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Meeting the Needs of English Learners with Disabilities

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Title: Meeting the Needs of English Learners with Disabilities


1
Meeting the Needs of English Learners with
Disabilities
  • 2010-2011
  • Jarice Butterfield, Ph. D.
  • Santa Barbara County SELPA Director
  • jariceb_at_sbceo.org
  • Website sbcselpa.org

2
Challenges for Educators
  • Far too often, children from diverse
    backgrounds who fall behind in their learning are
    inappropriately labeled as needing special
    education. What they may really need is academic
    support and the opportunity to learn in a
    culturally responsive environment.
  • (Weaver, 2008)

3
Presentation Topics
  • Section 1 - Definition of EL Terms CELDT
    Testing
  • Section 2 - Pre-referral Strategies for English
    Learners
  • Section 3 - Statewide Assessment English
    Learners
  • Section 4 Identification Assessment of
    English Learners Special Education
  • Section 4 IEP Development for English Learners
  • Section 5 Programs Services for English
    Learners in Special Education
  • Section 6 Reclassification of English Learners
  • Section 7 Questions and Answers

4
Definition of English Learner Terms
  • Home Language Survey (HLS)
  • It is a form administered by the school district
    to
  • be completed by the pupil's parent/ guardian at
  • the time of first enrollment in a California
    public
  • school indicating language used in the home.
  • Responses to questions on the HLS determines is
    a student is to be assessed in order to determine
    if he or she an English learner (EL)

5
Definition of English Learner Terms Contd.
  • English Learner (EL)- State law defines an
    English learner as
  • a child who does not speak English or whose
    native language is
  • not English and who is not currently able to
    perform ordinary
  • classroom work in English.
  • Primary Language (L1) - Primary language is the
    language
  • first learned by the pupil, most frequently used
    at home, or most
  • frequently spoken by the parents or other adults
    in the home
  • when speaking with the pupil.
  • E.C. 306(a)

6
Definition of English Learner Terms Contd.
  • Full English Proficient (FEP) - A student may
    initially
  • be designated as full English proficient if
    initial assessment
  • On CELDT indicates they are proficient
  • Limited English Proficient (LEP) - Students
  • classified as LEP who have not met a level of
    proficiency in
  • English to be considered fluent or able to be
    successful in
  • English academics (in listening, speaking,
    reading writing)
  • Reclassified Full English Proficient (RFEP)
  • Students who have been reclassified from EL to
    fully
  • proficient are RFEP (based on the 4
    reclassification criteria).

7
Definition of English Learner Terms Contd.
  • BICS- (Basic interpersonal Communication Skills)
  • describes the development of conversational
    fluency in
  • the second language
  • CALP- (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency)
  • describes the use of language in decontextualized
  • academic situations (higher levels of processing
    and
  • thinking in the 2nd language)
  • Cummins, 2009

7
8
CELDT Testing
  • California English Language Development Test
    (CELDT)
  • CELDT is an assessment mandated by state and
    federal
  • regulation. It is required for K-12 graders and
    has
  • three purposes
  • To initially identify students who are limited
    English proficient
  • To determine the level of English language
    proficiency of students who are limited English
    proficient and
  • To assess the progress of limited English
    proficient students in acquiring the skills of
    listening, reading, speaking, and writing in
    English.
  • EC 313 and 60810d) Title III of ESEA

9
CELDT Testing Contd.
  • Initial CELDT Assessment..
  • Is administered to any K-12 pupil whose primary
    language is
  • other than English as determined by the HLS
    and..
  • who has not previously been identified as an
    English learner (EL) by a California public
    school or
  • for whom there is no record of results from an
    administration of an English language proficiency
    test, shall be assessed for English language
    proficiency with CELDT
  • within 30 calendar days after the date of first
    enrollment in a California public school, or
  • within 60 calendar days before the date of first
    enrollment, but not before July 1 of that school
    year.
  • EC 52164.1.

9
10
CELDT Testing Contd.
  • Education Code Section 52164.1a requires that
    all students (in
  • kindergarten through grade twelve) whose primary
    language is
  • not English, based on the Home Language Survey
    (HLS), take the
  • CELDT within 30 calendar days after they are
    enrolled in a
  • California public school for the first time to
    determine if they are
  • English learners. The HLS is completed by parents
    or guardians
  • when they first register their children for
    school. The CELDT must
  • be given to students identified as English
    learners once a year as
  • per the school districts evaluation process
    until they are
  • reclassified as fluent English proficient
    (RFEP).
  • EC 52164

11
CELDT Testing Contd.
  • Students may have accommodations and/or
    modifications
  • on CELDT as specified in their IEP
  • An accommodation is Any variation in the
    assessment
  • environment or process that does not
    fundamentally alter
  • what the test measures or affect comparability of
    scores.
  • Accommodations may include variations in
    scheduling,
  • setting, aids, equipment, and presentation format
  • A modification is A variation in assessment
    environment or
  • process that fundamentally alters what test
    measures or
  • affects comparability of scores

11
12
CELDT Testing Contd.
  • Alternate Assessment
  • IEP Teams may designate an alternate assessment
    to
  • CELDT
  • Students with disabilities may take an alternate
  • assessment if their IEP team determines that they
    are
  • unable to take one or more parts of the CELDT
    even
  • with variations, accommodations, and/or
    modifications.
  • Refer to CDEs CELDT Understanding and Using
    2009-10 Individual Results
  • Section II 2-6 for criteria in determining if an
    alternative assessment is
  • appropriate
  • EC 313 and 60810d)

13
Alternate Assessment Contd.
  • Alternate Assessment is
  • An alternate way of measuring English language
  • proficiency of pupils with disabilities whose IEP
    Team has
  • determined they are unable to participate in
    CELDT even
  • with accommodations, variations, or
    modifications.
  • Note CDE English Learner Division has advised
    that any
  • alternate assessment must assess in all four
    domains listening,
  • speaking, reading writing

14
Alternate Assessment Contd.
  • Alternative Assessments to CELDT
  • At this time, the California Department of
    Education does not have an approved, recommended
    alternative assessment to CELDT for students
    whose IEP team determines that the student may
    not be able to take all or parts of CELDT in
    order to determine their level of English
    language proficiency.
  • If the IEP team determines that a student should
    take an alternate assessment to CELDT, they must
    ensure that the student is assessed in all four
    domains of English proficiency listening,
    speaking, reading, and writing.
  • CDEs CELDT Understanding and Using 2009-10
    Individual Results

15
Alternate AssessmentContd.
  • Possible Alternative Assessments to CELDT
  • The chart lists possible assessment tools that
    various
  • districts or SELPAs in California have utilized
    as an alternative to
  • CELDT for students functioning at the CAPA level

16
Resource List for Possible Alternate Assessments
to CELDT
Test Name Skills Assessed Organization or Publisher Contact Information
Alternative Language Proficiency Instrument (ALPI) Listening Speaking Orange County Dept.of Education 714-966-4120
Student Oral Language Observation Matrix (SOLOM) Listening Speaking San Jose Unified School District http//www.cal.org/twi/EvalToolkit/appendix/solom.pdf
Basics 2 (Checklist for functional reading and writing) Listening, Speaking Reading, Writing Lakeshore http//www.lakeshorelearning.com/home/home.jsp
Sandi Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing SEACO http//www.rcoe.k12.ca.us/materials/SANDI_Riverside.pdf
17
Resource List for Possible Alternate Assessments
to CELDT Contd.
Test Name Skills Assessed Organization or Publisher Contact Information
Basic Inventory of Natural Language (BINL) Listening Speaking in 30 different languages CHECpoint Systems, Inc. (800)635-1235
Norm referenced Criterion referenced Brigance IED II (B-7yrs) Brigance CIBS II (Pre K 9) Listening Speaking Reading Writing literacy Curriculum Associates http//www.curriculumassociates.com
18
Pre Referral Strategies for English Learners

19
5 Best Practices for Preventing Over
Identification of English Learners for SPED
  • Screen for reading or other academic problems and
    monitor progress early
  • Provide intensive small group reading instruction
  • Provide extensive varied vocabulary instruction
  • Develop academic English (provide daily ELD
    services with fidelity)
  • Schedule regular, peer-assisted learning
    opportunities
  • Gersten, 2007
  • Ensuring that EL students have access to Response
    to Intervention (RTI) may be an
  • effective way to ensure identification for SPED
    is appropriate!


20
Response to Intervention (RTI) for English
Learners
  • Response to Intervention (RTI)
  • Emphasizes prevention and early intervention for
    all students, including English learners
  • Premised on data-based decision-making for all
    learners within the system



20
21
Pre Referral RTI Strategies for English Learners
  • Three Recommended Components of RTI for Els

1) Universal screening of academics 2) High
quality, research-based differentiated
instruction that is multi-tiered based on
need (both English language development services
and academic instruction) 3) Progress Monitoring
of English development and academic performance

22
Sample Response to Intervention (RTI) Model
Referral To Special Education

Tier IV
Daily, intensive, research based intervention
Lower student/teacher ratio More frequent
progress monitoring
Tier III

Tier II

Research based intervention Small
groups Progress monitoring/ data tracking
Tier I
Monitor track academic language acquisition
growth
Conduct universal screening to determine student
risk levels
Provide core research based reading program EL
services
23
RTI Universal Screening
  • All students, to include English learners should
    be administered screening assessments at the
    beginning of the school year to determine
    individualized learning needs.
  • Outcome assessments from the previous year may
    also be used as screening tools.
  • Screening assessments provide initial information
    about how to differentiate instruction for EL
    students and whether some students may be at risk
    for difficulties in reading, writing or math.
  • Screening assessments can also inform whether or
    not an academic difficulty is due to a language
    difference or a learning problem.

23
24
RTI Progress Monitoring
  • Ongoing assessment
  • Benchmark assessments should be administered at
    least 3x a year, but more frequently depending on
    student progress and needs.
  • For students experiencing reading difficulties,
    assessments should be administered weekly,
    bi-weekly, or monthly, depending on severity
  • Curriculum-embedded assessments should typically
    be administered every 68 weeks, but more
    frequently if needed
  • Dibels is a frequently used assessment tool for
    conducting universal screening and ongoing
    monitoring of progress

24
25
Considerations for English Learners Prior to
Referral to Special Education
  • A pupil shall be referred for special education
    services only after the resources of the
    regular education program have been considered,
    and when appropriate, utilized. E. C. 56303
  • The normal process of 2nd language acquisition,
    as well as manifestations of dialect and
    sociolinguistic variance shall not be diagnosed
    as a handicapping condition. CCR, Title 5
    3023(b)
  • A child may not be determined to be eligible for
    SPEDif the determinant factor for eligibility
    determination is1) lack of instruction in
    reading or math, or 2) limited English
    proficiency. CFR 300.534

26
Referral to Special Education

Questions for the Student Study Team to
Consider v Has the student received intensive
interventions implemented with fidelity over
time and demonstrated little or no progress? v
Does the team have data to support that the
difficulties (academic, social-emotional, or in
speech language) are most likely due to a
disability versus a language difference? If
answers to questions above are YES, a referral
to special education may be appropriate.
27
Stateside Assessment English Learners
28
STAR Testing for English Learners
All ELs, regardless of their primary language,
are required to take the STAR Program tests
administered in English. Star tests include the
California Standards Tests (CST), given in grades
2-11, the California Modified Assessment (CMA),
for students with disabilities who meet the CDE
criteria, or the California Alternate Performance
Assessment (CAPA), for students who have
significant cognitive disabilities and cannot
take the CSTs even with accommodations or
modifications. Note In addition to the tests
administered in English, state law requires
all Spanish speaking English learners who have
been enrolled in a U.S. less than 12 cumulative
months or are receiving instruction in Spanish to
take the Standards-based Tests in Spanish
(STS). EC Section 60640
28
29
STAR Testing for English Learners
At the option of the school district, schools
also may test ELs on the STS who will have been
in an United States school 12 months or more
(cumulative) and who are not receiving
instruction in Spanish. The  Standards-based
Test in Spanish (STS) is the Designated Primary
Language Test (DPLT) is part of the STAR Program.
The (DPLT) provides an opportunity for
Spanish-speaking English learners to demonstrate
their skills in their primary language. EC
Section 60640  
29
30
STAR Test Variations for English Learners
  • English Learners STAR Testing
  • During STAR testing, English learners may use
    English-to primary language translation
    glossaries or word lists that are regularly used
    in the classroom and which do not include
    definitions or formats. This assistance may be
    provided for all subjects except ELA on the CSTs
    and the CMAs.
  • English learners may have test directions
    translated for them and ask clarifying questions
    in their primary language for all subjects tested
    on the CST and the CMA.
  • English learners may be tested separately if such
    a setting is part of the regular classroom
    instruction or assessments.
  • See Matrix 2 of Test Variations
    http//www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/

30
31
  • Identification Assessment of English Learners
    for Special Education

31
32
Identification of English Learners
  • Federal regulations require that students in Pre
    K
  • through age 22 be identified as EL for purposes
    of
  • special education (ie. assessment for special
  • education procedures, linguistically appropriate
    goals
  • in IEPs, etc.)
  • Note California Education code does not
    formally identify
  • students as EL until kindergarten. CELDT is not
    administered
  • until grade K.

33
Identification of Transfer Students
  • Newly Enrolled EL Students with IEPs
  • If a new student classified as EL student enrolls
    in school (from another
  • SELPA) with an Individualized Education Program
    (IEP), the student
  • shall be placed in an interim 30 day
    placement.
  • The student is automatically eligible for special
    education services upon entry.
  • An IEP meeting to determine if the placement and
    services are appropriate shall be held within the
    30 days.
  • EC 56329

33
34
California Ed Code Requirements for
Identification Assessment ofEnglish Learners
for Special Education
  • Assessment materials and procedures used for the
    purposes
  • of assessment and placement of individuals with
    exceptional
  • needs are selected and administered so as not to
    be racially,
  • culturally, or sexually discriminatory. Pursuant
    to Section 1412(a
  • (6)(B) of Title 20 of the United States Code, the
    materials and
  • procedures shall be provided in the pupils
    native language or
  • mode of communication, unless it is clearly not
    feasible to do so.
  • EC 56320(a) 56001(j)
  • Note Assessors must note this in their
    assessment reports!

35
California Ed Code Requirements for
Identification Assessment ofEnglish Learners
for Special Education Contd.
  • (b) Tests and other assessment materials meet all
    of the
  • following requirements Are provided and
    administered in the
  • language and form most likely to yield accurate
    information on
  • what the pupil knows and can do academically,
    developmentally,
  • and functionally, unless it is not feasible to so
    provide or
  • administered required by 1414(b)(3)(A)(ii) of
    Title 20 of United
  • States Code
  • EC 56320(b)(1)

36
California Ed Code Requirements for
Identification Assessment ofEnglish Learners
Who are Infants/Toddlers
  • For assessment to determine eligibility for
    infants and
  • toddlers, the assessment shall be conducted in
    the
  • language of the familys choice or other mode of
  • communication unless it is it is not feasible to
    do so.
  • CCR 52082(b) 52084(d)

37
Federal Regulation Requirements for
Identification Assessment of English Learners.
  • Pursuant to 34 CFR 300.304 (1) (i) (ii),
    Assessments
  • and other evaluation materials used to assess a
    child
  • under this part are selected and administered
    so as
  • not to be discriminatory on a racial or cultural
    basis Are
  • provided and administered in the childs native
    language
  • or other mode of communication, and in the form
    most
  • likely to yield accurate information on what the
    child
  • knows and can do academically, developmentally,
    and
  • functionally, unless it is clearly not feasible
    to so provide
  • or administer.

38
Identification AssessmentLegal Requirements
for English Learners Contd.
  • Assessments shall be administered by qualified
    personnel who are competent in both the oral or
    sign language skills and written skills of the
    individuals primary language or mode of
    communication and have a knowledge and
    understanding of the cultural and ethnic
    background of the pupil. It it clearly is not
    feasible to do so, an interpreter must be used,
    and the assessment report shall document this
    condition and note that the validity may have
    been affected.
  • CCR Title 5 3023
  • A variety of assessment tools and strategies will
    be used to gather relevant functional and
    developmental information, including information
    provided by the parent.
  • EC 56320

39
Identification AssessmentLegal Requirements
for English Learners Contd.
  • It is best practice to use the following four
    sources of
  • information in order to address all
    socio-cultural factors
  • related to English learners
  • 1) Norm-referenced assessments in English and
    Primary
  • Language (if primary language assessments are
    available)
  • 2) Criterion-referenced tests
  • 3) Systematic observation in educational
    environments
  • 4) Structured interviews (with student, parent,
    teachers, etc.)

40
Assessment of English Learners
  • Why Assess in the Students Primary Language?
  • It provides comparative data to the IEP team
    about how the student performs in the primary
    language versus English.
  • The assessor can determine if similar error
    patterns are seen in both the primary language
    and English (listening, speaking, reading or
    writing) in order to discern if the students is
    having academic difficult due to a language
    difference or a disability.
  • Many students acquire BICS level English speaking
    skills and are stronger in English academics but
    think at a CALPs level in their native
    language.

41
Assessment of English Learners Contd.
  • Best Practices to Guide Assessment Decisions
  • An assessor fluent in both languages should
    assess for to determine which language the
    student is most proficient in at both the Bics
    and Calps level (both academically cognitively)
    to guide the assessment team regarding types of
    assessment to be performed by using like
    instruments in primary language and English when
    available.
  • Assessors should assess in the students primary
    language when feasible to do so..

42
Assessment of English Learners Contd.
  • Examples of When it May Not Be Feasible to
  • Assess in the Students Primary Language
  • The student has moderate to severe disabilities
    and lacks the communication or other skills to be
    able to be assessed accurately in L1.
  • When Primary language assessments are
    unavailable.
  • Note If primary language assessments are not
    available, it is best
  • practice for assessors to use non language
    measures such as
  • observations and structured interviews with
    teachers and family to
  • inform identification decisions.

43
Sample Language Assessment Tools
  • Language Assessment Tools
  • Research states that the five most common
    language proficiency tests administered across
    all states are the Language Assessment Scales
    (LAS), the IDEA Language Proficiency Tests (IPT),
    the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey, the Language
    Assessment Battery, the Basic Inventory of
    Natural Language (BINL), and ADEPT- A
    Developmental English Proficiency Test
  • All tests above, with the exception of the
    Woodcock Muñoz Language Survey ADEPT, address
    listening, speaking, reading and writing
    according to research however these assessment
    tools are similar to the CELDT and may not be
    appropriate for students with moderate to severe
    disabilities (CAPA level).

43
44
Sample Primary Language Cognitive Assessments

Test Name Publisher AGES DESCRIPTION
The Bilingual Verbal Ability Test (BVAT) Riverside Publishing 5-adult Verbal ability in 17 languages
K-ABC (English Spanish) Pearson Assessment 3-18 Cognitive achievement
Bateria III Woodcock-Munoz - Riverside Publishing Riverside Publishing 2-90 Cognitive achievement in Spanish
WISC IV Spanish Pearson Assessment 6-16 11mo Cognitive / Intellectual Ability
44
45
Sample Non-verbal Cognitive Assessments


Test Name Publisher Ages Description
The Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (Unit) Riverside Publishing 5-17 Non-verbal ability test
Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test Pearson Assessment 3-adult Visual-motor integration test
Naglieri Nonverbal Abilities Test (NNAT) NCS Pearson Corporation 5-18 Non-verbal ability test
Test of Non-verbal Intelligence (TONI) Pearson Assessment 6-89 Non-verbal ability test
45
45
46
Sample Speech Language Assessments
Test Name Publisher Ages Description
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test 3rd Ed. (PPVT) Pearson Assessment 2.5-40 Receptive lang. Verbal/non-verbal
Dos Amigos Academic Therapy Publications 6-12 Verbal Lang. Dominance
Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody Western Psychological Services (WPS) 4-12
The Bilingual Verbal Ability Test (BVAT) Riverside Publishing 5-adult Verbal ability in 17 languages
46
47
Sample Speech Language Assessments Contd.
Test Name Publisher Ages Description
Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey Riverside Publishing 2-90 Language proficiency
Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test-R Western Psychological Services (WPS) 2-18 Test of vocabulary
Clinical Evaluation of Language Fund. (CELF) Pearson Assessment 5-21 Receptive/express. lang. in Spanish
47
48
Sample Primary Language Academic Achievement
Assessments

Test Name Publisher Ages Description
Bateria III Woodcock-Munoz Riverside Publishing 2-90 Cognitive achievement Spanish
Language Assessment Scales (LAS) CTB McGraw-Hill 6-18 Listening, speaking, reading, writing
Spanish Brigance Curriculum Associates PK-16 Language dominance achievement oral language
K-ABC Pearson Assessment Spanish achievement
48
49
Use of Interpreters in Bilingual Assessment
  • Following are best practice
  • recommendations for use of interpreters
  • during assessment
  • I. Preparation for use of an Interpreter in
    assessment
  • Determine what tests are being administered
  • Administer only the tests which the interpreter
    has been trained to assist with
  • Be prepared for the session to account for extra
    time needed with an interpreter
  • Know the skill level of the interpreter and
  • Carefully observe interpreter behavior during
    assessment

50
Use of Interpreters in Bilingual Assessment
Contd.
  • II. Briefing Procedures (assessor and
    interpreter review together)
  • The general purpose of the assessment session
  • Which assessment instruments will be administered
  • Information about the student
  • Review of English test behavior, if applicable
  • Reminder that interpreter should write all
    behaviors
  • Allow time for the interpreter to organize
    materials, re-read the test procedures, and ask
    for clarification if needed

50
51
Use of Interpreters in Bilingual Assessment
Contd.
  • III. Debriefing Procedures
  • Ask interpreter to go over each of the test
    responses without making clinical judgment.
  • Go over any difficulties relative to the testing
    process.
  • Go over any difficulties relative to the
    interpretation process.
  • Go over any other items relevant to assessment
    process.

51
52
Use of Interpreters in Bilingual Assessment
Contd.
  • IV. Conferencing with Parents and Interpreters
  • Observe body language when meeting with an
    interpreter and parent. Rely on interpreter to
    assist you in understanding culturally
    appropriate behavior.
  • If the interpreter is used with the parent, avoid
    portraying the interpreter as the parents
    representative or advocate-keep professional.
  • Seating arrangements are critical. Give the name
    and position of each person present. The
    interpreter should not in any way block the
    parent from the school person. Parents must be
    able to see both interpreter and assessor.

52
53
AssessmentReports for English Learners
  • Required Documentation in Assessment Reports
  • The impact of language, cultural, environmental
    and economic factors in learning
  • How standardized tests and techniques were
    altered and
  • Use of the interpreters, translations for tests
    include a statement of validity and reliability
    related to the use of such.
  • Examiners level of language proficiency in
    language of student and the effect on test
    results and overall assessment.

54
AssessmentReports for English Learners Contd.
  • Required Documentation in Assessment Reports
    Contd.
  • Cross-validation of information between
    norm-referenced, criterion, and
    interview/observation based measures, to include
    information from home setting.
  • Results of current language proficiency testing.
  • Reports should be translated into the primary
    language if requested by the parent/guardian
  • If non-verbal measures were used, a statement of
    their limitations
  • Recommendations for linguistically appropriate
    goals
  • (SESR 8-2-3.3) 20 USC 1414 (b) (2) (A) (I) 34
    CFR 303.323

55
AssessmentReports for English Learners Contd.
  • Additional Assessment Report Considerations
  • Consideration of the second language acquisition
    process and its relationship to the possible
    handicapping conditions

56
IEP Notices for English Learners
  • IEP Notices should
  • Note if an interpreter will be at the IEP (if
    appropriate)
  • Be provided in primary language of parent
  • Indicate the parent has a right to have copy of
    IEP in primary language (if feasible)
  • (SESR 6-1-2.9.1) 20 USC 1415 (d) (2) 34 CFR
    300.503 c 30 EC
  • 56506

57
Identification AssessmentResources Contd.
  • 1) Culturally and Linguistically Diverse
    Exceptional Students
  • Strategies for Teaching and Assessment by Grass
    Barker.
  • Sage Publications. http//www.sagepub.com/home.na
    v
  • 2) Assessing Culturally Linguistically Diverse
    Students A
  • Practical Guide. Practical Intervention in the
    Schools Series by
  • Rhodes, Ochoa, Hector, Ortiz. Guilford
    Publications.
  • 3) The Map of Standards for English Learners by
    Carr Lagunoff. West Ed. www.wested.org

58
Identification AssessmentResources Contd.
  • 4) Determining Appropriate Referrals of English
    Language
  • Learners to Special Education A
    Self-Assessment Guide for
  • Principalsby Council for Exceptional
    Children and NABE. 2002
  • 5) Assessing Culturally Linguistically Diverse
    Students A
  • Practical Guide. Practical Intervention in
    the Schools Series by
  • Rhodes, Ochoa, Hector, Ortiz. Guilford
    Publications.
  • 6) Reporting to Parents in English Spanish
    Ammie Enterprises,
  • Fallbrook, CA.

59
Identification AssessmentResources Contd.
  • 7) Struggling Learners and Language Immersion
    Education. By
  • Fortune, T. W., Menke, M. R. (2010). CARLA.

60
IEP Developmentfor English Learners
61
IEP Developmentfor English Learners
  • Also, as per EC 56345 the regulations state
  • For individuals whose native language is other
    than
  • English, linguistically appropriate goals,
    objectives,
  • programs, and services shall be included in the
  • IEP contents
  • Note This does not require placement in a
    specific classroom!

62
State IEP Template Special Factors Page EL
Section
  • If the student is an English Learner, complete
    the following section
  • Does the student need primary language support?
    No? Yes ? if yes, who will provide?
  • What will be the language of instruction for the
    student?
  • Who will provide ELD services to student?
  • ? General Education Staff ? Special
    Education Teacher
  • What type of ELD services will provided?
  • ? English Language Mainstream ? Structured
    English Immersion
  • Comments

63
IEP Developmentfor English Learners
  • IEP Content Checklist v
  • The results of CELDT or alternative assessment in
    order to document English language proficiency
    and develop linguistically appropriate goals
  • If the student requires accommodations or
    modifications on CELDT
  • (SESR 10-2-2 10-2-4 20-4-2)
  • EC Section 60810
  • CFR Section 300.138(b)(1)(2) CFR 300.324
  • CDEs CELDT Understanding and Using 2009-10
    Individual Results

64
IEP Developmentfor English Learners Contd.
  • In addition to CELDT considerations, the IEP team
  • must determine
  • How English language development (ELD) needs will
    be met and who will provide those services
    programs, services, and instruction
  • If the student needs primary language support and
    what language should be the language of
    instruction
  • Linguistically appropriate goals (ELD goals) to
    meet English language development needs
  • (SESR 10-2-6 3-5-8) 34 CFR 300.324 EC 56345

65
How to Document Programs, Services Instruction
on IEP
  • Programs Indicate on IEP what type of EL
    program the student will be in such as SEI, ELM,
    or alternate program (see slide 69-70)
  • Services Indicate on the IEP if the student
    needs primary language support or other services
    to be successful
  • Instruction Indicate where the instruction will
    take place (SPED classroom, general education,
    etc.) and if the instruction will be in English
    or primary language

66
Linguistically Appropriate (ELD) Goals
  • Linguistically appropriate goals must align to
    the students present
  • levels performance in language proficiency
    (aligned to CELDT
  • results). The California State Board Adopted ELD
    Standards are
  • aligned to CELDT and are useful in developing
    linguistically
  • appropriate goals.
  • The California State Board Adopted ELD Standards
    are categorized subject or domains (listening
    speaking, reading, and writing)
  • The California State Board Adopted ELD Standards
    are categorized by strands and sub strands
  • The California State Board Adopted ELD Standards
    are not numbered, but are categorized by levels
    of proficiency assessed on CELDT
  • The California State Board Adopted ELD Standards
    are categorized by grade

66
67
Sample Linguistically Appropriate Goal 1
  • Domain Listening Speaking
  • Strand Strategies Applications
  • Sub Strand Comprehension
  • Level Beginning
  • Grade K-2
  • Goal By (date) , (student) will
    respond to simple
  • directions and questions in English by using
    physical actions
  • and other means of nonverbal communication (e.g.,
    matching
  • objects, pointing to an answer, drawing pictures)
    with 80
  • accuracy on 3 consecutive trials as demonstrated
    by written
  • classroom data.

67
68
Sample Linguistically Appropriate Goal 2
  • Domain Reading
  • Strand Word Analysis
  • Sub Strand Concepts about Print, Phonemic
    Awareness, and Vocabulary and Concept
    Development
  • Level Early Intermediate
  • Grade 3-5
  • Goal By (date) , (student) , while reading
    aloud a short passage of
  • 8-10 lines at grade level, will recognize and
    produce English
  • Phonemes that do not correspond to phonemes he or
    she already hears and
  • produces with 80 accuracy on 3 consecutive
    trials as demonstrated by data
  • tracking records.

68
69
Sample Linguistically Appropriate Goal 3
  • Domain Writing
  • Strand Strategies Applications
  • Sub Strand Organization Focus
  • Level Intermediate
  • Grade 6-8
  • Goal By (date) , (student) will develop
    a clear purpose in a short essay (two to three
    paragraphs) by appropriately using the rhetorical
    devices of quotations and facts with 90 accuracy
    on 3 consecutive trials as demonstrated by a
    written response to a prompt.

69
70
Sample Linguistically Appropriate Goal 4
  • Domain Reading
  • Strand Fluency Systemic Vocabulary
    Development
  • Sub Strand Vocabulary Concept Development
  • Level Early Advanced
  • Grade 9-12
  • Goal By (date) , (student) will use a
    standard dictionary to
  • determine the meaning of a list of 20 unknown
    words (e.g.,
  • idioms and words with multiple meanings) with 80
    accuracy
  • on 2 consecutive trials as demonstrated by
    classroom written
  • records.

70
71
Programs Services for English Learners
72
Programs Services for EL Students in Special
Education
  • Services and methodology required for English
    learners in California
  • English Language Development (ELD) Settings
  • English Language Mainstream (ELM)
  • Structured English Immersion (SEI)
  • Alternative Programs
  • Instruction is provided in primary language (L1)
  • Methodology
  • Specially Designed Academic Instruction in
    English
  • Support
  • Specially Designed Academic Instruction in
    English
  • Alternative Program (this is an IEP team
    decision)

73
Programs Services for EL Students in Special
Education
Programs Structured English Immersion Program (SEI) For students with less than Reasonable Fluency or scoring at beginning or early intermediate on CELDT Program Components English Language Development (ELD) Academic Core Subjects Program Delivery Classroom instruction is primarily in English Intensive ELD support is provided daily SDAIE is provided via class Primary language (L1) support is provided
English Language Mainstream (ELM) For students with Reasonable Fluency Scoring Intermediate or above on CELDT For students with an IEP the IEP team determines the appropriate instructional setting for the student to receive ELD as well as the staff responsible (EL or SPED). Classroom instruction is primarily in English Daily ELD instruction is usually provided in the context of the regular classroom SDAIE is provided via class Primary language (L1) support is provided
Alternative Programs (Bilingual Programs) The IEP team also determines the extent to which primary language support/instruction is needed. Classroom instruction is in primary language (L1) Academic instruction in English (SDAIE) via class
74
Programs Services for EL Students in Special
Education
Each English learner must receive a program of
instruction in English language development (ELD)
in order to develop proficiency in English as
rapidly and effectively as possible. (20 USC
1703f, 6825c1A EC 300, 305, 306, 310 5
CCR 11302a Castanada v. Pickard 5th Cir.
1981 648 F.2d 989, 10091011). ELD instruction
is defined as the direct, systematic, explicit
development of vocabulary, grammar, comprehension
and expression in both oral and written domains
of English using curricula and instructional
methods appropriate for second language
learners. ELD is a required component of every
English learners core curriculum, regardless of
level. ELD must be individualized based on need.
It is best practice to group students with other
students at the same or similar fluency level for
ELD.
74
75
Programs Services for EL Students in Special
Education
Placement Requirements for English
Learners English learners are placed in the
instructional setting which can best address
their individual language acquisition needs and
help them learn English. (1) All pupils are
placed in English-language programs unless a
parental exception waiver has been granted for an
alternative program. E. C. 305, 306,
310, 311 (2) Based on LEA criteria of reasonable
fluency, English learners are placed in
structured English immersion (SEI) or in
English-language mainstream (ELM) program
settings. English learners who do not meet the
LEA criteria for participation in an ELM are
placed in an ELM program if the parent or
guardian so requests. EC 305, 306, 310, 311 5
CCR 11301
75
76
Programs Services for EL Students in Special
Education
  • ELD instruction should be based on the California
  • ELD Standards.
  • The ELD standards are divided into four domains
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • Writing
  • The English language proficiency levels through
    which EL students
  • progress are beginning, early intermediate,
    intermediate, early
  • advanced and advanced.

76
76
77
ELD Programs Services for EL Students in
Special Education
  • SEI services may be provided for English learners
    with
  • An IEP in a variety of ways to include
  • Targeted EL instructional groups held within the
    context of a classroom taught by a special
    educator
  • Instruction in a general education classroom
    during a portion of the day when English language
    development (ELD) instruction is provided by a
    general education teacher or staff
  • In a collaborative model where special educators
    team with the general education staff to provide
    EL services

78
Services for EL Students in Special Education
  • Primary Language Support
  • The IEP team should address how primary language
  • support will be provided to help student access
    the
  • core curriculum. It may be provided in the
    following ways
  • By SPED or general education bilingual teacher
  • By a bilingual instructional assistant
  • By a volunteer or parent/relative
  • By a peer or cross-age coach
  • By providing materials in the primary language

79
  • Reclassification of EL Students in Special
    Education

80
Reclassification of EL Students in Special
Education
  • Reclassification
  • Defined as the process by which students who have
    been
  • identified as English learners (EL) are
    reclassified as fluent
  • English Proficient (RFEP) when they have
    demonstrated that
  • they are able to compete effectively with
    English-speaking
  • peers in mainstream classes.
  • EC 313(d)

81
Reclassification of EL Students in Special
Education
  • Reclassification Criteria
  • The reclassification procedures developed by the
    California
  • Board of Education (CBE) requires districts to
    utilize multiple
  • criteria to reclassify a pupil as proficient in
    English.
  • EC 313(d) CDE document California English
    Language Development
  • Test (CELDT) Understanding Using 2009-10
    Individual Results

82
Reclassification of EL Students in Special
Education Contd.
  • The following four reclassification criteria
    must
  • be used to reclassify all EL students
  • Assessment of language proficiency using an
    objective assessment instrument, including, but
    not limited to, the
  • CELDT pursuant to Section 60810
  • 2) Teacher evaluation, including, but not limited
    to, a review of
  • the pupils curriculum mastery
  • 3) Parental opinion and consultation
  • 4) Comparison of pupils performance in basic
    skills (CST) against an empirically established
    range of performance in basic skills for English
    proficient pupils the same age, that demonstrates
    whether the pupil is sufficiently proficient in
    English to participate in a curriculum designed
    for pupils of the same age whose native language
    is English EC 313(d)

83
Criteria 1 Assessment of Language
ProficiencyUsing an Objective Assessment
Instrument
  • CELDT is used as the primary criterion for the
  • objective assessment. Students should be
  • considered for reclassification whose overall
  • proficiency level is early advanced or higher
    and
  • Listening is intermediate/higher
  • Speaking is intermediate/higher
  • Reading is intermediate/higher
  • Writing is intermediate/higher

84
Criteria 1 Assessment of Language
ProficiencyUsing an Objective Assessment
InstrumentContd.
  • Those students whose overall proficiency level is
    in the
  • upper end of the intermediate level also may be
  • considered for reclassification if additional
    measures
  • determine the likelihood that a student is
    proficient in
  • English.
  • Note Alternate assessment to CELDT may be
    designated by the
  • IEP Team advisement from the CDE is pending
    regarding
  • whether or not CELDT can be used for criteria 1.

CDE document California English Language
Development Test (CELDT Understanding Using
2009-10 Individual Results
85
Criteria 2 Teacher Evaluation
  • Sample Criteria Used by Special and General
  • Education Teachers
  • Curriculum or classroom based measures of
    students academic performance
  • Teacher completion of a checklist such as the
    SOLOM
  • Report of progress towards IEP linguistically
    appropriate goals

86
Criteria 2 Teacher Evaluation Contd.
  • The California State Board Adopted Guidelines
  • state that Incurred deficits in motivation and
  • Academic success unrelated to English
  • language proficiency do not preclude a student
  • from reclassification
  • A disability may be a factor that contributes to
    low academic
  • achievement and is unrelated to English language
    proficiency

CDE document California English Language
Development Test (CELDT Understanding Using
2009-10 Individual Results
87
Criteria 3 Parent Opinion and
Consultation
  • Provide notice to parents or guardians of their
    rights and encourage them to participate in the
    reclassification process
  • Provide an opportunity for a face-to-face meeting
    with parents or guardians
  • Seek alternate ways to get parent input if face
    to face contact is not possible.

88
Criteria 4 Comparison of
Performance In Basic Skills
  • Performance in basic skills means the score
    and/or
  • performance level resulting from a recent
    administration
  • of the California EnglishLanguage Arts Standards
    Test
  • (CST in Englishlanguage arts).

CDE California English Language Development Test
Understanding and Using 2009-10 Individual
results document
89
Criteria 4 Comparison of Performance In Basic
Skills Contd.
  • This means
  • (1) A CST score in English/language arts (ELA) at
    least at the beginning of basic level to
    midpoint of basic - each district may select cut
    point as long as it is at least at basic level.
  • (2) Pupils with scores above the cut point
    selected by the school district should be
    considered for reclassification.
  • (3) For pupils scoring below the cut point,
    school districts should attempt to determine
    whether factors other than English language
    proficiency are responsible for low performance
    on the CST in Englishlanguage arts and whether
    it is reasonable to reclassify the student

90
Criteria 4 Comparison of Performance In Basic
Skills Contd.
  • (4) For grade twelve, the eleventh grade CST ELA
    should be used
  • (5) For grades 1 and 2, school districts should
    base a decision to
  • reclassify on CELDT results, teacher
    evaluation, parent consultation, and other
    locally available assessments. It is not
    recommended that Kindergarten students who are
    English learners be reclassified.
  • Note A disability may be a factor to consider
    under 3 of the
  • basic skills criteria however, advisement from
    CDE regarding
  • use of the CBE guidelines is pending.

CDE California English Language Development Test
Understanding and Using 2009-10 Individual
results document
91
Issues With Reclassification of EL Students In
Special Education
  • It is more difficult to clear the CST-ELA hurdle
    than the CELDT criterion. For example, in the
    11th grade in 2007, 21 percent of ELLS scored
    Basic or better on the CST-ELA, compared to 41
    percent scoring EA or better on CELDT.
  • Testing results and reclassification decisions
    feed into the Title III accountability system
    imposed by NCLB that may either reward of punish
    school districts students with disabilities
    often do not meet goal targets due to a
    disability versus language difference and
    districts receive sanctions.
  • A large gap exists across grades on CELDT scores
    for ELs in SPED versus non SPED ELs. This
    suggests that few ELs in SPED will reach the
    minimum CELDT score required for consideration to
    be reclassified.
  • (Fetler, 2008)

92
RECLASSIFICATIONSCENARIO 1 Maria
Student With Autism Who Takes Alternative
Assessment to CELDT Maria is a 6th grade student
who has autism. She has an a low average to
below average ability level. She is verbal
however a lot of her speaking more echolalia or
repetitive of what she hears. Her pragmatic and
comprehension skills are low in both languages.
She functions at approximately the 2nd grade
level in math and K-1 grade level in reading and
writing. She was classified as an English
Learner upon entering school in kindergarten. The
IEP team has designated that Maria will take an
alternative assessment to CELDT.
92
93
RECLASSIFICATIONSCENARIO 1 Maria Contd.
Criteria 1 Assessment of language proficiency
using an objective assessment instrument Since
Maria took an alternative assessment to CELDT,
the reclassification team used the data from the
alternative measures of Basics 2 ALPI to
determine if Maria meets this criteria.
93
94
Basics 2 Checklist Data
Skill Area Yes No
Pre Writing X
Communicates in Writing
Responds to Auditory Stimuli X
Receptive Language (Verbal) X
Expressive Language (Verbal) X
Articulation X
Receptive Language (Non Verbal) X
Words Independently X
Attends to Printed Material X
Reading Readiness X
Basic Reading Skills X
Reading Comprehension X
Overall Indication Student is Fluent in English X
94
95
ALPI Assessment Data
Skill Areas (Primary Language) Points (0-5 pts)
I. Receptive Language
1. 4
2. 4
3. 5
4. 4
5. 4
6. 5
Total Points (0-30) 26/30
II. Expressive Language
1. 2
2. 1
3. 3
4. 2
Total Points (0-14) 10/14
96
ALPI Assessment Data
Skill Areas (English) Points (0-5 pts)
I. Receptive Language
1. 4
2. 4
3. 4
4. 5
5. 5
6. 5
Total Points (0-30) 27/30
II. Expressive Language
1. 2
2. 3
3. 2
4. 2
Total Points (0-14) 9/14
97
RECLASSIFICATIONSCENARIO 1 Maria Contd.
Note that even though the student received an
overall no in the receptive language and
reading comprehension areas on the Basics 2 the
team felt that since the scores on the ALPI
indicate the student has comparable skills in her
primary language and English in receptive
language, the relative weaknesses were due to her
autism versus her language development. The
multi-disciplinary reclassification team (to
include special educators and English language
development staff members) in this scenario
determined that the student was fluent in English
since the data indicates the student has acquired
comparable skills in both listening and speaking
in the primary language and English on the ALPI,
and her functional academics in English are
proficient.
97
98
SCENARIO 1 CONTD.
Criteria 2 Teacher Evaluation Remember
Incurred deficits in motivation academic
success unrelated to English language proficiency
do not preclude a studen
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