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Child Poverty and Deprivation in South Asia: Key facts and UNICEF initiatives

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Child Poverty and Deprivation in South Asia: Key facts and UNICEF initiatives Gabriele K hler, Regional Advisor Social Policy, and Mariana Stirbu, Project Officer ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Child Poverty and Deprivation in South Asia: Key facts and UNICEF initiatives


1
Child Poverty and Deprivation in South Asia Key
facts and UNICEF initiatives
Gabriele Köhler, Regional Advisor Social Policy,
and Mariana Stirbu, Project Officer Social
Policy UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia 7
May 2008 Kathmandu
2
Outline of the presentation
  • SOUTH ASIA Key facts on poverty and inequality
  • SETTING THE STAGE Poverty reduction must begin
    with children.
  • CHILD POVERTY from income to multi-dimensional
    definitions of child poverty
  • MDGS, CHILDHOOD, AND POVERTY the nexus and
    implications
  • MDG PROGRESS IN SOUTH ASIA a tale of
    disparities
  • UNICEF ROSA INITIATIVES linking the various
    initiatives under Policy advocacy and
    Partnerships for Childrens Rights

3
  • South Asia some key facts on poverty and
    inequality

4
Key facts on South Asia
  • 1.5 billion people
  • 613 million under 18 - 41
  • 175 million under 5 - 12
  • Over 428 million under the international 1
    USD/day at PPP poverty line, as per 2001 data
  • At least 10 million migrants

Source UNICEF ROSA, Statistical pocketbook 2008
5
Trends in income/consumption poverty in South Asia
  • Insignificant share of the world income - in
    2004, South Asia accounted for 22.4 of global
    population, while its combined GNI was only 2.1
    of the world income.
  • Significant variations in GNI in 2004, GNI
    ranged between 675 billion US in India and 0.7
    billion US in Bhutan
  • Second lowest GNI per capita at PPP, after
    Sub-Saharan Africa - in 2004, GNI per capita at
    PPP (incl. AFG) of 2,830 US compared to the
    world average of 8,760 US with Maldives at the
    top of the list.
  • Reduction in incidence of income / consumption
    poverty - measured by of pop living on less
    than 1 USD/day at PPP, from 51.5 to 41.3
    between 1981 and 1990, and further to 31.3 in
    2001 (less AFG)

Source SAARC Regional Poverty Profile 2005
6
Regional income poverty
Source WB, Global Monitoring Report 2008
7
Incidence of poverty by country, of pop. below
international poverty line of 1 US/day at PPP
1981 1990 2001
Bangladesh 26.2 35.2 32.8
Bhutan - - 36.3
India 53.0 40.6 35.5
Maldives - - 1.0
Nepal 41.9 53.2 27.3
Pakistan 56.4 47.8 12.0
Sri Lanka 18.2 3.8 1.8
Source SAARC Regional Poverty Profile 2005,
please see report for footnotes and caveats
8
Incidence of poverty by country, of pop. below
national poverty line
1980 1990 2000 2004
Bangladesh 73.0 47.5 44.3 40.9
Bhutan 36.3 31.7
India 44.5 36.0 26.1 -
Maldives 13.0 / 23.0 / 44.0 3.0 / 8.0 / 21.0
Nepal 36.2 40 38.0 30.8
Pakistan 29.1 26.1 34.4 23.9
Sri Lanka 30.9 26.1 22.7 -
Source SAARC Regional Poverty Profile 2005,
please see report for footnotes and caveats
9
Regional inequality
Source WB, Global Monitoring Report 2008
10
Distribution of World Income Globalization for
whom?
Distribution of world GDP, 2000 (by quintiles,
richest 20 top, poorest 20 bottom) So
urce UNDP Development Report 2005
11
Historical Trend Inequality Keeps Rising
Ratio of the Income of the Richest 20 to the
Poorest 20
Year Ratio
1820 31
1870 71
1913 111
1960 301
1991 611
1997 741
2005 1031
Source UNDP Human Development Reports 1999 and
2005, New York
12
INEQUALITY at Global Scale
  • Half of the world lives below the 2-a-day
    poverty line
  • Need to bring redistribu-tion to develop-ment
    agenda

Source Sutcliffe, 2005. Department of Economic
and Social Affairs. WP 2. UNDESA
13
South Asia - Growth rate of GDP ( per year)
Source ADB Asian Development Outlook Report 2008
14
South Asia - Inequality by country, acc. to HDR
2007/08
HDI Rank share of income or consumption () poorest 20 share of income or consumption () richest 20 inequality measures - ratio of richest 20 to poorest 20 inequality measures - gini index
Maldives 98
Sri Lanka 99 7.0 48.0 6.9 40.2
India 128 8.1 45.3 5.6 36.8
Bhutan 133
Pakistan 136 9.3 40.3 4.3 30.6
Bangladesh 140 8.6 42.7 4.9 33.4
Nepal 142 6.0 54.6 9.1 47.2
Source HDR 2007/08
15
  • Setting the stage poverty reduction begins
    with children

16
Poverty reduction must begin with children.
  • Children hit the hardest by poverty it causes
    lifelong damage to physical, emotional, spiritual
    growth and development
  • Poverty affects children disproportionately
    developing countries have a larger child
    population, and income-poor families generally
    have more children than wealthier families
  • Poverty is the cause of millions of preventable
    child deaths, hungry children, children missing
    school, exploited and abused children

Source UNICEF Poverty Reduction Begins with
Children2000, UNICEF SOWC Report 2005
17
Poverty reduction must begin with children.
contd
  • Poverty in childhood is a root cause of poverty
    in adulthood impoverished children often grow
    up to be impoverished parents who in turn bring
    up their children in poverty, cause a vicious
    poverty cycle
  • Well-being of children, future generations a
    yardstick for measuring the wellbeing of nations
  • Economic prosperity at unprecedented levels yet
    not every child has a good start in life
  • With less than a third of 1 percent of global
    income, all children could achieve a minimum
    standard of living!

Source UNICEF Poverty Reduction Begins with
Children2000, UNICEF SOWC Report 2005
18
How is child poverty different from adult poverty?
  • I have to support my father as he cannot make
    much money to support our family, Ramesh told
    IRIN in the Nepali capital, Kathmandu. The boy
    works 10 hours a day at a workshop in Kathmandu
    for US15 per month. He quit school after
    migrating with his parents from Nawalparasi
    District, 200km southwest of Kathmandu, to escape
    hardship and poverty.
  • But life is more difficult here as we cant
    afford to buy medicines and dont have time to go
    to hospital, said Ramesh.

Source IRIN 9 July 2007
19
  • Child poverty from income-based to
    multi-dimensional definitions

20
  • Policy debates have indeed been distorted by
    overemphasis on income poverty and income
    deprivation, to the neglect of deprivation that
    relates to other variables, such as unemployment,
    ill health, lack of education, and social
    exclusion.
  • Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom 1999

21
Definitions of child poverty
  • UNICEF SOWC REPORT 2005
  • Children living in poverty experience
    deprivation of the material, spiritual and
    emotional resources needed to survive, develop
    and thrive, leaving them unable to enjoy their
    rights, achieve their full potential or
    participate as full and equal members of society.

22
Definitions of child poverty contd
  • UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY 2007
  • Children living in poverty are deprived of
    nutrition, water and sanitation facilities,
    access to basic health-care services, shelter,
    education, participation and protection, and that
    while a severe lack of goods and services hurts
    every human being, it is most threatening and
    harmful to children, leaving them unable to enjoy
    their rights, to reach their full potential and
    to participate as full members of the society.

23
Key facts on child poverty and deprivation in
South Asia SOWC 08
  • The largest absolute number of newborn deaths
    occurs in South Asia India contributes a
    quarter of the world total.
  • South Asia has the highest level of
    under-nutrition at 43 of children under 5 -
    among the regions.
  • South Asia has the second highest number of
    deaths among children under five, accounting for
    32 of the global total. In 1990, 1 in every 8
    South Asian children died before age five by
    2006, the ratio had decreased to 1 in 12.
  • Although sub-Saharan Africa has the highest
    proportion (66) of children not registered at
    birth, South Asia, with a corresponding ratio of
    64, has the highest number of unregistered
    children.
  • South Asia has the highest rate of infants with
    low birth-weights, and the lowest rates of
    vitamin A supplementation.
  • Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia together
    accounted for more than 80 of all child deaths
    in 2006.

24
Child Poverty by Region, 2000
Percentage of children living in poverty by region Percentage of children living in poverty by region Percentage of children living in poverty by region
Region Children in absolute poverty Children severely deprived of at least one basic need
Sub-Saharan Africa 62 82
Central West Asia 9 31
East Asia Pacific 9 30
Latin America Caribbean 15 32
Middle East North Africa 35 61
South Asia 54 81
Developing World total 34 57
Source Source Townsend Centre for International
Policy Research, http//www.bristol.ac.uk/poverty/
child20poverty.html
25
  • MDGs, childhood and poverty the nexus

26
MDGs, childhood, and poverty
FACTOR GOAL IMPLICATIONS FOR CHILDHOOD
Income Poverty Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 73 million children lt 5yrs suffer from malnutrition in South Asia. Many of them would eventually die.
Primary education Achieve universal primary education Over 31 million children in South Asia, the majority of them girls, are out of school. The price of failure to achieve the target is their denied right to continue education and have a better
Gender equality Promote gender equality and empower women In South Asia, girls who are often less valued than boys, are likely to receive less food, medical attention and schooling, which exacerbates gender inequality.
Child survival Reduce child mortality 3.1 million children under 5 die in South Asia every year, of which the majority could have been prevented through a few cost-effective interventions.
Families and women Improve maternal health Some 200,000 women in South Asia die from complications of pregnancy and childbirth every year, with infants having a lower probably of survival without the care of their mothers.
Health Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 130,000 thousands children (aged lt 15 ) live with HIV/AIDS in South Asia. The number of orphaned children is on the rise. Poor nutrition leaves children vulnerable to TB.
Water and sanitation Ensure environmental sustainability Access to water and sanitation is critical to child survival and disease prevention. In South Asia, millions of children are denied access to water and sanitation facilities
non-income
Source Table adapted from UNICEF SOWC Report
2005, p. 8-9, Data from various sources.
27
  • South Asia MDG performance a tale of
    disparities

28
Prevalence of underweight (moderate and severe),
2000 - 2006 (Percentage of children under five
years old whose weight for age is less than minus
two standard deviations from the median for the
international reference population ages 0-59
months)
Note Data refers to the most recent year
available during the period specified. The
boundaries and the names shown and the
designations used on these maps do not imply
official endorsement or acceptance by the United
Nations. The dotted line represents
approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and
Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The
final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet
been agreed upon by the parties.
Source UNICEF ROSA, South Asia Info database,
2008
29
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30
Net enrolment ratio in primary education 2000-2004
Source UNICEF ROSA, Progress and challenges in
South Asia 2006, Kathmandu, 2006
31
Percentage of children of primary school age
attending primary school by
sex, location and wealth quintiles, Bangladesh
2006
100
Net Attendance Ratio Male
Net Attendance Ratio Female
Net Attendance Ratio Both sex
90
88
87
86
84
80
83
82
81
79
79
77
70
73
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Urban
Rural
Lowest
Highest
Location
Wealth quintile
Source
Bangladesh MICS 2006
32
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33
Under-five mortality rate, 2000-2007 (The
probability of dying between birth and the fifth
birthday) Deaths per 1,000 live births for the
five-year period preceding the survey.
Note Data refers to the most recent year
available during the period specified. The
boundaries and the names shown and the
designations used on these maps do not imply
official endorsement or acceptance by the United
Nations. The dotted line represents
approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and
Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The
final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet
been agreed upon by the parties.
Source UNICEF ROSA, South Asia Info database,
2008
34
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35
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36
Maternal mortality ratio
Deaths per 100,000 live births
(adjusted, 2005)
2000
1800
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
830
800
570
600
450
440
320
400
120
200
58
0
Afghanistan
Bangladesh
Bhutan
India
Maldives
Nepal
Pakistan
Sri Lanka
Source UNICEF ROSA, South Asia Info database,
2008
37
Births attended by skilled health
personnel (Deliveries assisted by
Doctor/Nurse/LHV/ANM/Other health personnel)
Note Data refers to the most recent year
available during the period specified. The
boundaries and the names shown and the
designations used on these maps do not imply
official endorsement or acceptance by the United
Nations. The dotted line represents
approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and
Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The
final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet
been agreed upon by the parties.
Source UNICEF ROSA, South Asia Info database,
2008
38
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39
People living with HIV/AIDS
Source UNAIDS / WHO 2007
40
Proportion of the population using improved
drinking water sources 2001 - 2006 (Improved
drinking water sources includes household water
connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected
dug well, protected spring, rainwater collection
and bottled water)
Note Data refers to the most recent year
available during the period specified. The
boundaries and the names shown and the
designations used on these maps do not imply
official endorsement or acceptance by the United
Nations. The dotted line represents
approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and
Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The
final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet
been agreed upon by the parties.
Source UNICEF ROSA, South Asia Info database,
2008
41
Proportion of the population using improved
sanitation facilities, 2001 - 2006 (Improved
sanitation facilities include flush to piped
sewer system, flush to septic tank, flush/pour
flush to pit, flush/pour flush to elsewhere)
Note Data refers to the most recent year
available during the period specified. The
boundaries and the names shown and the
designations used on these maps do not imply
official endorsement or acceptance by the United
Nations. The dotted line represents
approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and
Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The
final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet
been agreed upon by the parties.
Source UNICEF ROSA, South Asia Info database,
2008
42
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43
Millennium Declaration chapter VI on violence,
exploitation and abuse
Country   working children (5-14 yrs) total number of children (5-14 yrs) of working children in child population (5-14 yrs)
Bangladesh 5.0 million 35.1 million 15
India 11.2 million 210 million 5
Nepal 1.7 million 6.2 million 27
Pakistan 3.3 million 40 million 8
Sri Lanka 0.5 million 3.2 million 16
Source ILO, http//www.ilo.org/public/english/reg
ion/asro/newdelhi/ipec/responses/index.htm
44
  • ROSA initiatives and their value added in the
    context of the study on child poverty and
    disparities

45
ROSA initiatives and their value added
  • Broad approach to social policy including social
    exclusion, income inequality and related policy
    responses
  • Social protection as a form of social policy
    (Conceptual framework and symposium)
  • Social Budgets, Children and Society (Regional
    Fiscal Budget analysis review of investments
    into social sectors and fiscal space to finance
    social policy)
  • Migration and Impacts on Children (review of
    impacts on child outcomes)
  • Capacity Development of Partners CRC/CEDAW
    (SAARC Decade of the Rights of the Child), WFFC
    5 (Regional Synthesis)

46
ROSA Initiatives and their value added
  • Strengthening the human rights and child rights
    principles
  • Identifying ways to make economic and social
    development more inclusive and equitable and
    pro-poor
  • Building stronger links between economic and
    social policies, and recognising the role of
    social policy and social protection for
    livelihoods, social inclusion, poverty reduction,
    and development
  • Better strategies to make legislation, policies
    and budgets more child-relevant
  • Better strategies to make social services more
    responsive to children and in particular
    vulnerable children and socially excluded groups
  • Using social policy to accelerate MDG achievement

47
NEPAL/ROSA a universal child grant as a building
block for a broader Social Protection Strategy
  • One example from recent practice
  • Technical and advocacy partnership with ILO
    Geneva and Nepal
  • Influencing Planning Commission, Ministry of
    Finance, Ministry of Local Development, Ministry
    of Labour
  • Rationale
  • rights-based
  • economic revival
  • political healing
  • A survey of the interests of potential
    beneficiaries underway with WFP
  • Possibly pilot in one disadvantaged area of Nepal
  • DfID and World Bank interested

48
Social Protection Symposium Some policy ideas
and outcomes
  • Portability of rights to basic social services -
    Looking at mobile forms of social protection
    across state and country borders and at the
    right to social protection for migrants
  • Idea of a tri-fold approach, combining
  • Enhanced, inclusive social services delivery
    (education, health, water and sanitation, etc.)
  • Cash transfers to households to improve economic
    security
  • Provision of trained and salaried care services
    by government or non-profit sector- recognising
    the care economy
  • The need for inclusiveness in social protection
  • The case for a citizens or social compact for
    social protection
  • Case for a generative or transformative social
    protection model embracing a plurality of models
  • Consensus on the shift towards universalising
    social protection
  • Emphasise the need for a child-sensitive social
    protection which prioritises the key rights and
    development needs of children
  • Seizing opportunities from economic growth and
    political change in South Asia
  • Advocacy for a global social floor or minimum
    social protection among UN agencies (ILO, DESA,
    UNICEF, UN-ESCAP) and regional partners (SAARC)

49
ROSA Fiscal budget analysis across 8 countries
of South Asia
Observation Rapid economic growth in South Asia
has created a strategic opportunity to advocate
for larger (and more effective) social
expenditures
  • Outcomes
  • Devinfo database at ROSA to include countries
    fiscal budget data
  • Use as analytical and advocacy tool at country
    and regional level
  • examples of applications Afghanistan, Nepal,
    Maldives, Pakistan

50
Social expenditure - sectoral allocation Year 2005
Source UNICEF ROSA, South Asia Fiscal Budget
database, 2008
51
Social expenditure - sectoral allocation (
GDP) Year 2005
32.50
30.00
27.50
25.00
22.50
20.00
17.50
GDP
15.00
12.50
10.00
7.50
5.00
2.50
0.00
BGD
BTN
IND
MDV
NPL
LKA
AVG
Source UNICEF ROSA, South Asia Fiscal Budget
database, 2008
52
Percent of total social sector expenditures
allocated to education Year 2002 to 2006
70.0
60.0
50.0
40.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
AFG
BGD
BHU
IND
MDV
NEP
LKA
AVG
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
Source UNICEF ROSA, South Asia Fiscal Budget
database, 2008
53
Percent of total social sector expenditures
allocated to health Year 2002 to 2006
35.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
AFG
BGD
BHU
IND
MDV
NEP
LKA
AVG
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
Source UNICEF ROSA, South Asia Fiscal Budget
database, 2008
54
Percent of total social sector expenditures
allocated to social protection Year 2002 to 2006
50.0
45.0
40.0
35.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
AFG
BGD
BHU
IND
MDV
NEP
LKA
AVG
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
Source UNICEF ROSA, South Asia Fiscal Budget
database, 2008
55
ROSA Impact of Migration on Children and Policy
Options
  • Desk study on 8 countries to asses the problem,
    survey existing policies and develop policy ideas
  • quantitative aspect gauge number of children
    affected
  • qualitative aspects impact on education,
    health, protection
  • policies and strategies in place
  • To address impact of migration for migrant
    children, children migrating with the family,
    children left behind
  • To reduce the reliance on migration as the only
    source of income in situations of distress

56
Regional migration study Some findings
  • Health outcomes
  • U5MR for children of urban migrants is 1.6 times
    higher than children of urban natives, but 1.1
    times better than rural non migrants (Bangladesh
    case study)
  • Education outcomes
  • 40 of children in urban slum and settlements in
    Dhaka (mainly inhabited by migrants) are out of
    school (Bangladesh case study)
  • 100,000 children in age group 9-15 drop out of
    school to go for seasonal work (Case Study, South
    Rajasthan, India)
  • Protection outcomes
  • Single migrant children in urban centres are
    almost always working on the streets and in the
    informal sector- rag picking, vending, domestic
    work, etc. (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal,
    Maldives)
  • The Study strengthens the evidence base for
    supporting the idea of portability of rights

57
Partner Capacity Building CRC/ CEDAW and WFFC
Linkages

The CRC and CEDAW two core rights conventions
with clear synergies and wide accession, that are
rarely utilised together.
  • Learning package of conceptual links and
    practical approaches
  • Inter-agency workshops led by UNFPA and UNICEF to
    improve CEDAW reporting, incl. in Nepal
  • South Asia
  • World Fit for Children 5 South Asia (2008)
  • SAARC child summit (2009)
  • Various consultations to create awareness and
    advocacy

58
  • This workshop
  • opportunity to analyse poverty and
    deprivation specific to South Asia and
  • discuss policy options which are child sensitive
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