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Learning Styles


Learning Styles Nanda Mitra-Itle Indiana University of Pennsylvania Discussion Points Think-Pair-Share Brief learning styles inventory What s hot in education Agree ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Learning Styles

Learning Styles
  • Nanda Mitra-Itle
  • Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Discussion Points
  • Think-Pair-Share
  • Brief learning styles inventory
  • Whats hot in education
  • Agree or Disagree
  • What are learning styles
  • Learning styles assessments
  • Levels of research
  • Valid or not valid
  • Debate
  • What should I do now
  • Questions

  • I heard one of my classmates say the other day
    that they didn't care if there was no empirical
    evidence for learning styles... they know that
    they are a visual learner. This made me think
    about my own "learning style" (if it exists) and
    the components that go into/are required for me
    to truly learn something. Anecdotally, it seems
    that many of us as individuals and not school
    psychologists, recognize that there are methods
    of learning that are more effective for us than
    others. I just wondered if others recognize a
    preferred method of learning within themselves?

Whats my learning style?Think-pair-share
  • How do you normally study for tests, particularly
    in subjects that are difficult for you (i.e.
    physiology, music theory, etc)?
  • Think back to a class (Elementary, MS HS or
    undergrad) where you learned a lot. Perhaps even
    changed your life in some way. How was it
    conducted? What about that class had such an
    impact on you?

Whats my learning style?Think-pair-share
  • Act first, think/reflect later
  • Feel deprived when cutoff from interaction with
    the outside world
  • Usually open to and motivated by outside world of
    people and things
  • Enjoy wide variety and change in people
  • Think/reflect first, then Act
  • Regularly require an amount of "private time" to
    recharge batteries
  • Motivated internally, mind is sometimes so active
    it is "closed" to outside world
  • Prefer one-to-one communication and relationships

Whats my learning style?Think-pair-share
  • Mentally live in the Now, attending to present
  • Using common sense and creating practical
    solutions is automatic-instinctual
  • Memory recall is rich in detail of facts and past
  • Best improvise from past experience
  • Like clear and concrete information dislike
    guessing when facts are "fuzzy"
  • Mentally live in the Future, attending to future
  • Using imagination and creating/inventing new
    possibilities is automatic-instinctual
  • Memory recall emphasizes patterns, contexts, and
  • Best improvise from theoretical understanding
  • Comfortable with ambiguous, fuzzy data and with
    guessing its meaning

Whats my learning style?Think-pair-share
  • Instinctively search for facts and logic in a
    decision situation.
  • Naturally notices tasks and work to be
  • Easily able to provide an objective and critical
  • Accept conflict as a natural, normal part of
    relationships with people
  • Instinctively employ personal feelings and impact
    on people in decision situations
  • Naturally sensitive to people needs and
  • Naturally seek consensus and popular opinions.
  • Unsettled by conflict have almost a toxic
    reaction to disharmony.

Whats my learning style?Think-pair-share
  • Comfortable moving into action without a plan
    plan on-the-go.
  • Like to multitask, have variety, mix work and
  • Naturally tolerant of time pressure work best
    close to the deadlines.
  • Instinctively avoid commitments which interfere
    with flexibility, freedom and variety
  • Plan many of the details in advance before moving
    into action.
  • Focus on task-related action complete meaningful
    segments before moving on.
  • Work best and avoid stress when keep ahead of
  • Naturally use targets, dates and standard
    routines to manage life.

Write your 4 Letter Personality Code
Whats my learning style?Think-pair-share
  • Do I have patterns to the type of materials I
  • Do I have a preference for a particular
    study/learning style? Teaching style?
  • What learning style would I be?

Whats my learning style?Think-pair-share
  • Students are not failing because of the
    curriculum. Students can learn almost any subject
    matter when they are taught with methods and
    approaches responsive to their learning styles
    strengths (Dun cited by Ellis, 2001).
  • We sometimes pretend something is true not
    because theres evidence for it but because we
    want it to be true (Sagan cited by Ellis,

Whats hot in education now?
Whats hot in education now
  • Differentiation
  • Learning Focused Schools
  • Grouping (I.e. ability, cooperative, interest,
  • Distance Learning
  • Specialized curriculum
  • Research based programs Tier I or II.
  • Increasing student achievement

Whats hot in education now
  • What do all these have in common?
  • Individualization of content to increase student
    achievement or maximize potential.
  • Are these the answers to meeting accountability
    standards for at risk students? (Anderson, 2007)

Learning Styles
  • Agree or Disagree
  • Each us receives and processes information
  • Teachers should make every attempt to know how
    students learn best?
  • Intelligence and ability are equal but
    differentially distributed among individuals?
  • Typical school assignments tend to discriminate
    in favor or against certain learners?
  • Style based instruction increases learning?
  • Any given style is not superior to another?
  • Global (field dependent) intuitive learners tend
    to score lower on tests of analytical abilities
    (considered basic to ones intelligence as
    measured by IQ). Are they less intelligent than
    analytical thinkers?
  • (Ellis, 2001)

Learning Styles
  • Agree or Disagree
  • It (learning style) has failed to distinguish
    among personality, ability, environment and other
    variables, leading to confusion over the very
    meaning of the construct? (Sternberg cited by
    Ellis, 2001)
  • Learning style is preference rather than ability?
  • This could lead teachers quickly into a
    labyrinthine world of diagnosis in the search for
  • Learning Styles are more elements that affect a
    persons ability to learn than ways of learning
  • Learning styles is an idea conjured as an excuse
    for the lack of achievement of students?
  • (Ellis, 2001)

What are Learning Styles?
Learning Styles
  • Premise underlying popularity?
  • For all students to receive an equitable
    education does not mean that they all receive the
    same education it means that they all are taught
    in ways that promote their individual
    opportunities to learn (Alder, 2000).
  • This premise leads to conclusion that teachers
    must match learning styles, change curriculum to
    make it fit, adaptive skill levels for student,
    etc(Alder, 2000).
  • Each person has a combination of modality
    strengths formed by the interaction between
    individual and environmental characteristics.
    These modalities lead to styles of how we think,
    learn and communicate (Ellis,2001)

Learning Styles
  • How defined?
  • characteristic cognitive, affective and
    psychological behaviors that serve as relatively
    stable indicators of how learners perceive,
    interact with, and respond to the learning
    environment (Keefe 1979 cited by Johnson
    Johnson 2006)
  • ..combination of various biological and
    experiential variables that contribute to
    learning (Rochford, 2003 cited by Johnson
    Johnson 2006)

Learning Styles
  • How defined cont
  • cognitive style that a person manifests when
    confronted with a learning task, and specifically
    as a predisposition to use a particular learning
    strategy irrespective of learning task
    differences (Schmeck, 1983 cited by Frisby,
  • stable attitudes, preferences, or habitual
    strategies determining a persons typical modes of
    perceiving, remembering, thinking and problem
    solving (Messick, 1976 cited by Frisby, 1993)

Learning Styles
  • How defined cont
  • Learning styles is that consistent pattern of
    behavior and performance by which an individual
    approaches educational experiencescomposite of
    characteristics cognitive, affective, and
    physiological behaviors that serve as relatively
    stable indicators of how a learner perceives,
    interacts with and responds to the learning
    environment. It is formed in the deep structure
    of neural organization and personality (that)
    molds and is molded by human development and the
    cultural experiences of home, school and
    society. (National Task Force on Learning
    Styles and Brain Behavior as cited by Ellis,

Learning Styles
  • Individuals way of processing information using
    one of several categories cognition-centered,
    personality-centered, activity-centered, and
    teaching styles.

(Sternberg as cited by Ellis, 2001)
Learning Styles
  • Areas
  • Cognition-perceiving, finding out, getting
  • Personality (Conceptualization)-thinking, forming
    ideas, processing memory.
  • Activity
  • Teaching
  • Affective-feelings emotional responses, values,
  • (Ellis, 2001)

Learning styles assessments?
  • It seems that Sternberg's theory of thinking
    styles is very closely aligned with Gardener's
    multiple intelligences theory. If we assessed
    students using this theory do you think we would
    find evidence for the treatment x aptitude
    interaction that we are always looking for? (Joie)

Learning Styles (Learning Styles Resources Cite
  • Measurement Instruments Myers-Briggs
  • Uses the 3 Jungian dimensions -
    Extraversion-Introversion, Sensing-Intuition
    (preferring the concrete or the abstract),
    Thinking-Feeling (preferring logic or values),
    plus one created by Isabel Briggs -
    Judging-Perceiving (being organized or flexible
    and easygoing).
  • Numerous studies have provided evidence of its
    validity. The Manual for Type sites hundreds of
    studies that demonstrate its psychometric
    soundness. However, while it has been revised
    many times, the very nature of a self report
    psychological inventory includes limitations with
    reliability. However, theoretically any
    test-taker should have an organic type that is
    stable over a lifetime, and once they discover
    that type they should be able to reliably
    interpret the information related to their type.
  • It is the most widely used inventory in and out
    of education and has been translated into several
    languages. More research has been conducted on
    the MBTI than all of the other inventories

Learning Styles (Learning Styles Resources Cite
  • Measurement Instruments Howard Gardner
  • Identifies seven intelligences
    Logical/mathematical, Visual/spatial,
    Bodily/kinesthetic, Musical, Linguistic,
    Interpersonal, and Intrapersonal.
  • There appears to be no apparent evidence of the
    validity or reliability of this particular
    instrument and Gardner himself does not claim MI
    to be a learning styles theory or that there is
    any reliable means to determining the type of a
  • He just offers the theory that there are more
    types of intelligence than what has been
    historically considered.
  • The MIDAS appears to be the only instrument
    endorsed by Gardner. It has a version for teens
    aged 15-19 and one for adults/college students
    over 20 years of age.

Learning Styles (Learning Styles Resources Cite
  • Measurement Instruments Kolb
  • Identifies 2 dimensions Reflective vs.
    Experiential and Concrete vs. Abstract. The
    result is four type combinations Converging
    (prefer to learn by solving problems and doing
    technical tasks, good a finding practical uses
    for ideas and theories), Accommodating (hands-on,
    people-oriented, relies on gut feeling more than
    logical analysis), Diverging (imaginative and
    sensitive, prefers to learn by observing,
    brainstorming and gathering information, good at
    viewing concrete situations from many points of
    view) and Assimilating (prefers to learn by
    putting information into concise logical order).
  • Although the Kolb model has been popular and the
    subject of many studies, some scholars question
    the models validity, primarily because the scale
    asks respondents to rank rather than rate items
    (see, for example, Hayes Allinson, 1997, and
    Curry, 1987). The scale is short (12 items) and

Kolbs learning styles
Learning Styles (Learning Styles Resources Cite
  • Measurement Instruments Dun and Dun-Perceptual
    modality preference survey
  • Characterized by a multitude of learning style
    dimensions, including Immediate Environment (with
    subscales for Noise Level, Light, Temperature,
    Design formal or informal learning environment,
    Emotionality, Motivation, Persistence,
    Responsibility, and Structure need for external
    structure), Sociological Needs (with subscales
    for Learning Alone/Peer Oriented, Authority
    Figures Present, and Learn in Several Ways), and
    Physical Needs (with subscales for Auditory,
    Visual, Tactile, Kinesthetic, Requires Intake,
    Evening-Morning/Late Morning/Afternoon, and Needs
  • While the model has some content validity, it is
    limited in that it does not really deal with
    psychological dimensions of learning. As a result
    it lacks an organic basis and therefore stability
    of type. This also creates a limitation in how
    it can be used to make educational choices or
    determine student needs or aptitudes.
  • This model has been used in countless studies,
    and some feel that it has been well validated
    (Lewthwaite Dunham, 1999 Curry, 1987 Dunn
    Griggs, 1995), but others strongly criticize the
    model as unvalidated and lacking an underlying
    theory (Bonham, 1988 Kavale, Hirschoren,
    Forness, 1998 Kaiser, 1998). Another concern is
    that the instrument has so many scales (21) that
    it might be difficult for students and faculty to
    assimilate them all and see the forest for the
    trees, drawing an overall picture of learning

Learning Styles (Felder Spurlin, 2005)
  • Measurement Instruments Index of Learning Styles
  • Sensing (concrete thinker, practical, oriented
    towards facts and procedures) or Intuitive
    (abstract thinker, innovative, oriented toward
    theories and underlying meaning)
  • Visual (diagrams, flow charts, etc) or Verbal
    (written/spoken explanations)
  • Active (learn by trying out, enjoy working in
    groups) or Reflective (learning by thinking
    things through, working alone or with a single
  • Sequential (linear thinking process, learn in
    small incremental steps) or Global (holistic
    thinking process, learn in large leaps)

Learning Styles(Felder Spurlin, 2005)
  • Felder-Silverman model adds several qualifying
    statements before using their Index of Learning
    Styles (ILS) assessment instrument
  • Learning styles dimensions are continua not
  • Profiles suggest behavioral tendencies not
    infallible predictors
  • Preferences are not reliable indicators of
  • Affected by students educational experiences
  • Point is not to ID, label and modify.
  • Some validity and reliability

Learning Styles (Learning Styles Resources Cite
  • Measurement Instruments Abiator/Modalities
  • The Abiator site is one of many that incorporates
    three learning style dimensions/modalities
    Visual, Auditory, and Tactile/Kinesthetic. There
    is no apparent evidence of reliability or
    validity. Because these instruments address
    sensory perceptions, however, it makes intuitive
    sense and therefore has some face validity.

Learning Styles (Learning Styles Resources Cite
  • Measurement Instruments Field
  • Identifies two cognitive styles field dependent
    and field independent. This is one of the rare
    learning styles instruments that has been
    reasonably well validated the field
    dependence/field independence model has
    successfully predicted academic performance in a
    number of studies (Hayes Allinson, 1997
    Thompson et al, 1979 Wilson, 1998). (Field
    independent students are more likely than field
    dependent students to succeed academically.)
  • Unlike many of the other inventories and
    theories, these dimensions are entirely distinct
    and separate from the Jungian dimensions. So they
    do not have any relation to introversion-extrovers
    ion, concreteness-abstractness, or
    random-sequential thinking in any way. This makes
    this theory a useful adjunct to the others. It is
    also quite predictive of what might be called
    giftedness. Those who have a field-independent
    preference due to their narrow focus and ability
    to screen can process information more
    efficiently, but may miss the social context that
    their field-dependent peers more readily
    perceive. So an over simplification would be that
    field-dependence leads to popularity and
    field-independence leads to academic success.
  • Some scholars feel, however, that the GEFT
    measures ability rather than learning style,
    making it an inappropriate choice as a tool to
    help students understand themselves.

Elliss Levels of Research?
Elliss Levels of Research?
  • Level I?
  • Brain-mind research
  • Psychological research on individual differences
  • Problems?
  • Close association of assessment instruments with
    intelligence measures.
  • Weak link b/w theoretical work, assessment and
  • Validity and reliability of assessment measures
  • (Ellis, 2001)

Elliss Levels of Research?
  • Level II?
  • Dun and Dun meta-analysis
  • Oakland study with temperament based learning
    style and gifted/nongifted students.
  • Other studies, etc
  • Problems?
  • 10 studies eluded to were, with exception of 2
    or3, in journals with little reputation for
  • 35 unpublished studies were dissertations.
  • 24 of cited dissertation studies done under Dun
    et al direction.
  • (Ellis, 2001)

Elliss Levels of Research?
  • Level II Problems cont.
  • Experimental designs used in classroom based
    learning styles research weak and have inadequate
  • Researcher bias
  • Hawthorn effect from doing something new
  • Studies conducted by graduate students for
  • Replicatability problems
  • (Ellis, 2001)

  • After sitting through today's class and talking
    specifically about strong and/or possible
    evidence of effectiveness, I thought it was
    interesting that Dunn, et al, did a meta-
    analysis on the learning style model of Dunn and
    Dunn and used studies that were either published
    in journals of questionable reputation or just
    not published at all. And of the 36 studies
    included in the meta-analysis, 35 unpublished
    studies were doctoral dissertations and 24 of the
    cited dissertations were done under the direction
    of Dunn and her colleagues......WOW! Aren't Dunn
    and her colleagues worried about their own
    reputation as legitimate researchers?? Sometimes
    I wonder what people are thinking (Marybeth)

Elliss Levels of Research?
  • Level III?
  • None
  • Ellis mentions the lack of level III research
    evaluating learning styles. Is anyone aware of
    any studies published since? I assume there isnt
    much more research to report, as Ellis dropped
    the topic from the new editionthoughts? (Sandra)

  • There is little empirical support for the
    existence of learning styles, however, Ellis
    notes that the work of Sternberg and Grigorenko
    "seems to offer considerable promise." According
    to Ellis, Sternberg believes that in order to
    teach all of our students we need to take their
    learning styles into account. Doesn't good
    teaching encompass presenting information in a
    variety of ways? Isn't the Orton-Gilligham
    approach based on the idea that information
    should be presented visually, orally, and
    tactilely? Seeing, hearing, and feeling the
    various letters and letter sounds is said to
    improve learning and memory. (Erin)

To be or not to be valid, that is the question?
  • Modalities change over time as demonstrated in
    duplications of classic studies (Burns, Johnson
    Gable, 1998).
  • Low and High Low SES achievers differed only on
    motivation and persistence factors (Caldwell
    Ginther, 1996)
  • Dunn Price study of 1980 gifted
    students-tactile and kinesthetic(Burns, Johnson
    Gable, 1998).
  • Learning styles information valuable in designing
    instruction (Felder et al, 2005)

  • All students in their study performed better on
    standardized tests when using their learning
    styles and continued trend in next 2 to 3 years
    (Burke Dunn, 2003).
  • A study found differences in styles between
    Mexican Americans and European Americans (Alder,
  • A study found that students who were taught using
    a Multisensory Instructional Pkg based on their
    learning styles performed better than a control
    group (Farkas, 2003).
  • A study examining learning style and preference
    for online learning support found no significant
    relationship b/w learning style and achievement
    on in-class examinations (Johnson et al, 2006).
  • Learning style theories have devised more than 70
    constructs and ways of identifying and
    implementing them (Mortimore, 2005).
  • Definition of intelligence is being reexamined.
    (Ellis, 2001).

  • Many differences attributed to learning/cog
    styles also attributed to gender diff (Frisby,
  • Psychometric intelligence better predictor of
    reading/math ach (Frisby, 1993)
  • Debate over whether self-report methodology
    valid? (Frisby, 1993)
  • A study examining learning style and preference
    for online learning support also found active and
    visual learners appeared disadvantaged under
    online study gps (Johnson et al, 2006).
  • Active visual scored lower on in class
    examinations following on-line study gp (Johnson
    et al, 2006)

  • Construct validity and reliability of learning
    styles instruments questionable (Frisby, 1993)
  • Matching approach may stunt growth (Frisby, 1993)
  • Modality model has not yielded the promised
    results (Kavale Forness, 1987)
  • 99 of Special education teachers thought a
    childs modality should be a major consideration
    and 93 believed their students learned more when
    modalities matched (Arter Jenkins, 1977 as
    cited by Kavale Forness, 1987)

  • Learning styles inventories are the first
    instances of testing where a failure to solve a
    problem puts one in a different category.
  • Style preference does not necessarily translate
    into higher achievement
  • Research has shown that field independent or
    analytic style correlate with measures of spatial
    and verbal ability.
  • Sternberg-School children who were viewed as
    stupid often suffer from merely a mismatch b/w
    their style and teacher.

(Ellis, 2001)
  • Learning styles seem to be very controversial due
    to the lack of evidence supporting it and the
    disagreement about the true definitions. Learning
    styles is definitely a difficult construct to
    measure again, due to its various definitions,
    various inventories with low validity, and
    variability within individuals (one individual
    can have more than one learning style, primary
    and secondary), but because something is
    difficult to measure, does that make it invalid
    and unworthy of exploring? (Lisa K)

Blah, blah
Yap, Yap
  • If there is such a thing as learning style, which
    I believe there is, doesnt direct instruction
    disregard many students learning styles?
  • If learning styles exist, that would be a good
    point. So then why is direct instruction so
    effective? (Amy)

Debate topics
  • Do learning styles exist?
  • Are differentiation, multi-sensory and learning
    styles related?
  • Is there utility to learning styles in the
  • Is learning styles worth exploring?

So what do I do now?
Learning Styles
No Learning Styles
(No Transcript)
So what do I do now?
  • Sternberg, it is necessary that schools take
    into account not only fit between teacher and
    student (or principal and teacher) style but also
    the way a subject is taught and the way a student
    thinks (cited by Ellis, 2001).
  • Teacher should be sensitive to student
    differences, use different modalities, to reach
    different learners effectively.
  • Learners should accommodate to different
    situations, some of which match our style and
    some of which do not.
  • (Ellis, 2001)

So what do I do now?
  • Is this good teaching anyway?
  • Questions at a variety of levels of thinking
  • Providing an overview of material before
  • Allowing sufficient time for info processing
  • Setting clear purposes
  • Spaced practice
  • Multisensory means to convey ideas
  • Using a variety of teaching and learning
  • Allowing students choices in methods of
    demonstrating learning
  • If research does not support learning styles then
    why differentiate instruction in these ways?

(Ellis, 2001)
  • I think that the true application of this -
    regardless of whether you buy into the idea of
    learning styles - is that teachers must
    differentiate instruction to meet the needs of
    the various students in their classroom. The
    examples of how to teach to different styles
    listed on page 153 are truly the ways to
    differentiate instruction. Is it truly necessary
    to talk about this and research it under the name
    learning styles or is it appropriate to recognize
    that all learners are unique and simply take into
    consideration the unique mix as teachers
    differentiate instruction? (Jane)

So what do I do now?
  • No matter what, good teaching is good teaching.
    Teachers should
  • Have realistic expectations
  • Provide specific feedback
  • Clearly communicate
  • Make learning relevant to learner
  • Engage in positive interactions between student
    and teacher

(Alder, 2000)
So what do I do now?
  • Learning styles can be used to guide instructors
    on diversity of learning styles within their
    class(Felder et al, 2005)
  • It can help give individual students insight into
    their possible strengths and weakness (Felder et
    al, 2005)
  • (Warning) Keep in mind Learning styles have been
    shown to change over time and styles shown via
    measurements, may contradict student perceptions
    and have poor reliability and validity. So use
    with caution.

So what do I do now? (Caldwell et al, 1996).
  • Studies show students who had more controlling
    teachers performed lower than student of less
    controlling teachers.
  • Learning environments must be structured to
    achieve highest level of internal motivation from
    all students, particularly for low SES achievers.
  • There is value in teaching students through
    respectful attention and language to be aware of
    their own learning strategies (Mortimore, 2005)

  • Even if there was evidence that teaching to
    learning styles improved student achievement, to
    what extent would teachers be able to implement
    the styles in the classroom? How many styles
    would we expect one teacher to teach toward? How
    could we really teach each student to their
    preference if the research supported learning
    styles? And if we cant (if its not feasible),
    then why are we researching it with hopes of
    improved student achievement? (Christina)

More Questions
  • While the research base to support learning
    styles is weak, would you recommend to a teacher
    to use the different modalities mentioned by
    Ellis such as stories, explanations, projects,
    and activities? I am not suggesting going as far
    to specifically assess or match learning styles
    since the research does not support it, but
    should teachers still try to vary their teaching
    styles with this possibility in mind? Have you
    ever worked with a student that you clearly felt
    displayed a specific learning style that was in
    opposition to the teacher's style of
    presentation? (Kourtney)

  • We have talked in depth about how teachers need
    to be properly trained in evaluating research and
    how to apply it. However, researchers must
    publish unbiased research based findings. The
    meta analysis by Dunn supports the use of
    learning styles however does not use published
    research and then used their own research. Is
    there an agreed upon definition for learning
    styles? Would a more concrete definition lead to
    more applicable research? (Lisa W)

  • Alder.N. (2000). PartIII creating multicultural
    classrooms. Multlicultural Perspectives, 2(2),
  • Anderson, K.M. (2007). Differentiating
    instruction to include all students. Preventing
    School Failure, 51(3), 49-54.
  • Burke, K., Dunn, R. (2007). Learning
    style-based teaching to raise minority student
    test scores. Clearninghouse 76(2) 103-107.
  • Burns, D.E., Johnson, S.E., Gable, R.K. (1998).
    Can we generalize about the learning style
    characteristics. Roeper Review 20(4), 276-282.
  • Caldwell, G.P., Ginther, D.W. (1996).
    Differences in learning styles of low
    socioeconomic status for low and high
    achievers. Education 117(1), 141-148.
  • Ellis, A.K. (2001). Research on educational
    innovations third edition. Larchmont, NY Eye on
  • Farkas, R.D. (2003). Effects of traditional
    versus learning-styles
  • instructional methods on middle school students.
    Journal of Educational Research, 9, 42051.
  • Felder, R.M., Spurlin, J. (2005). Application,
    reliability and validity of the index of
    learning styles. International Journal of
    England Education 21(1), 103-112.

  • Frisby, C.L. (1993). One giant step backwards
    myths of black
  • cultural learning styles. School Psychology
    Review, 22(3), 535-557.
  • Johnson, G.M, Johnson, J.A. (2006). Learning
    style and preference for online learning
    support individual quizzes versus study groups.
    (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
  • Kavale, K.A., Forness, S.R. (1987). Substance
    over style assessing the efficacy of modality
    testing and teaching. Exceptional Children,
    54(3), 228-239.
  • Mortimore, T. (2005). Dyslexia and learning
    style-a note of caution. British Journal of
    Special Education, 32(3), 145-148.
  • Personality Pathways. Retrieved July 27 2007.
  • http//www.personalitypathways.com/type_inventory
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