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5 ineffective Benin,Burkina, Ghana, Senegal, Zambia ... e

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5 ineffective (Benin,Burkina, Ghana, Senegal, Zambia) ... effectiveness of Parliaments across four countries (Kenya, Ghana, Benin, Senegal) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 5 ineffective Benin,Burkina, Ghana, Senegal, Zambia ... e


1
Building State Capacity in Africa New Approach
es, Emerging Lessons
  • Presentation by
  • Brian Levy and Sahr Kpundeh (Editors)

2
A NEW IMPETUS FOR STATE CAPACITY BUILDING..
  • Development strategy policies
    institutions
  •  Africa stabilization democracy
    capacity performance
  •  Cancer of corruption
  •  PRSP process national systems

3
A NEW APPROACH TO STATE CAPACITY BUILDING
  •    Stabilization 2nd generation capacity
    building
  •  Democratization demand for capacity (not
    only supply)
  •   oversight mechanisms (not
    only bureaucracy)
  •   local and
    community levels (not only center)
  •  
  • WHAT CAN WE LEARN FROM EMERGING EXPERIENCE?

4
ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM LIMITED EFFECTIVENESS OF
AMBITIOUS PROGRAMS
  • Comprehensive reforms 3 effective (Tanzania,
    Uganda, Cape Verde)
  • 4 ineffective (Ghana, Guinea, Kenya,
    Zambia)
  •  Pay policy 2 effective reforms
    (Uganda,Tanzania)
  • 5 ineffective (Benin,Burkina, Ghana,
    Senegal, Zambia)
  •  PRSP-style budget-making 2 partially effective
    (South Africa Uganda)
  • 2
    ineffective (Mozambique, Zambia)
  •  

5
THE POLITICIANS DILEMMA UNDER WHAT CONDITIONS
CAN COMPREHENSIVE REFORM SUCCEED?
  • Developmental political leadership
  • Political mandate for action
  • Baseline of bureaucratic capability
  •   These can sometimes be built incrementally
  • (Uganda not 1986, but 1993)
  • (Tanzania not 1992, but 1998)
  •   But the reality is more often a
    dysfunctional political equilibrium
  •   In most places, most of the time,
    comprehensive reform will fail

6
BUILDING CAPACITY FOR EXPENDITURE ACCOUNTABILITY
  • EXPACC budget formulation budget execution
    budget reporting
  • Bad news on EXPACC
  • 15 HIPCs need substantial upgrading
  • 9 HIPCs need some upgrading
  • Possibly better news Bank interventions in low
    commitment countries
  • 8 EXPACC satisfactory (one unsatisfactory)
  • reversed for PUBADMIN reforms
  • - 2 satisfactory (6 unsatisfactory)

7
Strengthening Outward Accountability
  • Several lessons learned from attempts to build
    horizontal accountability
  • -- they will not succeed if they are based on
    some idealized view of best practice systems.
  • -- the starting point must be with a realistic
    view of how horizontal accountability operates in
    practice

8
Parliaments
  • Large disparities in the effectiveness of
    Parliaments across four countries (Kenya, Ghana,
    Benin, Senegal)
  • Why do we see such differences?
  • -- local patronage mechanisms
  • -- differences in formal rules across
    parliaments
  • -- differences in the degree to which
    parliaments can win resources for themselves
  • -- new generational cohorts
  • Key question then is can the evolution of
    legislatures be accelerated and/or their
    modernization be orchestrated from outside?

9
Anti-Corruption
  • The error was in presuming that the cure lay in
    narrowly targeted anti-corruption data-collection
    and awareness raising campaigns.
  • Important to make the distinction between
    structural interventions aimed at strengthening
    the capacity, transparency, and accountability of
    institutions and process interventions, which
    includes efforts to mobilize civic pressure for
    change
  • The crucial lesson over the past six years has
    been that the roots of corruption lie in
    dysfunctional state institutions.
  • Dedicated A-C agencies varied across five
    countries
  • -- Botswanas agency is a useful part of the
    arsenal of tools to ensure that public resources
    are well used
  • -- Agencies in Malawi and Sierra Leone have
    changed little
  • -- The Tanzanian and Ugandan experience fall
    somewhere in between

10
Virtuous Spiral vs. Burn-Out Populism
Structural Institutions
Goal of process intervention is participatory
structural reforms
Structures empower participation
Process Interventions
11
Downward Accountability
  • In a three-country surveyUganda, Malawi and
    Senegal
  • --Uganda came closest to meeting the stringent
    enabling political conditions and went furthest
    in pro-decentralization reforms but still uneven
  • -- In Malawi and Senegal, the political
    conditions were more constraining, with
    corresponding limitations in the extent to which
    local governments have been empowered.

12
Building State Capacity the Emerging New
Approach

13
SOME CHALLENGES GOING FORWARD
  • Comprehensive reform Can we be much more
    selective?
  • Can we break our addiction to best
    practice?
  • Narrower focus can catalyze cumulative change
  • HIPC tracking
  • Kenyas Parliament
  • Francophone Africas community schools
  • Malawi Social Action Fund
  • Ugandas Ministry of Finance

14
  HOW WELL ALIGNED ARE OUR AMBITIONS AND OUR INST
RUMENTS WITH THE EMERGING LESSONS ON STATE
CAPACITY BUILDING?
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