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Classroom Instruction that Works

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Prekindergarten, as a separate program, does not currently exist in Florida. ... program was funded annually with approximately $100 million in lottery dollars. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classroom Instruction that Works


1
Classroom Instruction that Works
  • Relevant Research for Every Classroom

2
Classroom Instruction that Works
  • Overview (Lynn)
  • What knowledge will students be learning? (Mark)
  • What will be done to help student acquire and
    integrate knowledge? (Lynn)
  • Overall Impact (Lori)
  • Graphic Organizers (Mark)
  • What will be done to help student practice,
    review and apply this knowledge? (Mark)
  • How will you know? (Lynn)

3
Purposes
  • Provide an overview of the nine instructional
    strategies that research says are proven to be
    effective
  • Give examples of how these strategies can be
    incorporated into classrooms

4
Resources References
  • What Works in Schools Translating Research into
    Action Marzano (2003)
  • Classroom Instruction that Works Research Based
    Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement
    Marzano, Pickering, Pollock (2001)

5
Reflect
  • To what extent does research guide instructional
    practice at your school?

6
Current trends
  • Educators are at a special place in time. The
    art of teaching is rapidly becoming the
    science of teaching.
  • Up until 30 years ago, teaching hadnt been
    systematically studied.
  • In the 70s researchers began to look at the
    effects of instruction on student learning.

7
Factors affecting student achievement
Leadership
8
The research
  • Meta-analyses research combined the results from
    many studies to determine the average effect of a
    given technique.
  • Classroom Instruction that Works identifies those
    instructional strategies that have a high
    probability of enhancing student achievement.

9
Where to begin Planning Targets of Learning
  • 4 questions to address
  • What knowledge will students be learning?
  • What will be done to help students acquire and
    integrate knowledge?
  • What will be done to help students practice,
    review, and apply this knowledge?
  • How will you know if students have learned this
    knowledge?

10
The effects
11
Targets of Learning The Nine Strategies
  • What knowledge will the student be learning?
  • Setting Objectives Providing Feedback
  • What will be done to help students acquire
    integrate knowledge?
  • Questions, Cues, Advance Organizers
  • Using Non-linguistic representation
  • Summarizing Note-taking
  • What will be done to help students practice,
    review, and apply this knowledge?
  • Identify Similarities and Differences
  • Generating Testing Hypotheses
  • How will you know if students have learned this
    knowledge?

Cooperative Learning, Homework and Practice, and
Reinforcing Effort
12
Setting Objectives Providing Feedback
  • When planning for instruction, there are
  • two categories of knowledge to consider
  • Information
  • Skills and Processes

13
Setting Objectives Providing Feedback
  • The research base suggests
  • That objectives are posted for students
    (kid-friendly)
  • The use of essential questions
  • That students need to know where they are going
    instructionally (goal setting)
  • Front loading a lesson provides a 28 gain in
    knowledge

14
Setting Objectives Providing Feedback
  • The research base suggests
  • Instructional goals narrow what students focus on
  • Students should personalize the teachers goals
    to become their own (Personal Learning Goals)
  • Feedback must be effective, timely, specific, and
    the students own

15
Setting Objectives Providing Feedback
  • Significant findings -
  • Correcting papers and giving them back has no
    impact on student achievement
  • Simply telling students answers are
  • right/wrong actually has a negative
  • effect on achievement (-3).

16
Setting Objectives Providing Feedback
  • The research base suggests
  • Students desire
  • rapid response on tests and quizzes
  • immediate feedback
  • an example of an excellent answer
  • the ability to make revisions on their work

17
Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers
  • Questions, cues, and advance organizers let
    students know what they are about to learn.
  • By focusing on key points, students know what to
    look for in the learning.
  • Advance organizers help students find patterns
    and make important connections in the learning.

18
Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers
  • Cues and questions should focus on what is
    important as opposed to what is unusual
  • Higher level questions produce deeper learning
    than lower level questions.
  • Waiting briefly before accepting responses from
    students has the effect of increasing the depth
    of students answers

19
Non-linguistic Representations
  • Non-linguistic representations help students
    acquire and integrate knowledge in various forms
  • Graphic Organizers
  • Pictographs
  • Mental Images
  • Physical Representations
  • Kinesthetic Representations

20
Summarizing and Note-Taking
  • Choose to teach these two skills
  • Explicitly
  • Summarizing
  • We teach students to delete some information,
    substitute some information, and keep
    some information

21
Summarizing Activity PREKINDERGARTEN IN
FLORIDA   Since the proposed constitutional
amendment establishes prekindergarten learning
opportunities for every four-year-old, it is
important to review the major statutory
requirements that were in place for
prekindergarten programs. The statutory
requirements were contained in s. 230.2305,
Florida Statutes (2000).   Prekindergarten, as a
separate program, does not currently exist in
Florida. It has been incorporated into the
School Readiness Program which encompasses most
early education and child care programs.
However, it is useful to examine prekindergarten
as it existed before its repeal. From its
inception in 1986 to its repeal effective January
1, 2002, the prekindergarten early intervention
program was a discretionary program for three and
four-year-old children administered by local
school districts on school sites or through
contracted programs. Each public school district
was required to make reasonable efforts to
accommodate the needs of children for extended
day and extended year services without
compromising the quality of the six-hour, 180-day
prekindergarten program. Before its repeal, the
prekindergarten program was funded annually with
approximately 100 million in lottery dollars.
  Eligibility Requirements   At least 75 percent
of the children served by the prekindergarten
program must have been economically disadvantaged
four-year-old children of working parents,
including migrant children or children whose
parents participated in the welfare transition
program. Up to 25 percent of the total number of
children served could include three and
four-year-old children who were abused,
neglected, disabled, at-risk of school failure,
or from migrant families. After these groups
were served, families who were not economically
disadvantaged could pay a fee for their child to
attend a prekindergarten program.   An
"economically disadvantaged" child was defined as
a child eligible to participate in the free lunch
program. Regardless of any change in a family's
economic status or in the federal eligibility
requirements for free lunch, a child who met the
eligibility requirements were eligible until the
child reached kindergarten age.   The statute
also established a staff to child ratio of at
least 1 adult to 10 children. The ratio could be
increased up to a maximum of 1 adult to 15
children upon approval of a waiver from the
Commissioner of Education. When individual
classrooms were staffed by teachers, those
teachers must have been certified in the
appropriate field. Individual classrooms that
were staffed by noncertified teachers must have
been overseen by a certified teacher. Such
classrooms must have been staffed by at least one
person who had a child development associate
credential (CDA) or an associate in science
degree in early childhood education.
22
Summarizing and Note-Taking
  • Note-Taking - the research base suggests
  • -Verbatim note-taking is, perhaps, the
  • least effective way to take notes
  • -Notes should be a work in progress
  • -Notes should be used as study guides
  • for tests
  • -The more notes, the better

23
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  • The research base suggests
  • Not all students realize the importance of
    believing in effort
  • Students can learn to change their beliefs to an
    emphasis on effort
  • Students need to see the relationship between
    effort and achievement

24
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  • The research base suggests
  • They need to know their effort will make a
    difference
  • Recognition is a motivating force that propels
    students to greater effort
  • Recognition can happen at any time, not just when
    a learning target is attained.

25
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  • The research base suggests
  • Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect
    on intrinsic motivation
  • Reward is most effective when it is contingent on
    the attainment of some standard of performance
  • Abstract symbolic recognition is more effective
    than tangible rewards

26
Cooperative Learning
  • The research base suggests
  • That this is a powerful research-based strategy
    that effectively engages students in learning
  • Groups work best if they are not grouped by
    ability (-23)
  • Students put into groups of two show a 6 gain in
    knowledge. When put into groups of three to
    four, there is a 9 gain. Groups of five to
    seven show a loss (-1).

27
Homework and Practice
  • The research base suggests
  • Homework should be used as a form of practice
    designed for application of knowledge
  • Homework for young children should be assigned
    for the purpose of developing study habits and
    involving parental support

28
Homework and Practice
  • The research base suggests
  • Students need to understand the purpose of
    homework and how it is related to knowledge they
    are learning
  • Without practice, little long-term learning
    occurs (24 times of exposure practice for
    learning)

29
Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • The basic thought processes found in identifying
    similarities and differences is found to be basic
    to human thought.
  • Learning is dependent on prior learning therefore
    it is humanly basic to ask, How is this
    different from what I already know?

30
Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Efficient learners develop this
  • habit of mind
  • Select items to compare
  • Select the characteristic you wish to compare the
    items to
  • Explain how the items are similar and different
    in regards to the characteristics

31
Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Effective tools include
  • Venn diagrams
  • Comparison matrix
  • Classifying Activities
  • Concept Maps
  • Graphic Organizers
  • T Charts
  • Pro/Con Grids
  • Metaphors and Analogies

32
Generating and Testing Hypotheses
  • Generating and testing hypotheses requires
    students to reason inductively and deductively.
  • Inductive Facts Generalization
  • Deductive Generalization Facts

33
Generating and Testing Hypotheses
  • Ways to initiate thinking
  • Inductive Reasoning
  • Deductive Reasoning
  • Problem Solving
  • System Analysis
  • Decision Making
  • Historical Investigation
  • Invention

34
Targets of Learning The Nine Strategies
  • What knowledge will the student be learning?
  • Setting Objectives Providing Feedback
  • What will be done to help students acquire
    integrate knowledge?
  • Questions, Cues, Advance Organizers
  • Using Non-linguistic representation
  • Summarizing Note-taking
  • What will be done to help students practice,
    review, and apply this knowledge?
  • Identify Similarities and Differences
  • Generating Testing Hypotheses
  • How will you know if students have learned this
    knowledge?

Cooperative Learning, Homework and Practice, and
Reinforcing Effort
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