the Father. He will
come again in glory to judge the living and the
dead, and his kingdom will have no end.  We
believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver
of life, who proceeds from the Father and the
Son, who with the Father and the Son is
worshiped and glorified, who has spoken through
the prophets. We believe in one holy catholic
and apostolic Church. We acknowledge one baptism
for the forgiveness of sins. We look for the
resurrection of the dead, and the life of the
world to come. Amen.
15
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16
  • In the meantime, the considerable religious,
    cultural, and political differences between the
    Eastern and Western churches were becoming
    increasingly apparent.
  • Religiously, the two parts of Christendom had
    different views on topics such as the use of
    icons, the nature of the Holy Spirit, and the
    date on which Easter should be celebrated.

17
  • Culturally, the Greek East has always tended to
    be more philosophical and abstract in its
    thinking, while the Latin West tended toward a
    more pragmatic and legal-minded approach.
  • The political aspects of the split began with the
    Emperor Constantine, who moved the capital of the
    Roman Empire from Rome to Constantinople (in
    modern Turkey). Upon his death, the empire was
    divided between his two sons, one of whom ruled
    the western half of the empire from Rome while
    the other ruled the eastern region from
    Constantinople.

18
  • These various factors finally came to a head in
    1054 AD, when Pope Leo IX excommunicated the
    patriarch of Constantinople, the leader of the
    Eastern church. The Patriarch condemned the Pope
    in return, and the Christian church has been
    officially divided into West (Roman Catholic")
    and East (Greek Orthodox") ever since.

19
  • In the 1400s, some western Christians began to
    publicly challenge aspects of the church.
  • They spoke against the abuse of authority and
    corruption in Christian leadership. They called
    for a return to the gospel and a stripping off of
    traditions and customs like purgatory, the cult
    of the saints and relics, and the withholding of
    the communion wine from non-clergy.
  • They began to translate the Bible - then
    available only in Latin - into the common
    languages of the people.

20
  • However, these early reformers did not have
    widespread success, and most were executed for
    their teachings. Legend has it that when Jan Hus,
    a Czech reformer whose surname means "goose," was
    burned at the stake in 1415, he called out
    "Today you roast a goose, but in 100 years, a
    swan will sing!"

21
  • In 1517, a German monk named Martin Luther (who
    bore little resemblance to a swan) posted 97
    complaints against the practice of selling
    indulgences on a church door.
  • He had experienced a personal conversion to the
    doctrine of justification by faith alone, and
    also shared many of the ideas of those early
    reformers.

22
  • Growing German nationalism and the invention of
    the printing press ensured that Luther would have
    greater protection than his predecessors and his
    teachings would be spread quickly.
  • He was excommunicated and barely escaped with
    his life on more than one occasion, but Luther
    lived out his life spreading the Reformation, and
    died a natural death.

23
  • His ideas had already spread throughout Germany,
    and similar reforming movements sprung up in
    England and Switzerland. Soon much of Europe was
    embroiled in a civil war, with Protestant
    nationalists fighting Catholic imperialists for
    religious and political freedom.

24
  • In the 17th century, Christians of many
    ideologies embarked on the hazardous journey
    across the Atlantic, to the promise of religious
    freedom and economic prosperity in the New World.
  • Quakers came to Pennsylvania, Catholics to
    Maryland, and Dutch Reformed to New York. Later
    came Swedish Lutherans and French Huguenots,
    English Baptists and Scottish Presbyterians.
  • With the exception of some Puritan communities,
    there was no attempt to impose religious
    uniformity in America.

25
  • Today, Christianity is the largest world
    religion, with about 2 billion adherents. It is
    the majority religion of Europe and the Americas,
    and there are churches in almost every nation in
    the world.
  • There are perhaps thousands of Christian
    denominations, all of whom believe in the basic
    doctrines established at the Council of Nicea but
    differ in other matters of doctrine and practice.
    In recent years, there has been a growing
    movement among these denominations to work
    together in unity for the good of the world. In
    1948, the World Council of Churches was founded
    to that end.

26
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