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Principle Based Theory

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Common Morality Theory Principle Based Theory Objectives After studying this lecture the student should be able to: Define ethical theory. Define moral dilemma . – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Principle Based Theory


1
Principle Based Theory
  • Common Morality Theory

2
Objectives
  • After studying this lecture the student should be
    able to
  • Define ethical theory.
  • Define moral dilemma .
  • Define Morality/Ethics.
  • Define major differences between Morality and
    Ethical Theory.
  • Mention the Component of moral system .
  • What is The moral rules.
  • Define the Principlism

3
Objectives
  • Mention the Four principles for common morality
    theory .
  • Define Autonomy .
  • Define Beneficence.
  • Define Non-maleficence.
  • Define Justice
  • Discuss common Morality as Primary Source .
  • give Examples for principles - Based theories .

4
Objectives
  • How we can Balancing our Judgments .
  • Explore Some difficulties with Principlism .
  • Criticisms

5
Overview
  • Ethical theory
  • Moral dilemma
  • Morality v. Ethical Theory
  • The moral system
  • The moral rules.
  • Principlism
  • History of the Four-principles-approach.
  • Four principles for common morality theory.

6
Overview
  • - Respect for Autonomy .
  • - Beneficence
  • - Non-maleficence.
  • - Justice
  • The common Morality as Primary Source
  • Can One Give Reasons for Balancing Judgments
  • Criticisms

7
Ethical theory
  • An ethical theory provides a framework within
    which agents can reflect on the acceptability of
    actions and can evaluate moral judgments and
    moral character

8
Moral dilemma
  • There are good reasons for doing X
  • There are good reasons for doing Y
  • Cannot do both X and Y

9
Example
  • Brandon should tell Kelly the truth in order to
    maintain respect
  • Brandon should not tell Kelly the truth because
    she will be harmed by it
  • Brandon cannot do both things
  • What should Brandon do?

10
Morality/Ethics
  • Principles or rules of conduct that people use to
    decide what is right or wrong

11
Morality v. Ethical Theory
  • Morality or ethics is concerned with the social
    practices defining right and wrong.
  • Ethical theories or moral philosophies provide
    guidelines for justification of right or wrong
    actions when settling human conflict.
  • No single moral theory has gained universal
    acceptance.

12
The moral system
  • rules prohibiting acting, or attempting to act.
  • ideals encouraging the prevention of any of these
    harms.
  • a two-step procedure for deciding when it is
    justified to violate a moral rule.
  • describing the violation solely by means of its
    morally relevant features.
  • estimating the consequences

13
The moral rules
  • Do not kill.
  • Do not cause pain.
  • Do not disable.
  • Do not deprive of freedom.
  • Do not deprive of pleasure.

14
The moral rules
  • Keep your promises.
  • Do not cheat.
  • Obey the law.
  • Do your duty.

15
Principlism (common morality theory)
  • A moral theory based on the concept there is a
    common morality that all people share by virtue
    of communal life.

16
Four principles for common morality theory
17
Respect for Autonomy
  • The obvious conflict is that of a patient, maybe
    terminally ill, who wants to withdraw from
    medication or other technological automatised
    life support, and his doctor, who has a duty to
    help her patients if she can. There is then a
    value conflict between (i) the respect for
    autonomy, and (ii) the duty to help, or the
    principle of beneficence

18
Beneficence
  • To be obligated to be benevolent in acts, and be
    beneficial according to respective peoples
    interests, can slash with respect for autonomy,
    as we just saw above. That leads us to the third
    principle.

19
Non-maleficence
  • One should not be unhelpful, and it seems
    relevant to assume that non-maleficence can
    override beneficence if the desire to help goes
    against the wish of the patient

20
Justice
  • Unjust distribution of resources and
    discrimination must be avoided, and unique
    sensitivities be noted. It is only when all four
    principles interact to guide any given
    decision-making process that principalism works
    at its best. It is clear that value conflicts are
    to be preferred, -and interpreted as experience,
    out of which there is chance of personal growth
    and insights.

21
Examples of principles
  • Divine command theory hold that morality should
    be based on God's Commands.
  • Utilitarianism holds that morality should be
    guided by the greatest good for the greatest
    number. Utility or happiness for all should be
    maximized.

22
Examples of principles
  • Natural right theory hold that all individuals
    have natural right of life Liberty and property.
  • Frankna's theory comprise the two general
    principles (Justice Utilitarian) to gather with
    an argument that they capture the essence of the
    moral point of view.

23
  • Can One Give Reasons for Balancing Judgments?

24
Some difficulties with Principlism
  • The principles are too few, or somehow
    arbitrarily selected.
  • The principles are just a checklist,
  • The principles fail to guide action.
  • The common morality derivation is problematic
    parochial or relativist or both.
  • BC have a distorted (or at least limited)
    understanding of their principles.

25
Criticisms
  • Principlism, as an exercise in applied ethics,
    is insufficiently attentive to the dialectical
    relations between ethical theory and moral
    practice.
  • Principlism fails to offer a systematic account
    of the principles of non-malfeasance,
    beneficence, respect for autonomy, and justice.
  • Principlism, as a version of moral pluralism, is
    fatally flawed by its theoretical agnosticism
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