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Policing

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Policing & Program Evaluation Community Policing in Chicago Basics Conducted by Northwestern University Quasi-experimental design Study examined impact of Chicago s ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Policing


1
Policing Program Evaluation
  • Community Policing in Chicago

2
Basics
  • Conducted by Northwestern University
  • Quasi-experimental design
  • Study examined impact of Chicagos COP
  • Examined neighborhood problems
  • Combined process impact evaluations

3
Policy Space
  • Research VERY timely
  • COP is issues with international appeal
  • COP continues to be dominant policing philosophy
  • COP seems to be effective
  • Great way to broaden evaluation methodologies
    evaluate new issues

4
2 Types of Evaluations
  • Process evaluation
  • Examine program design and implementation
  • Document a programs theory
  • Or, how developers thought it was supposed to work
  • Impact evaluation
  • Analyze effects program has on problem
  • Strength depends on design and how well it
    measures what program might accomplish

5
Background
  • COPS came to Chicago in May, 1993
  • Was in the form of Chicagos Alternative Policing
    Strategy (CAPS)
  • District commanders, senior department
    executives, civilian planners outlined policies
    procedures necessary to make community policing
    workable

6
COPS
  • Problem solving orientation
  • Field tested in 5 diverse experimental districts
  • In experimental districts officers used problem
    solving
  • Officers divided into beat teams and rapid
    response units

7
Mission Statement
  • It is this focus on prevention through a
    stronger government-community partnership that
    holds real hope for addressing some of the Citys
    most difficult neighborhood problems and for
    doing so in a way that is far less expensive than
    constantly reacting to those problems after the
    fact

8
Partnerships
  • Monthly beat meetings held in each of the 54
    small beats in the 5 experimental areas
  • These were public meetings with residents and
    beat team members
  • Procedures developed to link city services with
    COPS

9
City Services
  • Beat officers able to quickly mobilize
  • Building inspectors
  • Street cleaners
  • Repair trucks
  • Other applicable service providers
  • Able to get cars towed, squatters removed,
    graffiti cleaned, trash removed

10
Research Design
  • Program impact measures came from resident
    surveys
  • Random samples of residents
  • 2 surveys at 2 time periods
  • Respondents surveys 18 months apart
  • Program effects assessed based on changes over
    time between the surveys

11
Design
  • 1990 Census data used to select city areas
    closely matching the experimental areas
  • Crime rates not used as matching criteria
  • Matching criteria included race, home ownership,
    residents living in large buildings

12
Evaluability Question From Class
  • In this evaluation changes in conditions in the
    comparison areas were used to represent what
    would have happened in the experimental districts
    in the absence of the program (COPS wasnt
    extended to entire city until after evaluation
    period)

13
Results
  • Survey 1 response rate was 59
  • Survey 2 response rate was 60
  • Those less likely to respond
  • Hispanics
  • Men
  • Those with less education
  • Young
  • Renters

14
Impact on Neighborhood Problems
  • First examined big problems identified by
    residents
  • 2 biggest were street drug dealing and
    shooting and violence by gangs
  • Correlation between those 2 measures was 0.72

15
Impact on Problem Clusters
  • Major Crime car vandalism, auto theft,
    burglary, street crime, rape
  • Reliability 0.85
  • Gangs and Drugs street drug dealing, shootings
    and gang violence
  • Correlation between the two measures 0.72
  • Physical Decay vacant lots with trash, abandoned
    cars, abandoned houses, graffiti
  • Reliability 0.75

16
Displacement?
  • Geographic
  • Time
  • Border areas to experimental districts identified
    as possible displacement sites
  • Researchers examined change scores for the 3
    areas defined as displacement zones
  • No evidence of any displacement
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