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Africa and the Africans in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade

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Chapter 20 While slavery existed in Africa for thousands of years, the AFRICAN DIASPORA out of the continent exploded in dimension because of European and Arab demand ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Africa and the Africans in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade


1
Africa and the Africans in the Age of the
Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Chapter 20

2
  • While slavery existed in Africa for thousands of
    years, the AFRICAN DIASPORA out of the continent
    exploded in dimension because of European and
    Arab demand for slaves.
  • In the 1400s, the Portuguese expanded their
    trading centers along the coast of Africa
    establishing FACTORIES fortified centers of
    trade.
  • EL MINA was a Portuguese factory that brought
    gold to the Portuguese.

3
  • In the initial stages, the Portuguese provided
    African rulers with slaves while the Africans
    traded ivory, pepper, gold, and skins with the
    Portuguese.
  • The Portuguese and Portuguese mulattoes made
    treks into the interior of the continent to make
    contact with peoples for trading purposes.
  • Trading contacts brought about social, religious,
    and political impacts upon the Africans and
    Portuguese.

4
Ghana
  • Ghana the Gold Coast the Kingdom of Benin
    impressed the Europeans with its magnificence.
  • Catholic missionaries moved into the Benin,
    Kongo, and other kingdoms to convert the rulers
    to Christianity.
  • In Kongo, the king NZINGA MVEMBA made his kingdom
    Christian but the burgeoning slave trade forced
    him to limit Portuguese contacts.
  • The Portuguese expanded to LUANDA(Angola) and
    Mozambique but were soon followed by Dutch,
    English, and French traders. As time went on,
    the importance of slavery as a commercial venture
    overshadowed the trade in gold and pepper.

5
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Changing Demographics
  • For the first hundred years after contact,
    slavery in the Americas was dominated by the
    Spanish and Portuguese.
  • Beginning in the mid-1600s, English and French
    colonies dramatically increased their demand for
    slaves.
  • The early slaves primarily come from the west
    coast of Africa and the Senegal states later
    the demand shifted to the Gulf of Guinea states.

6
The Structured Commercialization of Slavery
  • The Royal African Company organized structure
    for the procurement of slaves for the English
    colonies in the Caribbean and Virginia.
  • The Spanish developed an economic system for
    trading for slaves in which a healthy male slave
    was termed an INDIAN PIECE and women and children
    were valued as fractions of the male.
  • Some African kingdoms themselves established
    mechanisms for the commercialization of slavery.
  • Triangular Trade
  • Shipping interests

7
African Societies and Slavery
  • In Muslim states, slavery was viewed as
    acceptable for non-believers, but many of the
    Muslim states enslaved their captives whether
    they were pagan or Muslim.
  • Political instability in much of sub-Saharan
    Africa led to a rise in military cultures and
    warfare among the kingdoms of the west and Sudan.
    One result from this protracted warfare was the
    capture of prisoners as slaves.
  • Massive amounts of slaves became available for
    trade with the Europeans which brought money
    and guns to African kingdoms.

8
Asante
  • In the Gold Coast, the Asante rose to prominence.
  • Asante members of the Akan people.
  • Matrilineal clans
  • Osei Tutu d. 1717 leader who assumed the title
    of ASANTEHENE as supreme civil and religious
    leader.
  • Golden Stool

9
  • The Asante controlled the slave and gold trade
    bringing power and wealth to the Asante rulers.
  • Bight of Benin Slave Coast the rulers of
    Benin controlled trade and eventually added
    slavery to the pepper, textiles, and ivory trade.
  • DAHOMEY use of European firearms led the rulers
    to autocracy leading it to become a leading
    slaving state.

10
East Africa and the Sudan
  • The Swahili trading regions in East Africa
    continued to develop under the influence of the
    Portuguese and Ottoman Turks.
  • Trade from the interior brought ivory, gold, and
    slaves to the coast for shipment to Arabia and
    the Middle East.
  • The Portuguese also used slave soldiers to push
    deeper into the interior.

11
  • Zanzibar center of trade and the slave trade in
    East Africa
  • Islamization continued in East Africa but a
    movement of Sufi reformers which directly
    impacted the FULANI farming people in western
    Sudan
  • Religious and political zeal lead the Fulani to
    expand into the interior

12
European Settlers and Africans in South Africa
  • Dutch East India Company 1652
  • Boers
  • Cape Colony 1795/1815
  • 1834 the British abolished slavery in South
    Africa
  • Great Trek - voortrekkers

13
Zulu
  • Shaka
  • Mfecane wars of crushing and wandering
  • New African states
  • Swazi
  • Lesotho less militaristic

14
The Americas
  • Middle Passage
  • Saltwater slaves
  • Creole Slaves
  • Obeah African religious practices
  • Candomble Brazil
  • Vodun Haiti
  • Palmares runaway slave kingdom in Brazil
  • Suriname large Maroon population
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