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Stem cells and Cord blood

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Stem cells and Cord blood What is cord blood? Another name: placental blood The blood that remains in baby's umbilical cord and placenta after birth A rich source of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Stem cells and Cord blood


1
Stem cells and Cord blood
2
What is cord blood?
  • Another name placental blood
  • The blood that remains in baby's umbilical cord
    and placenta after birth
  • A rich source of unique stem cells

3
What is stem cell?
  • The body's "master" cells
  • Create all other tissues, organs, and systems in
    the body
  • The building blocks of your blood and immune
    system
  • Can replicate into red blood cells, white blood
    cells and platelets
  • Cord blood stem cells can be classified into two
    types HSCs and MSCs

4
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)
  • Give rise to all the blood cell types including
    myeloid and lymphoid lineages
  • Most commonly used to treat Malignancies Cancers,
    Blood Disorders, Immunodeficiencies and Metabolic
    diseases

5
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)
  • Have a high potential in differentiating into a
    variety of cell types
  • Can differentiate into in vitro or in vivo
  • Mainly used to treat chronic disease
  • Enhance the regeneration of nervous system and
    restore damaged tissue and organs
  • Shorten the recovery time after transplantation
  • Capable of suppressing the effect of Graft Versus
    Host Disease

6
Function of HSCs and MSCs
7
Three sources of stem cells
  • Bone Marrow
  • Peripheral Blood
  • Umbilical Cord Blood

8
The Advantages of Cord Blood Stem cells
  • International literatures have recorded over
    80 diseases have been treated with cord blood
    transplants.

9
Comparison between Cord Blood and Peripheral
Blood and Marrow
Item Cord blood Peripheral blood Bone marrow
Collection process Collected from the placenta and umbilical cord after the infant is separated from the mother Collected after hetopoietic growth factors are used to stimulate growth of the stem cells of the donor Collected through medical operation, preparation, extracting about 100 syringes near the vertebrae of the donor
Time for the whole process 10-15 minutes 5-7 days at least 4-6 months
Age of stem cell 0 year old Same age as the donor Same age as the donor
10
Item Cord blood Peripheral blood Bone marrow
Possibility of being polluted by the source of disease Almost zero Very likely Very likely
Quantity of stem cell Highest Lower Medium
Cell expansion ability outside the body Higher Lower Lower
Repulsion of receiver Little (no repulsion in the case of autologous transplantation) Repulsion is the main problem after transplantation Repulsion is the main problem after transplantation
11
Item Cord blood Peripheral blood Bone marrow
Side effect for the donor No side effect Side effect of hematopoietic factors after stimulation is still unknown Danger of anesthesia discomfort and pain after anesthesia
12
Storage of cord blood
  • Stored in a cord blood bank
  • The quantity of cord blood differs from person to
    person
  • About 60ml on average per Asian
  • Every single drop of cord blood is rich in stem
    cells

13
Cord blood Collecting Processes in Hong Kong
  • http//www.healthbaby.hk/content.asp?Section2Sub
    Section1Topic3
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v7wg8T2bFWjQ

14
About BioArchive System
  • Computer-controlled, robotic liquid nitrogen
    cryopreservation and storage system
  • Enables the freezing and managing of up to 3,623
    blood component samples
  • Developed by ThermoGenesis
  • Utilized by more than 60 cord blood stem cell
    banks in more than 20 countries worldwide

15
Diseases which can be cured by cord blood
  • The number of diseases and injuries being treated
    is growing rapidly
  • Now over 80 diseases can be treated with cord
    blood transplants
  • http//www.cordblood.com/caregivers/banking/diseas
    es_treated.asp
  • Application in clinical trials Stroke, Pakinson
    Disease, Spinal injury, liver diseases, heart
    diseases, Diabetes Mellitus, renal failures, skin
    regeneration, etc.

16
The development of
cord blood technology
17
Findings about stem cells
  • In the early 1960s, a Canadian biophysicist Dr.
    James Edgar Till and a Canadian cellular
    biologist McCulloch started a series of
    experiments that involved injecting bone marrow
    cells into irradiated mice. They discovered a
    single marrow cell in the spleen of the mice
    perhaps a stem cell.

18
Findings about stem cells in human cord blood
  • mid-1970s, stem cells in human cord blood were
    discovered
  • 1980s,found that cord blood can be comparable to
    bone marrow by transfusion

19
Successes in cord blood transplant
  • 1988,the first successful cord blood transplant
  • a six-year-old boy suffered from a blood
    disorder, Fanconi's anemia
  • regenerate the boy's blood and immune cells
  • 1991,a child suffering from a cancer, chronic
    myelogenous leukemia.

20
The first banking of cord blood
  • 1992, the world's first family cord blood sample
    was banked at the University of Arizona
  • 1995, the Cord Blood Registry opened.
  • 1996, Designated Transplant Program (DTP)
    provided free banking of cord blood
  • 1998, become the first family cord blood bank

21
Legislation in cord blood banking
  • The legislation mandating gave the option to
    donate the cord blood to a blood bank free of
    charge
  • Illinois, the first state follow in 2004
  • In 2005, the number increase

22
Cord blood transplant becomes widely used
  • In 2005, more than 6,000 cord blood stem cell
    transplants performed worldwide
  • More than 400,000 cord blood stem cell units were
    banked
  • For use of over 120,000 clients
  • Researchers and medical experts continue to
    explore and discover strategies
  • Cord blood banking is rapidly progressing

23
Cases
24
Case 1
  • A British girl Dakota Clarke born blind with
    septo-optic dysplasia was cured by stem cells in
    cord blood.
  • The first British cured
  • by stem cells in China
  • http//www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/article
    2292792.ece

25
Case 2
  • A 5-year-old girl suffered from leukemia
  • received the cord blood from her new born sister
  • The new born child saved her
  • sister
  • http//www.takungpao.com/news/09/04/18/images_0701
    -1067707.htm

26
Reference
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbilical_cord_blood
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stem_cell
  • http//www.cordblood.com/cord_blood_faqs/cord_bloo
    d.asp
  • http//hk.knowledge.yahoo.com/question/question?qi
    d70060 52300429 http//forum.baby-kingdom.com/v
    iewthread.php?tid1103326extrapage3D1
  • http//www.thermogenesis.com/products/bioarchive.h
    tml
  • http//www.cordblood.com/cord_blood_news/media/med
    ia_kit/history_of_cordblood_banking.htm
  • http//www.cordblood-bank.net/history-cord-blood-b
    anking.htm

27
The End
28
Video
  • Cord Blood Stem Cell Transfusion Saves 3-Year-Old
    Childhttp//www.youtube.com/watch?vF-bch1U7pTE
  • Cord Blood Collectionhttp//www.youtube.com/watch
    ?v7wg8T2bFWjQ
  • ????? http//www.youtube.com/watch?v65Mvh5QltZ4h
    ttp//www.youtube.com/watch?vhG8Zj8-xHMk
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