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Professional and Ethical Responsibilities

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Professional and Ethical Responsibilities Mathew Laba Shengsheng Liu Johnny Loi Bedros Magardichian Adam Marczyk CS 495 Senior Seminar Spring 2004 Group 2 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Professional and Ethical Responsibilities


1
Professional and Ethical Responsibilities
  • Mathew Laba
  • Shengsheng Liu
  • Johnny Loi
  • Bedros Magardichian
  • Adam Marczyk

CS 495 Senior Seminar Spring 2004 Group 2
2
The Nature of Professionalism
  • Mathew Laba
  • CS 495 Senior Seminar
  • Professor Steflik
  • Spring 2004

3
What is professionalism?
  • Websters defines professionalism as
  • Professional status, methods, character, or
    standards.
  • A profession is recognized as one of a limited
    number of occupations involving special training
    and carrying a certain social prestige.

4
What does it look like?
  • Occupations like accounting, law, medicine,
    engineering and computing are professions.
  • Thats right, computing. Computing is a
    specialized field of study which has emerged to
    satisfy the huge demand for professionals with
    certain unique skills.

5
Professionalism in computing
  • Professionalism in computing can be characterized
    as follows
  • Skills
  • Communication
  • Appearance
  • Speech / Mannerisms
  • Behavior
  • Role Models

6
Skill set
  • Very specialized field of study.
  • Difficult to maintain a skill set which might not
    be considered outdated.
  • Acquire and maintain a quality skill set
  • degrees
  • certifications and continuing education

7
Communication
  • Good communication skills are critical in the
    practical application of computing.
  • The complicated nature of computing makes
    communication difficult.
  • Computer professionals with good communication
    skills have a distinct employment advantage over
    less-verbose applicants.

8
Appearance
  • Appearance is another important part of
    portraying a professional demeanor.
  • To make a good positive impression be well
    groomed at all times.
  • Be sure to dress accordingly for all important
    meetings.
  • Dress casually when appropriate.

9
Speech / Mannerisms
  • Speak clearly.
  • A good command of the English language
    demonstrates your ability to convey a message
    well.
  • Your expressions and gestures affect the
    confidence that others have in your ability to do
    your job well.

10
Behavior
  • A code of ethics is used to define the
    expectations which most professions have of their
    practitioners.
  • typically associated with professional accredited
    organizations
  • special consideration given to the specific
    organization or field of concentration

11
Ethical Behavior
  • Special legal considerations
  • vast knowledge of sensitive proprietary info
  • great potential for abuse with large expense to
    employer
  • Unethical behavior discouraged with potentially
    severe criminal consequences and civil penalties.

12
Moral Behavior
  • In regards to employers and co-workers
  • Treat others with respect
  • Be courteous and considerate of others feelings
  • Respect others political and religious beliefs

13
The characteristics of a computer professional
  • Acquire and maintain a quality skill set.
  • Develop good communication skills.
  • Be well groomed at all times.
  • Speak clearly and act with confidence.
  • Behave in a moral and ethical manner.
  • Find a role model.

14
Someone to Emulate
15
Ethical Dissent and Whistleblowing
  • Shengsheng Liu
  • CS495
  • Professor Steflik
  • Spring 2004

16
Definition of Whistleblowing
  • The disclosure by an organization member (former
    or current), who is motivated by the notions of
    public interest, of illegal or immoral practices
    under the control of the employers and/or
    colleagues.

17
Famous Whistleblowers
  • Cynthia Cooper, WorldCom
  • Coleen Rowley, the FBI
  • Sherron Watkins, Enron
  • (left to right)

18
What did they do?
  • Cynthia Cooper
  • She reported that WorldCom had covered up 3.8
    billion in loss (the largest accounting fraud in
    history) through phony auditing.
  • Coleen Rowley
  • She blew the whistle on the FBI for ignoring
    the investigation plan on Zacarias Moussaoui, who
    is now indicted as a Sept. 11 co-conspirator.
  • Sherron Watkins
  • She revealed the infamous Enron auditing scandal.

19
Whistleblowing
  • Two kinds of Whistleblowing
  • Internal making a well supported suggestion to
    higher-ups in order to change the policies in the
    organization.
  • External making dissent outside the organization
    and contacting others to convince them to help
    reform the organization.

20
Whistleblowing
  • Conditions to Meet Before Going Public
  • Serious and considerable harm to the public is
    involved
  • One reports the harm and expresses moral concern
    to ones immediate supervisor
  • One has available documented evidence that would
    convince a reasonable, impartial observer that
    ones view of the situation is correct
  • One has good reasons to believe that by going
    public the necessary changes will be brought
    about to prevent the harm. 1

1. De George, R.T. 1990, Business Ethics, 3d ed.
208-212. (MacMillan Publishing, NewYork).
21
Issues
  • Cost and Risks
  • Companys reputation is jeopardized
  • Company goes bankrupt and its stock loses value
  • Employees lose their jobs
  • Whistleblower may be threatened and harassed
  • Loyalty vs. Whistleblowing
  • On the one hand is the duty of loyalty and
    confidentiality owed to the employer
  • On the other hand is ones ethical code

22
Conclusion
  1. Whistleblowing plays an important role in any
    organizations transparency and integrity.
  2. Done properly, it can effectively correct
    internal misconduct and minimize both cost
    associated with fraud and risk of the
    whistleblowing.
  3. People should step up and blow the whistle under
    necessary circumstances, to avoid future tragic
    cases like Enron and WorldCom.

23
Acceptable Use Policies in the Workplace
  • Johnny Loi
  • CS 495 Senior Seminar
  • Professor Steflik
  • Spring 2004

24
Tonights Talk Includes
  • Introduction
  • Historical Perspective
  • Current Perspective
  • The Cost
  • The Legal Issues
  • The Security Breaches
  • Future Perspective
  • Conclusion

25
Introduction
  • What is acceptable use policy?
  • Employers describing to employees what are
    acceptable/unacceptable use of company resources
  • Company resources (assets)
  • Tangible equipments, office supplies, corporate
    funds, computer, software
  • Intangible proprietary information, business
    strategies, plans, financial data

26
Historical Perspective
  • Before early 1990s
  • Supplies, equipment and information exchange
  • 1993 Corporate America welcomed the Internet
  • a new avenue for inappropriate use of company
    resources

27
Current Perspective
  • Three main problems employers face because of
    unacceptable use of company assets
  • Accumulation of unnecessary costs
  • Legal Liability
  • Security Breaches

28
The Cost
  • Misuse of company resources wastes money
  • Unacceptable telephone use example
  • 1000 employees
  • 5 minute long distance call per day (M F)
  • 5 cents per minute
  • One year total 60,000
  • Not including productivity loss and time waste
  • Solution
  • No personal incoming/outgoing calls during
    working hours except for emergencies

29
The Legal Issues
  • Misuse of company resources can lead to legal
    problems
  • Sexual Harassment Example
  • Chevron Corporation sued for sexual harassment
  • Four female employees received email entitled 24
    reasons beer is better than women
  • Company settled for 2.2 million

30
The Security Breaches
  • Misuse of company resources can jeopardize a
    companys security
  • Proprietary information must remain within the
    company
  • Employees responsibility to know when, where,
    and how to communicate private information
  • Do not send sensitive information through email,
    very insecure
  • Corporate hacking

31
Future Perspective
  • AUPs will evolve as new technologies get
    incorporated into the company
  • New guidelines for their proper use

32
Conclusion
  • Acceptable Use Policy protects companies in three
    ways
  • Reduce unnecessary costs
  • Prevent legal liability
  • Defend from security breaches
  • Effective when employers actively inform, train
    employees and enforce the policy

33
Dealing With Harassment and Discrimination in the
Workplace

Bedros Magardichian CS 495 Senior
Seminar Prof.Steflik Spring 2004
34
Common Types of Discrimination and Harassment
  • Race
  • Religion
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Physical or Mental Disability
  • Sexual Orientation
  • Ancestry or Origin
  • Source of Income
  • Sexual Harassment

35
Recognizing Discrimination and Harassment in the
Workplace
  • Hostile work environment
  • Retaliation
  • Whistle Blowing
  • Wrongful Termination

36
Court Case
  • Davey v. Lockheed Martin Corp., 1997
  • Discrimination based on gender
  • Lockheed Martin paid over 200,000 in punitive
    damages and compensation

37
Preventing Discrimination and Harassment in the
workplace
  • Company Policies
  • Training Programs
  • Codes of Ethics

38
The Law
  • The Federal Civil Rights Act 1964, Title VII
  • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
  • Equal Pay Act (EPA)
  • The Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)

39
The Business World Overseas
  • Discrimination and harassment issues drive
    company productivity down
  • Important for a business to be productive in a
    multicultural environment

40
The Role of the Professional in Public Policy

Adam Marczyk CS 495 Senior Seminar Prof.Steflik S
pring 2004
41
What is public policy?
  • The democratic process by which ideas become law.
  • Four major steps
  • Set the agenda.
  • Specify possible choices.
  • Select an option.
  • Implement the selection.
  • Professionals have a role to play in each step.

42
Why should professionals be involved?
  • Explosive growth of computing technology.
  • Society is more dependent than ever on computers.
  • water supplies
  • the power grid
  • air traffic control
  • etc.
  • It is vital that those with relevant expertise
    contribute to the formation of rational
    decisions.
  • Who would you prefer to set your medical policy,
    a doctor or a politician?

43
The Office of Technology Assessment
  • Created in 1972 in response to Congressional
    desire for expert technical advice.
  • Provided analysis of technical issues in almost
    every field.
  • Reports universally considered to be of
    exceptional quality.
  • Struggled to define its mission provide
    objective advice or recommend specific courses of
    action?
  • Closed in 1995 as part of Contract with America

44
Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility
  • www.cpsr.org
  • Created at Xerox PARC in June 1982 in response to
    use of computers in nuclear weapons, Star Wars
    program.
  • Major issues civil liberties, electronic free
    speech, privacy, use of computers in military
    applications.
  • Mission We foster and support public discussion
    of, and public responsibility for decisions
    involving the use of computers in systems
    critical to society.

45
Ethical Issues for Computer Professionals
  • Military funding for, use of research.
  • DARPA played a significant role in development of
    the first digital computers and the Internet.
  • Most major computer science departments depend
    upon large amounts of military funding for their
    research (Dunlop and Kling 1991, p. 658).
  • Binghamtons Digital Data Embedding Laboratory
    (dde.binghamton.edu) works on steganographic and
    cryptographic projects funded by the U.S. Air
    Force.
  • Is it ethically acceptable to work for the
    military?
  • Charles Dunlop and Rob Kling, Computerization
    and Controversy. San Diego Academic Press, 1991.

46
Ethical Issues for Computer Professionals
  • Vulnerability of the public information
    infrastructure.
  • Critical systems now connected to the Internet
    not originally designed with security in mind.
  • Destructive malware such as MyDoom continues to
    run rampant.
  • Potential consequences of an attack on the public
    infrastructure.
  • Al-Qaeda spokesmen have stated their intent to
    wage cyberattacks against important targets.
  • SQL Slammer caused failures of 911 terminals, ATM
    networks MSBlaster may have contributed to
    blackouts.
  • Do professionals have a responsibility to speak
    out merely because they possess relevant
    knowledge?
  • See www.computerworld.com/securitytopics/securit
    y/story/0,10801,76150,00.html

47
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48
Professional Codes of Ethics
  • ACM
  • Use of computing technology in ways that cause
    harm to others is prohibited.
  • Minimize negative consequences of computing
    systems.
  • IEEE
  • Make decisions consistent with the safety and
    welfare of the public.
  • Disclose promptly factors that endanger others.
  • ICCP
  • Ensure that efforts are used to benefit humanity.
  • Improve public safety through protection of vital
    information.

49
The Role of the Professional in Public Policy
  • No reason to believe ethics requires absolute
    pacifism, but professionals must retain some say
    in how their work is used.
  • Creators of A-bomb thought theyd be consulted on
    how their work was used.
  • Must work out of sincere concern to improve
    general welfare and public safety.
  • Professionals should take part in active efforts
    to promote informed public discussion, shore up
    security policy for critical systems.
  • Use skills and knowledge to contribute to society.

50
What the future holds
  • Public standards bodies are likely to play a
    greater role in policy formation.
  • More active role for government in setting
    security policy and overseeing the development of
    secure software.
  • Expanded role of software certification.
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