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Global Immigration Trends and Issues Keynote Address CIC-LINC Administrators

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Title: Global Immigration Trends and Issues Keynote Address CIC-LINC Administrators


1
Global Immigration Trends and Issues Keynote
AddressCIC-LINC Administrators Meeting
  • by
  • Dr. Usha George
  • Dean, Faculty of Community Services, Ryerson
    University, Toronto.
  • March 7, 2007
  • Eaton Centre, Marriott Hotel, Toronto

2
Features of Globalization
  • Mutually reinforcing processes of globalization
    and regionalization
  • Key Role of Global cities
  • Multinational companies control of employment,
    national exports, output, and technology
    investment
  • Increased mobility of capital and skilled labour
  • Multilateral, regional, and worldwide systems of
    governance and regulation
  • Technology and the resultant speed and reach of
    cultural and social networks
  • Reconstitution of new transnational political
    economy through global migrations
  • Asylum seekers and refugees are coming from the
    poor southern countries

3
Globalization and International Migration
  • Globalization has greatly facilitated
    international migration
  • International migration is noted in the
    conceptualization of globalization

4
Global Trends in International Population
Movements
  • Increasing Number of International Migrants
  • Global Movement of Refugees
  • Decreasing Number of Asylum Applications
  • Feminization of Migration

5
Increasing Number of International Migrants
  • Migrants total 2.9 percent of the world
    population (IOM, 2003)
  • 1 out of every 35 persons is an international
    migrant (IOM, 2003 p. 375)
  • Worlds foreign-born population has doubled
    between 1960 2000

6
Global Movement of Refugees
  • The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
    (UNHCR) reports that during the first quarter of
    2004, the refugee population was remarkably
    stable
  • By the end of 2004, the number of refugees
    globally totaled 9.2 million, a number which has
    decreased slightly since the beginning of the
    same year
  • Source UNHCR, 2004

7
Asylum Applications
  • The number of asylum requests filed worldwide in
    2004 was 676, 000 compared with 2003s total of
    830,300
  • Source UNHCR, 2005

8
Nations recording and receiving the highest
number of new requests for asylum in 2004
Nations recording the highest number of new requests for asylum Nations recording the highest number of new requests for asylum Nations receiving the largest numbers of asylum seekers Nations receiving the largest numbers of asylum seekers
France 58,5000 Iran 1,046,000
United Kingdom 40,200 Pakistan 960,600
Germany 35,600, Germany 876,622
The United States 27,900 Tanzania 602,100
South Africa 32,600 The United States 420,900
Canada 25,800 China 299,400
Source UNHCR, 2005
9
Feminization of Migration
  • In 2000, approximately 49 percent of all
    international migrants were women (IOM, 2005)
  • Women are increasingly migrating as independent
    heads of households instead of dependents

10
Migration Trends in North America- USA.
  • The U. S. is the worlds foremost receiving
    country with approximately 850,000 legal
    permanent entries and 1,535,000 entries with
    temporary visas each year (IOM, 2003)
  • The largest migratory movement on earth is that
    of emigration from Mexico to the
  • U. S. Between 300,000 and 400,000 Mexicans
    enter the U. S. annually.

11
Migration Trends in North America- Canada
  • Canada has received over 200,000 new permanent
    residents almost every year since 1990
  • There has been a quick and large increase in its
    proportion of foreign-born residents in recent
    years

12
Migration Trends in Latin America -Mexico and
Central and South America
  • Migration to Canada and the U. S.
  • Intra-Central America migration
  • Migration within the Andean region
  • Migration flows in the Southern Cone of
    Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay
  • Guerilla warfare promoting refugee movements
    return migration, and internal migration flows
    within Brazil

13
Migration Trends in Europe
  • During the past four decades the EU has been host
    to a large number of immigrants - In 2005,
    immigrants constituted 8.8 per cent of the total
    population of Europe (International Migration,
    2006)
  • Migration flows move into other countries within
    the region
  • The types of migration flows and connections with
    other parts of the world have diversified
  • Strong in-migration countries in the region
    include the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and
    Russia strong out-migration countries are
    Belarus, Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, and Ukraine
    and, those witnessing a moderate level of
    migration are Lithuania and Slovakia

14
Inflows of Foreign Nationals-Europe2003-2004
Receiving Country 2003 2004 2003-2004 Per cent change
Finland 7500 5600 -1900 -25
Germany 238400 202300 -36100 -15
Netherlands 60800 57000 -3800 -6
Denmark 16200 15900 -300 -2
France 173100 175200 2100 1
Switzerland 79700 82600 2900 4
Sweden 38400 40700 2300 6
Norway 18800 21400 2600 14
Austria 51000 59600 8600 17
Portugal 11100 13100 2000 18
U.K 214600 266500 51900 24
Italy 121800 156400 34600 28
Source IMO, 2006
15
Migration Trends in Europe
  • The intensity of migration flows can be
    characterized as those countries with strong
    inflow and weak outflow
  • strong inflow and outflow
  • weak inflow and
    strong outflow, and
  • weak inflow and outflow
  • Few countries, most notably Russia, have large
    numbers of displaced persons (Okólski, 2000 )
  • Most European nations have begun to curb
    immigration rates through the reinforcement of
    stricter immigration controls

16
Is immigration a remedy for declining and aging
populations?
  • A review of the research related to
    Immigration and Canadian demographics reports
    that while immigration, of about 200,000 per year
    can be the solution to effectively prevent
    population decline, at current levels of
    fertility, it has a minor impact on ageing, which
    will continue regardless of level of immigration
    (Beaujot, 1998).

17
Migration Policy Trends in Traditional Countries
of Immigration
  • Immigration as a source of increasing the labour
    pool and growth in population
  • Selection of immigrant stream to suit the
    countrys needs
  • Temporary-to-permanent entry routes have become
    increasingly prominent
  • Eurpean Immigration to the TCIs has declined
    while immigration from Asia has increased
    significantly

18
Transnationalism
  • A new perspective
  • A grassroots occurrence with deep historical
    roots
  • Is not a characteristic of all immigrants
  • Transnational identities can take a variety of
    forms
  • Transnationalism has macro-social consequences
  • Transnational activism varies in extent and forms
    with the contexts of exit in the sending country
    and reception in the receiving country
  • Global cities are major sites for transnational
    encounters (Portes, 2003 Castles 2003).

19
Consequences of Immigration
  • Small negative effect of immigration on
    unemploymenthigher social cost for immigrants
    than that for the population at large
  • Increased demand for goods and services produced
    in the host country creates favourable demand for
    labour
  • Immigrants serve as a flexible labour pool
    providing geographical and functional mobility
  • Immigration has assisted some countries in
    dealing with the problems created by an ageing
    population

20
Issues in Settlement
  • Meaningful employment
  • Information and access to programs and services
  • Housing
  • Language training
  • Community connections

21
References
  • Beaujot, R. (1998). Immigration and Canadian
    Demographics State of the Research. CIC Canada.
    Retrieved 27th September 2006 from
    http//www.cic.gc.ca/english/research/papers/demog
    raphics.html
  • Castles, S. (2003b). Transnational communities A
    new form of social relations under conditions of
    globalization? In J. G. Reitz (Ed.), Host
    societies and the reception of immigrants, (pp.
    429-445). San Diego University of California,
    Center for Comparative Immigration Studies.
  • International Migration 2006. (Wall chart).
    United Nations. Retrieved on March 6, 2007 from
    http//www.un.org/esa/population/publications/2006
    Migration_Chart/2006IttMig_chart.htm
  • International Migration Outlook. (2006).Retrieved
    on March 6, 2007 from http//www.oecd.org/dataoecd
    /44/33/36859673.pdf

22
  • International Organization for Migration (IOM).
    (2003). World migration 2003. Retrieved on
    January 22, 2007, from http//www.iom.int/jahia/Ja
    hia/cache/bypass/pid/8?entryId4992
  • International Organization for Migration (IOM).
    (2005). World migration 2005. Retrieved on
    January 22, 2007, from http//www.iom.int/jahia/J
    ahia/cache/bypass/pid/8?entryId932srcId933grps
    rcyespublicationEntriesGroup_filterWorld20Migr
    ation20Reports
  • Okólski, M. (2000). Recent trends and major
    issues in international migration Central and
    East European perspectives. International Social
    Science Journal, 52, 330-341.
  • Portes, A. (2003). Conclusion Theoretical
    convergencies and empirical evidence in the study
    of immigrant transnationalism. International
    Migration Review, 37, 874-892.

23
  • Tapinos, G.P. Delaunay, D. (2000). Can one
    really talk of the globalization migration
    flows? In (unknown eds.), Globalization,
    Migration and Development, 35-58. Paris OECD.
  • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
    (UNHCR). (2004). Refugee Trends 1 January-31
    March 2004. Geneva, Switzerland United Nations
    High Commissioner for Refugees, Population Data
    Unit, Population and Geographic Data Section.
  • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
    (UNHCR), (2005). Asylum levels and trends in
    Industrialized countries, 2004. Retrieved 5th
    October 2006 from http//www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/tex
    is/vtx/news/opendoc.pdf?tblSTATISTICSid42243914
    4pagestatistics
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