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Leadership for Improving Literacy: Leveraging Change Where it Counts Most


'Quality is never an accident; it is always. the result of high ... Eric Clapton. But... will it make our boat go faster?? Becomes the 'lens' Through which all ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leadership for Improving Literacy: Leveraging Change Where it Counts Most

Leadership for Improving Literacy Leveraging
Change Where it Counts Most!
RSN Leadership Seminar May 17,2002
  • Dr. Kevin Feldman
  • Sonoma County Office of Education
  • kfeldman_at_scoe.org (707) 524-2759 www.scoe.org
    -reading corner

Celebrate Literacy As a Way of Life!
Quality in Education Quality is never an
accident it is always the result of high
intention, sincere effort, intelligent direction,
and skillful execution it represents the wise
choice of many alternatives. - Willa A.
Teaching is VERY Personal…
Leadership is a dangerous job - But Its THE key
to sustaining meaningful SYSTEMIC Improvement in
Literacy School wide...
A Framework for Reading
Shefelbine (2001) Juel/Gough (1990)
MOTIVATION (pleasure, purpose, joy, success)
Word Recognition Strategies
Academic Language
Comp Strategies
concepts of print phonemic awareness
sight words automaticity prosody accuracy
background knowledge vocabulary syntax
comprehension monitoring text structures
cognitive strategies (e.g. Paraphrasing)
ELD as needed
Its NOT either-or Kids Need It ALL !!!
Teaching Reading… It IS Rocket Science! -Dr.
Louisa Moats www.aft.org
Educational Linguistics
phonology morphology orthography
semantics syntactics/text structures
A Clear Consensus Does Exist
Learning First Alliance member organizations
include American Association of Colleges for
Teacher Education American Association of
School Administrators American Federation of
Teachers Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development Council of Chief State
School Officers Education Commission of the
States National Association of Elementary
School Principals National Association of
Secondary School Principals National
Association of State Boards of Education Nationa
l Education Association National Parent Teacher
Association National School Boards Association
To every complex problem, there is a simple
solution... that doesnt work! Mark Twain
Critical Shift...
Moving from a YES BUT.... School/District/Class
To a YES AND...
Common Assumptions/Excuses/Reasons for Believing
Low Achievement is Impossible to Change
  • students arent ready to learn
  • students/parents are poor disadvantaged
  • students/parents speak English as a second
  • teachers are not well prepared
  • we dont have enough time
  • our kids watch too much TV
  • state tests are unfair and dont reflect
    thinking skills
  • we have the wrong Principal, Supt., Governor,
    President, etc.

… is our stance that of victim or agent of
Life in a Standards Based World???
Im your teacher, Mrs. Gridley. Learn to read,
write, and do arithmetic, and nobody will get
Richard Elmore The Limits of Change
Changing structure does not change practice. In
fact, the schools that seem to do the best are
those that have a clear idea of what kind of
instructional practice they want to produce, and
then design a structure to go with it.
We put an enormous amount of energy into changing
structures usually leave instructional
practice untouched.
The pathology of American schools is that they
know how to change. They know how to change
promiscuously and at the drop of a hat. What
schools do not know how to do is to improve, to
engage in sustained and continuous progress
toward a performance goal over time. So the task
is to develop practice around the notion of
Elmore Goes On...
The norms and values that go with ambitious
conceptions of learning and improvement grow
out of practice, not vice versa. School
improvement doesnt happen by getting everyone
to come to the auditorium and testify to their
belief that all children can learnnot if
it means sending everyone back to the classroom
to do what theyve always done.
Only a change in practice produces a genuine
change in norms and values. Or, to put it more
crudely, grab people by their practice and their
hearts and minds will follow.
So... What Works in Terms of Literacy
Acceleration? Closing the Gap?
Look at our ELA Framework
Key BIG Ideas - the CIAO Elements
1) CURRICULUM - research validated
2) INSTRUCTION - Direct/systematic/engaging/
with lots of passion - students learn what we
teach them!!
3) ASSESSMENT - curriculum based, informs teaching
4) ORGANIZATION - supports the curriculum and
instructional changes NOT
visa versa!!
What are Some Naive or Soft-headed Solutions to
Closing the Literacy Gap ?
Adding an hour of SSR/DEAR time - or
Accelerated Reader
Reading aloud to struggling readers is the
Haphazard, random, off the cuff teaching
masquerading as intensive systematic
instruction... air guitar
Purchasing expensive computer course-ware, the
techo-glitz will solve it (e.g. Jostens, Skills
Bank, Plato, etc.)
Brain-based teaching models
Multiple Intelligence/Thematic Units/Projects
Learning Styles - Reading Styles (e.g. Dunn
Well Intended Concepts/Notions That Can Seduce
Us Into Fuzzy Thinking
  • Spec Ed Access to the Core Curriculum
  • - dont confuse literature w/literacy (Green)
  • Covering all of the grade level standards
  • - learning/understanding is what counts
  • Building Self Esteem
  • - competence not simply compliments!!

Reading TO or Reading WITH Children? (Meyer,
Stahl, et al. 1999)
We found that the amount of time teachers,
parents spend reading to their children does seem
to improve vocabulary... it does NOT seem to
improve their knowledge of print.
It appears that children learn to read by being
taught to read instead of being read to and that
they need to practice reading text in order to
enhance their achievement
We do not suggest parents or teachers stop
reading to children. We intend to demystify the
notion that one need simply read to students to
help them learn to read.

We seem to get it in Music...
Yo Yo Ma
Eric Clapton
But… will it make our boat go faster??
Becomes the lens Through which all
Decisions/proposed Changes/discussions Etc. are
viewed… And How do we Know?
What Are Research Validated - School Tested Keys
to Improving Literacy
  • Set a Vision - tied to grade level standards a
  • reliable/valid measurement system (e.g.
  • Provide comprehensive training to teachers/staff
  • on reading tied to a progress monitoring
    system/adopted curr.
  • e.g. CRLP Project RESULTS - Teachers understand
    the why

3. Establish a site-based Literacy Team - guide
the process data collection grade level
team meetings (Schmoker) service integration
(Sped/Title/ELD) prof devel priorities -
e.g. Elk Grove USD Collaborative Academic
Support Team
4. Relentless Focus measurable
goals/teach/reflect/discuss/ adapt/teach
cycle of improving instruction
Putting the pieces together...
Literacy Team To Guide a School Wide Literacy
  • Literacy Team in place - Admin/Gen Spec Ed
  • Guided by Scientific Knowledge Base - NOT
  • Common assessment system steering by RESULTS
  • Integration/collaboration of all
  • - ALL means ALL! No us/them,
    special/general, etc.
  • Layering of resources/tutoring - no magic
  • Monitor/support grade level meetings - ACT on
    the data!

Uses the data to guide school wide support system
Direct Performance Assessment Progress
Monitoring is the KEY to Improved Literacy
  • What is the students level of development?
  • - where should I begin? (e.g.
    Lexile for reading)
  • - instructional/independent/frustrat
    ion levels
  • What is critical to teach?
  • - diagnostic insight… error
    analysis, strengths...
  • - what are they using but
  • Frequent Progress Monitoring
  • - will we make New York? Is it
    working? If not
  • Do Something Different!!

What is EXPLICIT Instruction?
Instruction usually precedes construction...
Dr. Anita Archer
I do it (modeling our thinking too) We do it
together Yall do it (peer support) You
do it on your own
Research Consistently Finds Systematic
Instruction Essential for at risk Learners
Attributes of Systematic Instruction
  • Moves from concrete to abstract
  • Moves from high utility to lower utility
  • Follows a logical sequence - not
  • Stretches the learner - Goldilocks Principle
  • Whole to part to whole skills to application in
  • lesson

How About Standards?
Standards Conscious ... SAT 9 Conscious...
Not standards/SAT9 driven! But the Key is...
Needs driven
Think NEED... Not Label or Category!!
Comprehensive Literacy Program A Needs Based
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • 2) Alphabetic Principle Decoding Strategies
  • 3) Fluency
  • 4) Vocabulary/Academic English/ELD
  • 5) Comprehension
  • writing/spelling used to amplify all 5

Using Assessment Data to Guide Instruction Plan
Differentiated Interventions to Match Student
The L.A. Frameworks Suggests
Rank Order Students on Critical Benchmark
Performances - 3 Groups
BENCHMARK At or above grade Level.. On track to
meet/ exceed standards
INTENSIVE !! YIKES! No time to
waste!! Significant Intervention Site assistance
STRATEGIC Moderate Risk Some direct Support
in class modifications
Yikes! Intervene NOW!
Benchmark - on Track to NY
Only 1 YIKES Kid!
1 Additional Intensive Student
Differentiating TIME Starting in K - DONT Wait!
1. No pull-out in LA Block for RSP/Title One -
more total time - specialists helping in
gen ed literacy block 2. After lunch bunch -
small group teaching 3. Sunrise/sunset
readers 4. Cross-Age tutoring - Volunteer
tutoring 5. Preteaching (esp. for EL
students) 6. Learning center 7. Summer Reading
Camps ETC. ETC. think layers of
Attributes of Effective Interventions What Does
the Research Say?
Time - not just once a week (3-5 days)
Structure/Routine -sensible lesson plan/small
(3-5) homogeneous groups (1-1 ideal)
Informed teachers/tutors -trained
supported Curriculum tools - Ts dont have to
make it up! research based/validated
Assessment - guide teaching, adapt
program, accountability to others
Passion/Heart/Fun - human connections!
PALS Gr. 1 Great example of differentiated
Upper Grade Comprehension Oriented PALS
www.sopriswest.com Under 30 - also in teacher
directed intervention version
PALS - Peer Assisted Learning Strategies
- Patricia Mathes et al.
Grade One Study,
Reading Research Quarterly
(Spring, 1998)
Title One OC School - Florida
Words Read Correctly per Minute
Middle Performers
High Performers
Low Performers
Comparison Classrooms
PALS Classrooms
School Wide Models Require the Integration of ALL
Services or Neverstreaming?
1) Catch em BEFORE they Fall - Pre-K and
2) Use assessment to inform instruction - not
label kids!
3) Decrease time spent feeding the
bureaucracy - testing for eligibility,
meetings, forms, etc.
4) Use staff and resources () more
5) Share responsibility for ALL students/ALL
6) Needs Driven NOT a label driven system -
Resulting in...
Increased Achievement for ALL!
Student Support Model Elk Grove
Assess for SpEd
Student study Team
Most Differentiation Takes Place in the
GE Classroom!
Pull-out Services (learning center/tutoring)
Push in Services
Co-op 2
Differentiated Instruction (classroom
Co-op 1
School Wide Assessment (general education)
Some Schools/Districts Developing Seamless
Models (just a few of them!)
San Miguel - Mark West District - Ann
Savvidis Gold Ridge - Cotati Rohnert Park Dist.
- Mary Campbell Washington Middle - Tonya Guisso
- Cloverdale Dist. Elk Grove District - Bill
Tollstrup - Spec Ed Director Paradise District
- Frank Terstegge (530) 532-5621
technical support CalSTAT 707-206-0533,
for more see www.calstat.org
On the Need to THINK BIG!
If we pull this off, well eat like kings.
Classroom Instruction That Works
-Marzano et al.
Ideas for Effective Instruction
  • Identifying similarities differences
  • Summarizing/note taking
  • Non-linguistic representations -vocabulary,
  • organizers, etc.
  • Cooperative learning (structuring participation)
  • Clear objectives feedback
  • Hypothesis testing (prediction/monitoring)
  • Questions/Advance organizers

Improving SSR/DEAR Programs Via Differentiating
the Structure Shefelbines Tough Love Reading
1) Teacher chooses the book (independent level
is critical) - or provides 3-5 to pick from -
level is key
2) Student whisper reads during SSR -
accountability subvocalizing
3) When student reaches pre-set criterion -
graduates to silent reading
Gr. 4 can add 2-3 min daily written
summary/response - pick 3-4 randomly to grade
each day...
Blending Segmenting Sounds - Heart
of Phonemic Awareness
Phonemic Awareness
  • Blevins
  • www.scholastic.com
  • Blackman et al.
  • www.pbrookes.com
  • Mathes et al.
  • www.sopriswest.com
  • Adams et al.
  • www.pbrookes.com

Alphabetic Principle/Phonics Decoding Strategies
Integrates Sounds, Letter-sounds, Sight Words,
Blending, Connected Text Spelling In Same Lesson
Interactive Phonics www.scholastic.com
SIPPS (Shefelbine) www.scholastic.com
Read Well (Sprick et al.) www.sopriswest.com
Spell Read P.A.T. (MacPhee et
al.) www.spellread.com
Balanced Literacy Gr. K-2 www.intellitools.com
Reading Fluency
Guided oral repeated reading…
  • Rate
  • Accuracy
  • Prosody

Blevins www.scholastic.com
Great Leaps www.greatleaps.com
Read Naturally www.readnaturally.com
REWARDS - Advanced Decoding/Fluency
Drs. Anita Archer, Mary Gleason, Vicky Vashon
- e.g. Walnut Schools/Vonnie DiCecco
Vocabulary Development
1) Interactive reading to students above
their grade/age - stretch them… 2) Massive
amounts of reading practice 3) Direct teaching of
critical words before and during reading
ELD High Point
Reading Counts www.scholastic.com
Book Adventure www.bookadventure.com
Bringing Words to Life Beck et
al. www.guilford.com
Reading Comprehension
Direct teaching research validated comprehensio
n strategies…
Questioning the Author (Beck et
al.) www.amazon.com
Comprehension Instruction Block
Pressley www.guilford.com
Soar to Success (Cooper et al.) Reciprocal
Teaching www.educplace.com
Example of expanding time outside of
school... Summer Reading Camp (Archer) - see
Decoding - Language! Phonics for Reading,
REWARDS, PALS Fluency - Read Naturally, partner
reading Vocabulary - Wide reading 30-40 min. at
home per day, partner reading writing,
interactive teaching Comprehension - PALS Upper
Gr., Skills for School Success Structure 3
1/2 hrs daily - 4-6 weeks, ALL students
below standards (special/gen combined - by
need) Results 1-3 yrs. growth in total reading
in many cases...
(No Transcript)
Bethel OR. - 1 Yr. of Intense FOCUS - Dramatic
Effects in ONE year!!
San Miguel School Mark West District
0 NON-readers!! WOW!!!
The greatest danger for most of us is not that
our aim is too high and we miss it, but that it
is too low and we reach it. Michelangelo
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