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Parenting in Times of Trauma

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Events that effect a small, but important % of children. Neglect, physical or sexual abuse ... Range from intercourse to viewing an exhibitionist ('flasher' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Parenting in Times of Trauma


1
Chapter 15
  • Parenting in Times of Trauma
  • Pages 444-471

2
VICTIMIZATION OF CHILDREN
  • Victimize defined
  • To trick or hurt someone
  • Fig. 15.1, p. 445 rates per 1,000
  • Forms of victimization
  • Pandemic
  • Frequent events affecting most children
  • Sibling fights
  • Acute
  • Events that effect a small, but important of
    children
  • Neglect, physical or sexual abuse
  • Extraordinary
  • Rare events
  • Kidnapping or homicide

3
VICTIMIZATION
  • Children more at risk for victimization than
    adults
  • More dependent on others for care
  • Smaller and less intellectually mature
  • Less able to protect themselves
  • Less choice about their surroundings
  • There are many paths to child abuse and neglect
  • There are many effects triggered by abuse

4
VICTIMIZATION
  • Problems with establishing criteria for abuse
  • Family Maltreatment
  • Minimal physical, sexual, or psychological harm
  • Often receives little notice or help
  • Family Violence
  • Serious physical injury, sexual exploitation, or
    psychological trauma

5
ECOLOGICAL/TRANSACTION MODEL
  • Interaction between 3 factors shapes childs
    development
  • 1. Childs characteristics
  • 2. Caregivers characteristics
  • 3. The environment

6
Bronfenbrenners System
  • Violence and abuse children experience may be
    viewed on several levels
  • Macrosystem cultural beliefs promote violence
    and abuse
  • Belief in spanking
  • Force is an acceptable way to settle problems
  • Rights of adults to treat children as property

7
Bronfenbrenners
  • Exosystem agencies, institutions, and social
    structures
  • Absence of supervised play areas or activities
  • Families with children living in poverty
  • Lack of support systems for parents/families

8
Bronfenbrenners
  • Microsystem daily interactions with siblings,
    parents, peers, and teachers
  • Parenting practices can be influenced by parents
    own abuse
  • Most parents who were abused DO NOT abuse their
    children
  • Childrens own characteristics
  • Gender boys more likely to be physically
    abused, girls sexually abused
  • Age peaks between 3 and 8

9
Bronfenbrenners
  • Ontogenic how the child develops as an
    individual
  • 5 Likely problem areas following abuse
  • 1. Attachment relationship with parent(s)
  • 2. Regulation of emotion
  • 3. Self-concept
  • 4. Peer relationships
  • 5. Adaptation to school and learning

10
Bronfenbrenners Interventions
  • Microsystem
  • Helping individual children and families
  • Exosystem helping parents and children reach
    out to social agencies
  • Service to and training for parents
  • Identification and help to high-risk families

11
Bronfenbrenners Interventions
  • Macorosystem changing societys views of
    violence and sexuality
  • Giving all parents training in childrearing
    strategies
  • Providing parent training in middle and high
    school
  • Research seems to indicate that all levels of
    intervention are necessary to help children and
    prevent recurrence

12
COMMON THEMES IN ABUSE AND VIOLENCE p. 467
  • No one set of circumstances always leads to abuse
    and violence
  • Children respond in many ways to trauma
  • Different kinds of trauma lead to similar
    problems
  • All forms of abuse are associated with
    difficulties in
  • Emotional control
  • Relationships with adults and peers
  • Self-concept
  • School adjustment

13
Common Themes
  • Physical abuse
  • Made a significant contribution to childrens
    behavior problems beyond that of low income or
    negative life events
  • Is associated with problems with peer
    relationships
  • May lead to distorted view of how people relate
    to each other
  • Family is main source of support
  • If not parents, then other adults can be the
    support

14
PREVENTION OF VIOLENCE p. 469
  • to solve the problem of violence, we need to
    transform our culture.
  • One approach view violence (injury from
    firearms) as a public health problem not a
    criminal one
  • Focus on preventing and reducing injuries and
    deaths from firearms

15
Prevention
  • Change content of media media violence
    contributes to
  • Increased aggressive behavior and willingness to
    use violence
  • Acceptance of violence as a normal part of life
  • Belief that the world is mean so people are
    more fearful

16
Prevention
  • Families can
  • Watch TV and discuss programs with children
  • Ask for school courses on being a critical TV
    viewer
  • Work to make childrens TV less violent

17
THE CHALLENGE MODEL OF THERAPY
  • View difficult situations as opportunities that
    promote development
  • 7 Resiliencies that help people rebound from
    difficulties, p. 471
  • 1.Insight asking yourself tough questions and
    giving honest answers
  • 2.Independence drawing boundaries
  • 3.Relationships building good ties to other
    people

18
Challenge Model
  • Resiliencies
  • 4.Initiative taking charge of problems
  • 5.Creativity imposing order, beauty, and
    purpose on the chaos
  • 6.Humor finding the light side
  • 7.Morality developing an informed conscience

19
KEEPING CHILDREN SAFE
  • Helping children to be aware of danger and use
    caution does not mean making children fearful
  • Develop and discuss a set of instruction for
    dangerous situations
  • Review them often
  • Revise them when necessary

20
Keeping Children Safe
  • Have clear safety rules on
  • 1.Behavior for fire in the home
  • 2.Traffic behavior
  • 3.Boundaries for where a child can go alone and
    where an adult needs to accompany them
  • 4.Behavior in public with strangers
  • 5.Behavior at home if strangers telephone or come
    to the home

21
Keeping Children Safe
  • 6.Behavior when the child is a victim or witness
    to muggings by peers or adults
  • 7.Behavior when sexual misconduct happens
  • 8.Not in text use of internet
  • Parents reactions to children who are victims is
    important
  • 1.Listen calmly
  • 2.Use I messages and active listening
  • 3.Help them take constructive action
  • Work with others in the community on issues of
    childrens safety

22
Exposure to Family Violence p. 449
  • Exposure seeing or hearing violence, or seeing
    the effects of violence
  • Legal definition acts of physical harm carried
    out against intimate partners
  • Clinical definition broader, includes economic
    coercion and psychological attacks as well as
    physical harm
  • Can also apply to exposure to parent-child abuse

23
Family ViolencePrevalence
  • No reliable national statistics
  • Can begin prenatally
  • Young children more likely than older children to
    live in homes with family violence
  • Homes with family violence also include other
    risk factors

24
Family ViolenceEffects
  • Many reactions depending on several factors
  • Listed on page 450
  • Some evidence that young children who witness a
    lot of partner conflict are at risk for changes
    in brain structure
  • Children have a variety of symptoms
  • Listed on page 450

25
Family Violence Interventions
  • Help the nonviolent parent establish a safe and
    stable home
  • Child needs an explanation of the violent events
    and an opportunity to express feelings
  • Parents need to provide honest answers and give
    as much reassurance as realistic
  • Educate teachers to help children cope with
    violence
  • Educate the public that family violence is not
    just a private matter

26
Sexual Abuse
  • Definition page 451
  • Abusive experiences
  • Range from intercourse to viewing an
    exhibitionist (flasher)
  • Can be within a family incest/intrafamilial
  • Can be outside a family extrafamilial
  • Can be committed by a person under 18
  • See definition

27
Sexual Abuse - Prevalence
  • Determining prevalence is difficult
  • Most cases not reported
  • Estimate 1 in 4 girls and 1 in 6 boys have been
    sexually abused in some way by age 18
  • Intrafamilial
  • 38 of abusers members of nuclear family
  • Others most frequently male relatives
  • Extrafamilial
  • 15 strangers
  • 42 acquaintances
  • 43 friends of victim or family
  • Factors for families at risk for incest p. 452

28
Sexual Abuse Effects on Children
  • Impact on child depends on child and
    circumstances of the abuse
  • Nature, duration, and frequency of abuse
  • Identity of the perpetrator
  • Greater number of symptoms produced by
  • Close relationship with perpetrator
  • Sexual acts involving penetration
  • Frequent occurrences
  • Long duration
  • Lack of mothers support at time of disclosure

29
Sexual Abuse - Effects
  • No one symptom characterizes the majority of
    sexually abused children
  • Between 1/3 and ½ of children report no symptoms
    at first
  • Factors believed to account for variety of
    symptoms
  • Traumatic sexualization
  • Betrayal
  • Stimatization
  • Powerlessness

30
Sexual Abuse Effects
  • The family plays a powerful role in helping the
    child deal with the abuse
  • Particularly the mother
  • Court involvement may slow the childs recovery
  • Quick resolution and video tape testimony is best
  • Sexual abuse may create problems later

31
Sexual Abuse - Interventions
  • What should be done when abuse is reported
  • Arrange for security of child immediately
  • Child talk with therapist about feelings
  • Group therapy for child may help
  • Family therapy may be needed

32
PHYSICAL ABUSE
  • There is no commonly agreed-on definition of
    physical child abuse
  • In Iowa, usually has to leave a mark for 24 hours
  • Prevalence
  • Because of different definitions, the statistics
    vary
  • 1994, 3 million agency reports of suspected child
    abuse

33
Physical AbusePrevalence
  • Characteristics related to physical abuse
  • Both males and females do physical abuse or
    severe violence
  • Those more likely to be abusive
  • Younger parents with more children
  • Fathers who are unemployed or underemployed
  • Families live below the poverty line
  • Use of drugs
  • View child rearing as a burden

34
Physical AbusePrevalence
  • Characteristics of the physically abused child
  • Most are between 3 and 8
  • More boys than girls
  • Wolfner and Gelles believe that violence to
    children is the result of
  • Parents predispositions to violence AND
  • Stressful life conditions

35
Physical AbuseEffects
  • Children react in many ways
  • Five main areas
  • 1.Attachment relationships
  • Abused infants often form disoriented attachment
  • Abuse between age 8-13 seem to lessen the impact
    on attachment
  • Children often develop a negative view of how
    others will treat them

36
Physical AbuseEffects
  • Five main areas
  • 2.Regulation of emotion
  • Feelings are very intense and therefore difficult
    to control
  • Trouble expressing own feelings or identifying
    the feelings of others
  • 3.Self-concept
  • Unrealistic self-concept
  • 4.Peer relationships
  • 5.School adjustment

37
Physical AbuseInterventions
  • 2 forms of intervention
  • 1.Providing security and safety for the child
  • Giving them as much protection as if a stranger
    attacked them
  • 2.Getting psychological services
  • Opportunity to understand their feelings
  • Express their feelings appropriately
  • Control their intense feelings
  • Establish trusting relationships with adults and
    peers
  • Help for the abusing parent
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