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DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION

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DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION Practical Classroom Ideas and Information for Effective Implementation WHAT is Differentiated Instruction? Differentiated Instruction is a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION


1
DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION
  • Practical Classroom Ideas and Information for
    Effective Implementation

2
WHAT is Differentiated Instruction?
  • Differentiated Instruction is a flexible approach
    to teaching in which the teacher plans and
    carries out varied approaches to content,
    process, and product in anticipation of and
    response to student differences in readiness,
    interests, and learning needs.
  • Responsive teaching rather than one-size-fits-all
    teaching.
  • Planning for unpredictability in the classroom.
  • Adjusting instruction to accommodate the needs of
    all learners.
  • Proactively planning a variety of ways to get
    at and express learning.

3
WHY Differentiate Instruction?
  • We differentiate to access learning, to provide
    motivation for learning, and to create efficient
    learning.
  • Students will be motivated to learn new things
    when they are connected to their varied interests
    and when the instruction is developmentally
    appropriate.
  • The learning process is more effective when
    information is accessed and expressed through the
    learners preferred mode.
  • The path one learner takes may be different than
    his/her peers.

4
How To Plan For Unpredictability?
  • Realize that some students instantly understand.
  • Realize that some students will understand after
    being taught a different way or with more
    practice.
  • Realize that some students learn after much
    practice and being taught many different ways.

5
Teachers Who Differentiate Have Successful
Learners for the following Reasons
  • Attending to teacher-student relationships
    contributes to student energy for learning.
  • Attending to the learning environment builds a
    context for learning.
  • Attending to students' backgrounds and needs
    builds bridges that connect learners and
    important content.
  • Attending to student readiness allows for
    academic growth.
  • Attending to student interests enlists student
    motivation.
  • Attending to student learning profiles enables
    efficiency of learning.

6
WHERE to begin?
  • All good differentiated instruction begins with
    ASSESSMENT.
  • You MUST genuinely know your students.
  • Restructure HOW you teach, not necessarily what
    you teach.

7
Keep This In Mind
  • The students who GET IT will need to move on to
    advanced (enrichment) activities.
  • The students who Are Not Quite There will need
    additional assistance and then move on to
    extension activities at their level of
    understanding.
  • The students who still Do Not Understand will
    need small group instruction from the teacher to
    re-teach and reinforce the skills.
  • All the materials and activities should be
    preplanned and prepared/organized for effective
    use in the classroom.

8
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9
Still LOST in this maze of Differentiation?
  • Heres a few ideas to help you find your way
  • Utilize the different ways to differentiate
    instruction.
  • Use varied groupings for differentiation.
  • Provide different methods of assessing learning.

10
WAYS to Differentiate Instruction INTERESTS
  • Give choice of mode for expressing learning.
  • Use interest-based mentoring.
  • Give choice of tasks and products.
  • Give broad access to varied materials and
    technologies.
  • Encourage application of broad concepts and
    principles to student interest areas.

11
WAYS to Differentiate Instruction READINESS
  • Add or remove scaffolding.
  • Vary difficulty level of text and supplementary
    materials.
  • Flexible use of time.
  • Vary direct instruction of small group.
  • Adjust proximity of ideas to student experience
    or background knowledge.

12
WAYS to Differentiate Instruction LEARNING
PROFILE
  • Create an environment with flexible learning
    spaces and options.
  • Allow working alone or with peers.
  • Vary teaching mode of presentation (visual,
    kinesthetic, auditory, concrete and abstract).
  • Adjust for gender, culture, and language
    differences.
  • Use multiple modes of assessment.

13
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14
Grouping for Differentiated Instruction
  • Whole Class
  • Small Groups
  • Partners
  • Independent (Individual)

15
Whole Class
  • ADVANTAGES
  • Builds a community of learners.
  • Provides a common knowledge base of all learners.
  • DISADVANTAGES
  • Differentiating instruction is more difficult.
  • Some students can become frustrated or bored
    depending upon the level of the lesson.
  • Students may not interact as planned.
  • WHEN IT WORKS
  • Different learners are considered when planning
    instruction.
  • All members of the class are provided with a
    similar experience.

16
Small Groups
  • ADVANTAGES
  • Provides for focused instruction.
  • Engages more learners.
  • Students learn to work with one another.
  • DISADVANTAGES
  • Students might be grouped together for too long.
  • Student perceptions of groups can be negative.
  • Students may not interact with other students.
  • WHEN IT WORKS
  • Group members change on a regular basis.
  • Students are taught how to respond to each other.

17
Partners (Pairs)
  • ADVANTAGES
  • Focused students.
  • Enables relationships to develop.
  • Encourages independent learning so the teacher
    can help those who need further assistance.
  • DISADVANTAGES
  • One of the two students may become too dependent
    on the other.
  • One of the two may dominate.
  • WHEN IT WORKS
  • Partners are switched on a regular basis.
  • Procedures are clearly understood by both
    students.

18
Independent (Individual)
  • ADVANTAGES
  • Allows students to develop their own
    understanding.
  • Enables the teacher to evaluate the individuals
    progress and level of understanding.
  • DISADVANTAGES
  • Can be difficult to organize.
  • Students may become easily distracted or lose
    focus.
  • Little sense of community.
  • WHEN IT WORKS
  • Students understand procedures.
  • An effort is made to bring the students back
    together (in small or large groups) to discuss
    what theyve learned.

19
Flexible Groups
  • Flexible grouping is the heart of differentiated
    instruction.
  • Grouping for instruction is fluid, and its use is
    flexible.
  • There are parts of the day that students might
    work individually, with partners, in small
    groups, or as a whole group.
  • Grouping is based on the NEEDS and INTERESTS of
    the students.

20
Flexible Groups
  • Groups Need
  • Clear Rules
  • Understanding of the task
  • Exemplars
  • Assigned Roles
  • Time Frames (including deadlines)
  • Space to work
  • Understanding that each member contributes

21
TWEENS!
22
  • There are 7 conditions that adolescents crave
  • Competence and Achievement
  • Opportunities for Self-Definition
  • Creative Expression
  • Physical Activity
  • Positive Social Interactions with Peers and
    Adults
  • Structure and Clear Limits
  • Meaningful Participation in Family, School, and
    Community.

23
Differentiating for Middle School Students
  • Strategy 1 Teach to Developmental Needs.
  • Strategy 2 Treat Academic Struggle as
  • Strength.
  • Strategy 3 Provide Multiple Pathways to
  • Standards.
  • Strategy 4 Give Formative Feedback.
  • Strategy 5 Dare to be Unconventional.

24
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25
Get To Know 15
  • Use learning inventories.
  • Have them verbalize how they are finding
    solutions.
  • Give them choices of activities and note their
    choices.
  • Teach them concepts in more than one way and note
    which way works for them.
  • Your other students are a lot like those 15
    students.

26
Making Differentiation Doable
  • Begin with one class
  • Need is greatest
  • Where you feel the most comfortable
  • For brief time spans.
  • With part of the class.
  • At the end of a time block.

27
Easy Ways to Get STARTED
  • Use small group instruction.
  • Teach in multiple modes.
  • Give the option to work alone or with a peer.
  • Regularly connect details to the big picture of
    meaning.
  • Connect ideas to student interests.
  • Ask student advice on class activities.

28
Easy Ways to Get STARTED
  • Student generated Interest Surveys.
  • Learning Modalities and/or Multiple Intelligence
    Surveys.
  • Vary the Homework.
  • Connect school work with life beyond the
    classroom.
  • Set personal criteria for student success.
  • Encourage students to develop personal criteria
    for success.
  • Watch More and Listen Better!

29
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30
10 Things to Avoid in a Differentiated Classroom
  • 1. Penalizing students for multiple attempts at
  • mastery.
  • 2. Grading practice (daily homework), when
  • feedback is what is needed.
  • 3. Withholding assistance (by not scaffolding
  • or differentiating) when its needed.
  • 4. Group Grades.
  • Incorporating non-academic factors into
  • grading (behavior, attendance, and effort).

31
10 Things to Avoid in a Differentiated Classroom
  • 6. Assessing students in ways that do not
    accurately indicate students mastery.
  • Defining supposedly criterion-based
  • grades in terms of norm-referenced
  • descriptions (average, etc).
  • 8. Allowing Extra Credit.
  • 9. Grading on a curve.
  • 10. Recording zeroes on a 100 point scale for
  • work not done.

32
RESOURCES
  • Carol Ann Tomlinson, Differentiated Instruction
    Getting
  • Started with
    Differentiation
  • Dr. Marlyn Appelbaum, The Middle School Guide to

  • Differentiated Instruction
  • Rick Wormeli, Differentiated Grading
  • Jennifer Rush, Whats the Diff in
    Differentiated Instruction?
  • Jen McDonald, Differentiated Instruction
    Through Multiple Intelligences
  • All information taken from session packets at the
    2007 National Middle School Conference,
  • except for the following
  • Tomlinson McTighe (2006), Integrating
    Differentiated Instruction
  • Rick Wormeli (2006), Differentiating for Tweens
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