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Anglo American Colonization of Texas

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He also set up a militia and launched several attacks against the Texas Indians. He eventually failed at establishing peaceful relations with the Indians. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Anglo American Colonization of Texas


1
  • Anglo American Colonization of Texas
  • 1800-1830

2
"Interest in Texas Grows Among Anglo Americans"
3
Americans Move West
  • After the United Sates gained its freedom from
    Great Britain in 1783, Anglo Americans began
    searching for new areas to settle.
  • Some Americans ventured across the Mississippi
    River.
  • They dreamt of new homes in the West.

Anglo Americans People whose ancestors moved
from one of many European countries to the United
States and who now share a common culture and
language.
4
Why were settlers coming to Texas?
  • They were attracted to the plentiful and
    inexpensive land.
  • They were seeking adventure and personal gain.
  • They sought escape from problems in the United
    States.

www.txlandandcountry.com/ browne/browne03.jpg
5
Americans Move West
  • Authorities in New Spain wanted to stop the U.S.
    government from claiming land west of the
    Mississippi River.
  • New Spain was afraid that if Americans came West,
    they would outnumber the Spaniards and take over.

6
Spain Controls Immigration
  • Initially, Spain tried to control the movement of
    American immigrants by allowing Anglo Americans
    to settle in Missouri on generous land grants IF
    they agreed to
  • 1. pledge their loyalty to the Spanish
    government
  • 2. become Catholics (many were not)

Immigrants a person who comes to a country to
settle
7
Spain Controls Immigration
  • By making the settlers agree to the two
    conditions, Spain hoped
  • to populate the area to extend Spanish rule and
  • the new settlers would help prevent other Anglo
    Americans from entering the territory illegally.

8
Spain Controls Immigration
  • Under this plan, George Morgan became the first
    empresario to recruit settlers from the U.S. and
    be responsible to Spanish authorities for them.

empresario an agent who makes all arrangements
to bring settlers to a colony recruit to
persuade someone to join a group
  • In 1787, Morgan founded New Madrid,
  • which is now Missouri.

9
MOSES AUSTIN BEGINS COLONIZATION IN TEXAS
  • Moses Austin was from Connecticut.
  • Austin was interested in lead
    mining.
  • After hearing about George Morgans colony in
    current-day Missouri, Moses Austin moved there to
    operate a lead mine.

www.dallashistory.org/.../ texas/colonization.htm
10
MOSES AUSTIN BEGINS COLONIZATION IN TEXAS
  • Initially things went well for Austin until he
    lost his fortune and was deep in debt.
  • He decided that helping colonists locate in Texas
    was a good way to make money and pay off his debt.

11
MOSES AUSTIN BEGINS COLONIZATION IN TEXAS
  • He wanted to bring 300 US families to Texas.
  • Moses Austin presented a petition to the Spanish
    government.
  • (petition formal written request)
  • Do you think the Spanish Government is going to
    say, yes to more U.S. settlers to enter Spanish
    Texas? (The Spanish government was skeptical
    because of the filibusters who had attempted to
    seize/take over Spanish lands.)

12
MOSES AUSTIN BEGINS COLONIZATION IN TEXAS
  • Believing his petition was going to be approved,
    Moses Austin headed east to start recruiting
    colonists for Texas.
  • He became ill and was dying when he learned that
    his petition was officially approved by the
    Spanish officials.
  • On his deathbed, Austin asked
    his son, Stephen F. Austin, to
    carry out his dream of colonizing
    Texas.

www.dallashistory.org/.../ texas/colonization.htm
13
STEPHEN F. AUSTIN
  • At 27, Stephen F. Austin put aside his plans of
    practicing law and went to Texas to fulfill his
    fathers wishes.
  • Austins first visited San Antonio de Bexar and
    met with Governor Martinez.
  • Governor Martinez appointed Erasmo Seguin (a
    well-known and respected citizen) to help Austin.

photo at www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/
people/a_c/austin.htm
14
STEPHEN F. AUSTIN
  • Where would Austin put these colonists he was
    bringing to Texas?
  • Austins first job was to choose a site for his
    colony.
  • He chose the area between Lavaca and San Jacinto
    Rivers.
  • area easy for settlers to clear
  • received enough rainfall for crops
  • area good to grow sugar cane, cotton,
  • corn, and other familiar crops

photo at http//www.texas.discodesigns.com/texas/a
ustin/index.shtml
15
  • Austin traveled to New Orleans to recruit
    colonists.
  • Austin looked for people who were willing to
    accept hard times and could provide for
    themselves.
  • Remember, these colonists had to agree to be
    Catholic and loyal to Spain.
  • According to the grant, Austin could bring 300
    families to Texas.

16
The Old Three Hundred
  • By 1824, Austin had 297 families and single men
    who had received land in his colony. These
    settlers were infamously known as THE OLD THREE
    HUNDRED.
  • Among the 1,790 colonists in 1825 about 440 were
    slaves of African and Caribbean decent.
  • These colonists were very well educated and law
    abiding and many came from the southern U.S.
    including several from Louisiana.
  • Some women even held land grants in Austins
    colony which was untraditional for that time.
    One of the most influential was Jane Long, the
    widow of James Long.

17
Settlers Arrive in Texas
  • Beginning in 1821, settlers came to Texas.
  • Austin purchased a small vessel named Lively to
    transport the colonists.
  • Some colonists landed at the wrong river (the
    Brazos, instead of the Colorado) and didnt see
    Austin. These colonists were frustrated and
    returned back to their homes in New Orleans.

Lively
18
Characteristics of The Old Three Hundred
mostly U.S. southerners
mostly farmers
many slaveholders
mostly law-abiding
fairly well educated
19
OLD THREE HUNDRED
  • Settlers who were farmers received one labor, or
    177 acres.
  • Settlers who raised cattle received a sitio, or a
    square league of 4,428 acres.
  • Many settlers received both.

Once the settlers were selected to come to Texas,
they were given land titles, or proof of
ownership of the land.
20
Austins Leadership
  • The first years in the colony were tough.
  • drought
  • attacks by Karankawas
  • many colonists returning to the United States
  • Austins colony was successful.
  • This success was due to Austins leadership.

21
  • Once Austin found out that Mexico had gained its
    independence from Spain, he traveled over 1,000
    miles to Mexico to obtain permission for his
    colony.
  • After a year, he received the approval of the
    Mexican government for his colony.
  • During this year, Austin learned to speak Spanish
    and won the trust of Mexican officials.

22
Austin deals successfully with Mexican leaders.
  • Austin was awarded grants under national
    colonization laws.
  • Austin influenced laws that freed colonists from
    taxes.
  • Austin also obtained homestead rights for the
    colonists.
  • These rights meant that settlers land and tools
    could not be seized to pay back a debt.

23
Mexicos New Colonization Laws
24
Early Problems in Austins Colony
  • Stephen F Austin returned to his colony in August
    1823 along with Baron Bastrop to issue the
    official land titles.
  • He found that several settlers had already left
    and others were threatening to leave.
  • Major droughts had ruined many of the first crops
    and raids by the Karankawa and Tonkawa Indians
    left little food and supplies.

25
Austins Reaction to the Troubles
  • To reassure the settlers that they belonged in
    Texas and to regain their support, Austin
    established a central government near La Grange
    including a mixture of U.S. and Mexican laws by
    which to govern.
  • He also set up a militia and launched several
    attacks against the Texas Indians. He eventually
    failed at establishing peaceful relations with
    the Indians.

26
San Felipe de Austin
  • In 1824 Stephen F. Austin founded San Felipe de
    Austin as the capital of his colony. It was
    located along the Brazos River almost directly in
    the center of the colony.
  • San Felipe soon became a booming success as many
    people moved to the capital. By the 1830s, it
    was the second largest business center (next to
    San Antonio). The town housed a newspaper, a
    lumber mill, a post office and a hotel
  • Austins Colony WAS A SUCCESS!!

27
Austins Other Colonies
  • Austin, with the help of Erasmo Seguin and other
    Tejano leaders, founded four other colonies.
    Several of these overlapped his original colony.
  • One colony stood alone and was later known as
    Austins Little Colony. The main town was
    Bastrop.
  • Austins Little Colony suffered several Comanche
    raids due to its location (right next to the
    Indians hunting grounds) and never managed
    success.

My ambition has been to succeed in redeeming
Texas from its wilderness by means of the plow
alone in by doing this I hoped to make the
fortune of thousands and my own amongst the
rest. -Stephen F. Austin (per Gregg Cantrell)
28
Stephen F Austins Contributions to Texas
  • Over 40 Empresarios were granted land during the
    1820s and the population increased from a mere
    couple thousand to 21,000 by 1834.
  • Stephen F Austin alone was responsible for
    bringing more than 1,500 families to Texas.
  • He had the ability to get along with almost
    everyone he met including Mexican officials and
    Indian leaders
  • He will forever be known as The Father of Texas

29
If you were an empresario, which land grant would
you have wanted and why?
Mexican Land Grants, 1821-1836
30
Expanding the Empresarial System
  • Although Stephen F. Austin became known as the
    first real empresario in Texas, he was not the
    only one.
  • The state colonization law of 1825 allowed other
    empresarios to receive land grants in Texas.
  • By 1830, about 30 people were recruiting
    colonists to Texas.

31
Expanding the Empresarial System
  • The second most important empresario was Green
    DeWitt.
  • DeWitt founded a colony southwest of Austins
    original grant.
  • DeWitts headquarters were in Gonzales.
  • Although DeWitt had permission to bring 400
    settlers to Texas, he had only really settled 166
    settlers.

32
Other Empresarios
  • Martin de Leon- was the only Mexican empresario
    to found a Texas colony made up of primarily
    Mexican settlers.
  • Lorenzo de Zavala- was active in Mexican politics
    and received a grant to settle 500 families in
    East Texas. He sold the land before establishing
    the colonies

33
TEXAS IN 1830
  • Population in Texas was almost 20,000 people.
  • Towns of La Bahia and Nacogdoches had grown
    considerably.
  • There were new towns in San Felipe, Gonzales, and
    Victoria.
  • There were many other smaller communities.
  • The cotton and cattle industries were growing.
  • Working together, the Mexican government, the
    empresarios, and the settlers would continue to
    expand Texas population.

34
What did you Learn??
  • Where did most of the Old Three Hundred come from
    and what did they all have in common?
  • Most were from the Southern U.S. They were
    mainly well educated, law abiding farmers and
    many were slaveholders.
  • How did Austin and the other empresarios affect
    settlement in Texas?
  • They brought many immigrants particularly U.S.
    citizens to Texas, increased the population by
    setting up colonies and towns.
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