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MCTS Guide to Configuring Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Active Directory

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MCTS Guide to Configuring Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Active Directory Chapter 2: Installing Windows Server 2008 MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory * * MCTS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MCTS Guide to Configuring Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Active Directory


1
MCTS Guide to Configuring Microsoft Windows
Server 2008 Active Directory
  • Chapter 2 Installing Windows Server 2008

2
Objectives
  • Plan a Windows Server 2008 installation
  • Work with Server Core systems
  • Use Hyper-V server virtualization

2
3
Planning a Windows Server 2008 Installation
  • Some networks require more planning than others
  • Smaller networks will most likely only require a
    few decisions before install can begin
  • Larger networks will require more planning to
    ensure a productive integration of the new server
  • It is important to consider the environment and
    the roles a server will play on the network prior
    to beginning an install of Windows Server 2008

4
Installing the First Server in a New Network
  • Hardware is key, so consider
  • CPU architecture AMD or Intel?
  • Workstation or Server line processor Server
    supports more features
  • Total number of physical processors
  • Number of cores in each processor Extra cores
    arent necessarily as good as multiple physical
    processors
  • 32-bit versus 64-bit
  • Virtualization extensions
  • Disk subsystem
  • Hot-add/hot-replace features ability to add
    memory or CPU without shutting down the system

5
Installing the First Server in a New Network
(cont.)
  • Other things to consider
  • Name of the server
  • Important for name resolution on the network
  • Network protocols
  • Some networks may use older protocols, such as
    IPX/SPX
  • IP Address
  • Having an efficient addressing scheme helps
    identify what a device might be doing just by
    its address
  • Time zone
  • Important for authentication
  • Workgroup or domain
  • Workgroup is more suitable for smaller
    environments, domain provides more advantages
  • Server roles
  • Will determine how the server is used

6
Ready, Set, Install
  • No longer a text portion of Windows install
  • Choose which edition you want to install
  • Full or core?
  • Accept license terms and determine whether you
    will upgrade or do a clean install
  • Select disk to install to
  • If you do not go to Advanced when selecting
    disks, the installer will use NTFS by default for
    the file system.
  • Set Administrator password after install

7
Ready, Set, Install (cont.)
8
Ready, Set, Install (cont.)
9
Postinstallation Tasks
  • Activate Windows Server 2008
  • Activation should take place automatically, but
    if it doesnt, it must be done within 60 days
    after installation, or logons will be disabled
  • Set the correct date, time, and time zone
  • Assign a static IP address
  • Assign a computer name
  • Configure automatic updates
  • Download and install available updates
  • Add and configure roles and features

10
Installing Updates
  • Patches
  • Fix bugs and security issues
  • Can be installed through Windows Update
  • Service pack
  • Collection of bug fixes and security updates
  • May also add features and performance
    enhancements or change the functionality of
    existing features
  • Under default settings, Windows Update runs every
    day at 300 a.m. to download and install new
    updates

11
Installing Updates (cont.)
12
Expanding Your Network
  • When adding a new server, you must decide whether
    the server will be one of the following
  • A domain controller (DC) in the existing domain
  • Adding a second domain controller can reduce
    server load and provide fault tolerance
  • A read only domain controller (RODC) in the
    existing domain
  • Can provide benefits similar to a DCs, but is
    more suited for branch offices
  • A member server in the existing domain
  • Falls under domain management but doesnt run
    Active Directory
  • A stand-alone server
  • Doesnt fall under domain management, but is part
    of a workgroup

13
Expanding Your Network
  • Reasons to add servers to a network
  • Company growth
  • Ideal to plan for growth before server is
    overloaded
  • Excessive load on existing servers
  • Performance will gradually degrade on servers
  • Need to isolate an application
  • Adding new applications to an unused machine
    reduces the workload of servers providing
    critical services
  • Need for Fault tolerance
  • Loss of access to server resources reduction in
    productivity and increase in costs. Enterprise
    Edition provides failover clustering to ensure
    high availability
  • Addition of branch offices
  • Placing a server in a branch office can reduce
    WAN traffic

14
Upgrading to Windows Server 2008
  • The only previous Windows version supported for
    upgrade is Windows Server 2003
  • You cant upgrade to a Server Core installation
  • Cross-platform upgrades arent supported, so you
    can upgrade only 32-bit to 32-bit, or 64-bit to
    64-bit
  • Theres no upgrade path to Windows Server 2008
    Itanium Edition or Windows Web Server 2008
  • You cant upgrade to a different language

15
Upgrading to Windows Server 2008 (cont.)
Current version Server 2008 upgrade path
Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition SP1, SP2, or R2 Windows Server 2008 Standard or Enterprise Edition
Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition SP1, SP2 or R2 Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition
Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition SP1, SP2, or R2 Windows Server 2008 Datacenter Edition
16
Upgrading to Windows Server 2008 (cont.)
  • Microsoft recommends a clean installation instead
    of an upgrade
  • Upgrade is similar to clean install, with some
    exceptions
  • Instead of booting to the install media, the
    upgrade install begins within the operating
    system to be upgraded
  • Upgrading on a domain controller
  • Consider changing Active Directorys functional
    level

17
Server Core Windows That Doesnt Do Windows
  • Server Core is suited for the following
    situations
  • Acting as a secondary DC to provide redundancy
    for Active Directory
  • Branch office servers when remote administration
    is likely
  • RODC server role for a branch office server
  • As a virtual machine to reduce the amount of
    resources used
  • Specialized single role server providing services
    such as DNS, DHCP, Web, or File Services
  • Departmental server

18
Windows Server Installation and Postinstallation
tasks
  • Server Core installation is identical to a full
    installation
  • Command-line is the only option for configuring
    many aspects of Server Core
  • Server Core can be managed to some extent by MMC
    on a remote machine
  • Many network related tasks are handled in Server
    Core by the net and netsh commands

19
When Not to Use Server Core
  • When its the first server in a network
  • When you need to install server roles and
    features that Server Core doesnt support
  • When the server administrator isnt well versed
    in using command-line programs
  • When you need to run applications that require
    the Microsoft .NET framework
  • When youre upgrading from Windows Server 2003
    (No upgrade path)
  • When you want to run Windows Web Server 2008 (No
    Server Core option)
  • When you cannot live without a GUI running on
    your server

20
Virtualize Your Server with Hyper-V
  • A virtual machine (VM) is a collection of files
  • Snapshots
  • A set of files containing a virtual machines
    state at a particular moment in time
  • Can be useful in testing the stability of a
    server after installing patches / applications
  • A hypervisor is a layer of software between the
    hardware and OSs that allows multiple OSs or
    instances of the same OS to share physical
    hardware resources.

21
Virtualize Your Server with Hyper-V (cont.)
  • Hyper-V manages CPU, memory, timer, and interrupt
    hardware, and Windows Server 2008 manages the
    balance of hardware devices
  • Host computer
  • The physical server on which Windows Server 2008
    is installed
  • Host operating system
  • Windows Server 2008 running Hyper-V
  • Guest operating systems
  • The virtual machines running on the host

22
Virtualize Your Server with Hyper-V (cont.)
  • Prerequisites for installing Hyper-V
  • You must be running a 64-bit version of Windows
    Server 2008 Standard, Enterprise, or Datacenter
    Edition
  • CPU must support virtualization extensions (AMD-V
    and Intel-VT)
  • Must have free disk space at least equal to the
    minimum requirement for the OS youre going to
    install
  • Amount of RAM must be at least equal to the
    minimum amount required for Windows Server 2008
    plus the minimum amount required for the OS
    youre installing

23
Reviewing the Benefits of Virtualization
  • Solving server sprawl
  • Server sprawl can occur when servers are added to
    a network to host special applications
  • Also happens when new servers are purchased to
    supplement existing servers
  • Virtual machines can be stopped, started, and
    reconfigured without affecting the VM host
  • Programs exist to convert physical machines to
    virtual machines capable of being run on a host

24
Reviewing the Benefits of Virtualization (cont.)
  • Simplifying training, testing, and Development
  • VMs supply a convenient venue for using several
    different operating systems at once, without
    having to add additional hard drives or remove an
    existing operating system
  • Virtual machines can act as a test bed for new
    updates and patches, so that administrators can
    monitor any issues that might be involved
  • Installing new applications that could
    potentially cause conflicts on a production
    machine can be tested within a virtual
    environment
  • Software developers no longer need to run
    operating systems on multiple machines to test
    compatibility software can be tested on several
    different operating systems simultaneously with
    virtualization

25
Creating Virtual Machines with Hyper-V
  • Hyper-V Manager MMC
  • Used to create virtual machines
  • Virtual machine must first be created
  • Steps required
  • Start the New Virtual Machine Wizard from Hyper-V
    Manager
  • Give the new VM a descriptive name, such as Read
    Only Domain Controller 1
  • Choose a location for the VM
  • Assign the amount of memory this VM requires
  • Configure networking
  • Create a virtual hard disk
  • Install an OS

26
Creating Virtual Machines with Hyper-V (cont.)
27
Basic Virtual Machine Management with Hyper-V
Manager
  • Running VMs do no require a logged on user,
    because they run in the background until you
    connect to them
  • To configure and manage a VM or access it
    locally, you need to run Hyper-V manager
  • If a snapshot exists for a virtual machine, a
    screenshot will be shown to give a preview of the
    saved state

28
Basic Virtual Machine Management with Hyper-V
Manager (cont.)
29
Basic Virtual Machine Management with Hyper-V
Manager (cont.)
  • To connect to a VM, you can use the following
    methods
  • Right-click the VM and click Connect
  • Double-click the VM
  • Select the VM and double-click its screen shot in
    the bottom section
  • Select the VM and click Connect in the Actions
    pane

30
Basic Virtual Machine Management with Hyper-V
Manager (cont.)
  • Virtual Machine Connection console
  • Toolbar icons from left to right
  • CtrlAltDelete (Sends CtrlAltDelete keystroke
    to the VM)
  • Start (Starts the VM)
  • Turn off (turns off the VM)
  • Shut Down (sends a signal to the OS to perform a
    shutdown)
  • Save (saves the VMs state, similar to Windows
    hibernation mode)
  • Pause (pauses the VM, similar to Windows sleep
    mode)
  • Reset (resets the VM)
  • Snapshot (creates a snapshot of a VM)
  • Revert (reverts to a snapshot of a VM)

31
Basic Virtual Machine Management with Hyper-V
Manager (cont.)
32
Chapter Summary
  • Most of the work involved with Windows Server
    2008 takes place in the planning phase.
  • A DVD is a common media from which to install
    Windows Server 2008
  • Postinstallation configuration tasks include
    giving the server a name, configuring network
    protocols, setting time zone information,
    selecting a network model, and installing and
    configuring Windows Updates
  • When adding new servers to an existing network,
    you must decide whether the server will be a
    domain controller, read only domain controller,
    member server, or a stand-alone server

33
Chapter Summary (cont.)
  • You can upgrade to Windows Server 2008 only if
    the existing OS is Windows Server 2003
  • Windows Server Core is a new installation option
    in Standard, Enterprise, and Datacenter editions.
    Server Core lacks the traditional Windows GUI,
    requiring most tasks to be done via command-line
  • Hyper-V server role can be installed only on
    64-bit versions of Windows Server 2008.
    Additional support must be available from your
    processor.
  • Virtual machines are managed in Hyper-V Manager,
    and otherwise run in the background until
    connected to.
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