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The earliest literature on the subject (the Didache, Ignatius, Justin, Iren us, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Hippolytus, Trtullian, and Cyprian), ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE MASS:

THE MASS Its Beginning
Part IIc The Last Supper-- the First Mass
30 AD
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700
1800 1900 2000
The Father
. . . not My Will but Thy Will be done . . .
Calvary, 30 AD
. . . thru all time and space . . .
I desire to eat this meal with you before I die
. . .
. . . as often as you do this . . .
. . . we celebrate the death of the Lord . . .
Every Mass, 2011 AD
The Eucharist Meal Was Then Called the Breaking
of the Bread
Acts 242 They devoted themselves to the
teaching of the apostles and to the communal
life, to the breaking of the bread and to the
prayers. Acts 246-47 Every day they devoted
themselves to meeting together in the temple
area and to breaking bread in their homes. They
ate their meals with exultation and sincerity of
heart, praising God and enjoying favor with all
the people. Acts 207 On the first day of the
week when we gathered to break bread, Paul
spoke to them because he was going to leave on
the next day, and he kept on speaking until
The Catholic Catechism
1339 Jesus chose the time of Passover to fulfill
what he had announced at Capernaum giving his
disciples his Body and his Blood Then came the
day of Unleavened Bread, on which the Passover
lamb had to be sacrificed. So Jesus sent Peter
and John, saying, "Go and prepare the Passover
meal for us, that we may eat it. . . ." They
went . . . and prepared the Passover. And when
the hour came, he sat at table, and the
apostles with him. And he said to them, "I have
earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you
before I suffer for I tell you I shall not eat
it again until it is fulfilled in the kingdom
of God.". . . . And he took bread, and when he
had given thanks he broke it and gave it to
them, saying, "This is my body which is given
for you. Do this in remembrance of me." And
likewise the cup after supper, saying, "This
cup which is poured out for you is the New
Covenant in my blood."
1340 By celebrating the Last Supper with his
apostles in the course of the Passover meal,
Jesus gave the Jewish Passover its definitive
meaning. Jesus' passing over to his Father
by his death and Resurrection, the new Passover,
is anticipated in the Supper and celebrated in
the Eucharist, which fulfills the Jewish
Passover and anticipates the final Passover of
the Church in the glory of the kingdom.
Finally, Christ gave His Apostles and their
successors the power to celebrate Eucharist Do
this in memory of me. They all sang a psalm and
Jesus went forth to his saving death and
resurrection. In this event Jesus gave us the
sacraments of the Eucharist and Orders, the
ordained priesthood.
Bread The first element is wheat bread (panis
triticeus), without which the "confection of the
Sacrament does not take place" (Missale Romanum
De defectibus, sect. 3). Being true bread, the
Host must be baked, since mere flour is not
bread. The bread required is that formed of wheat
flour, not every kind of flour is allowed for
validity, such, e.g., as is ground from rye,
oats, barley, Indian corn or maize, though these
are all botanically classified as grain
(frumentum). On the other hand, the different
varieties of wheat (as spelt, amel-corn, etc.)
are valid, inasmuch as they can be proved
botanically to be genuine wheat. The necessity
of wheat bread is deduced immediately from the
words of Institution The Lord took bread (ton
arton), in connection with which it may be
remarked, that in Scripture bread (artos), always
signifies wheat bread. Jesus adhered
unconditionally to the Jewish custom of using
only wheat bread in the Passover Supper, and by
the words, Do this for a commemoration of me,
commanded its use for all succeeding times.
Uninterrupted tradition, whether it be the
testimony of the Fathers or the practice of the
Church, shows wheat bread to have played such an
essential par.
The Church maintains an easier position in the
controversy respecting the use of leavened or
unleavened bread. By leavened bread (fermentum,
zymos) is meant such wheat bread as requires
leaven or yeast in its preparation and baking,
while unleavened bread (azyma, azymon) is formed
from a mixture of wheat flour and water, which
has been kneaded to dough and then baked. The
Decree of Florence (1439), came to the unanimous
dogmatic decision, that the distinction between
leavened and unleavened bread did not interfere
with the confection of the sacrament, though for
just reasons based upon the Churchs discipline
and practice, the Latins were obliged to retain
unleavened bread, while the Greeks still held on
to the use of leavened (cf, D 692). Pope Leo IX
(1002 1054) referred to the Scriptural fact,
that according to the three Synoptics the Last
Supper was celebrated on the first day of the
unleavened and so the custom of the Western
Church received its solemn sanction from the
example of Christ Himself. The Jews, moreover,
were accustomed even the day before the
fourteenth of Nisan to get rid of all the leaven
which chanced to be in their dwellings, that so
they might from that time on partake exclusively
of the so-called mazzoth as bread.
Against the Greeks it suffices to call attention
to the historical fact that in the Orient the
Maronites and Armenians have used unleavened
bread from time immemorial, and that according to
Origen (Commentary on Matthew, XII, 6) the people
of the East sometimes, therefore not as a rule,
made use of leavened bread in their Liturgy.
There is considerable force in the theological
argument that the fermenting process with yeast
and other leaven, does not affect the substance
of the bread, but merely its quality. St Thomas
Aquinas(III74.4) cited the example of Christ,
the aptness of unleavened bread to be regarded as
a symbol of the purity of His Sacred Body, free
from all corruption of sin, and finally the
instruction of St. Paul (1 Corinthians 58) to
keep the Pasch not with the leaven of malice and
wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of
sincerity and truth".
Wine The second Eucharistic element required is
fermented wine of the grape (vinum de vite).
Hence are excluded as invalid, the juices
extracted and prepared from other fruits (as
cider ), but also the so-called artificial wines,
even if their chemical constitution is identical
with the genuine juice of the grape. The
necessity of wine of the grape is not so much the
result of the authoritative decision of the
Church, as it is presupposed by her (Council of
Trent, Sess. XIII, cap. iv), and is based upon
the example and command of Christ, Who at the
Last Supper certainly converted the natural wine
of grapes into His Blood, This is deduced partly
from the rite of the Passover, which required the
head of the family to pass around the cup of
benediction containing the wine of grapes,
partly, and from the words of Jesus, that
henceforth He would not drink of the "fruit of
the vine" (genimen vitis). The earliest
literature on the subject (the Didache, Ignatius,
Justin, Irenæus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen,
Hippolytus, Trtullian, and Cyprian), but also of
non-Catholic and apocryphal writings, which bear
testimony to the use of bread and wine as the
only and necessary elements of the Blessed
A very ancient law of the Church which, having
nothing to do with the validity of the sacrament,
prescribes that a little water be added to the
wine before the Consecration (Decr. pro Armenis),
a practice, whose legitimacy the established
under pain of anathema. Canon 9. If anyone says
that the rite of the Roman Church, according to
which a part of the canon and the words of
consecration are pronounced in a low tone, is to
be condemned or that the mass ought to be
celebrated in the vernacular tongue only or that
water ought not to be mixed with the wine that is
to be offered in the chalice because it is
contrary to the institution of Christ, let him be
anathema. The rigor of this law of the Church
may be traced to the ancient custom of the
Romans, Greeks and Jews, who mixed water with the
strong southern wines (see Proverbs 92), to
the expression found in Justin (First Apology
86), Irenæus (Against Heresies v.2.3), and
Cyprian (Epistle 63, no. 13 sq.), and especially
to the deep symbolical meaning contained in the
mingling, by which is represented the flowing of
blood and water from the side of the Crucified
Savior and the intimate union of the faithful
with Christ (cf. Council of Trent, Sess. XXII,
cap. vii).
It should be noted that the wine must be
"well-preserved and not soured." Most people
don't think about soured wine anymore because
about every wine you buy at the store has
preservatives added. Again, adding preservatives
is mixing substances, so wines with preservatives
added can't be used for the Eucharist.There are
wineries established by religious sisters, monks
and priests that specialize in making Catholic
sacramental wines, and they don't sell to the
public. Rubrics tell us to make sure of the
wine's provenance, to ensure that all the
requirements are followed just because a
preservative isn't listed on the wine label
doesn't mean it wasn't added at some point.
Adding water to your wine is almost as old as
wine itself. The Romans and Greeks would have
never considered drinking wine without adding
water first in fact, they considered it
uneducated behavior. Even in Mediterranean
countries today, wine mixed with water is
considered a proper beverage for the family's
children, with less water being added as the
child grows older. Few of us in the U.S. want
water in our wine, though. What we don't know is
that much of the time, we're getting it anyway.
And yet we should probably be thankful that we're
getting our wine watered down for us.
With four cups of wine prescribed for the
Passover meal that the Jews added water to the
four cups during the time of Jesus.
The End of the Beginning
The is the End of The Last Supper--the First Mass
Part IIc Go to The Mass of the Early Church Part