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CARBOHYDRATES

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If your diet does not contain enough carbohydrates to supply the body with ... DKA (diabetic ketoacidosis)- life threatening blood-chemical imbalance that ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CARBOHYDRATES


1
CARBOHYDRATES
  • BBCHS Science Rocks!

2
Definition of Carbohydrates
  • Any of a large group of energy producing organic
    compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and
    oxygen.
  • I.e.- Starch, glucose, and other sugars

3
Macromolecules
  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Lipids
  • Nucleic acids

4
Simple and Complex Carbs
  • Simple- one, two, or three units of sugar linked
    together in single molecules
  • Identified by their sweet taste
  • Complex- hundreds of thousands of sugar units
    linked together in a single molecule
  • Pleasant to the taste but not sweet

5
Simple and Complex Carbs (cont.)
  • Appears in circulatory system in its simplest
    form
  • Glucose
  • Used for Energy
  • Production of ATP

6
Complex Carbohydrates (two types)
  • Low Fibers High Fibers
  • Polymers of simple sugars
  • Indigestible to humans
  • Cows has enzyme to break down High Fibers
  • This is how they can get calories out of grass.
  • Main thing in high fibers Cellulose
  • Better in diet

7
Fiber in Diet
  • Comes from plants foods
  • Whole grains, fruits, vegetables
  • Insoluble fiber help in regulating bowel
    movements
  • Protects against colon cancer
  • Soluble fibers help lower blood cholesterol

8
Classes of Carbohydrates
  • Monosaccharides
  • 1. Glucose
  • 2. Fructose
  • 3. Galactose
  • 4. Ribose

9
Structure of a Monosaccharide
10
Classes of Carbohydrates (cont.)
  • Disaccharides
  • 1. Sucrose
  • 2. Maltose
  • 3. Lactose

11
Structure of a Disaccharide
12
Classes of Carbohydrates (cont.)
  • Polysaccharides
  • 1. Cellulose
  • 2. Starch
  • 3. Glycogen

13
Structure of a Polysaccharide
14
Storage of Carbohydrates
  • Plants
  • Cellulose
  • Starch
  • Animals
  • glycogen

15
Cellulose
  • Different from starch and glycogen
  • Structure form a 2-dimensional shape
  • Stiff material
  • Stability
  • Plants use cellulose as a structural material
  • Support to leaves, stem, and other parts of the
    plant

16
Cellulose (cont.)
  • Cows have a bacteria in digestive tract that
    helps with breakdown
  • Cant be digested by humans
  • Passes through the digestive tract without being
    absorbed into the body
  • Even though it cant be digested it keeps
    digestive tract of humans clean.

17
Breakdown of Carbohydrates
  • Amylase
  • i. Secreted by the salivary glands
  • ii. Emptied in the mouth by the pancreas
  • iii. Turns complex carbs into simple sugars

18
Starch
  • Polymer of a Monosaccharide glucose
  • Plants store glucose as starch for later use
  • Enzyme amylase is use to breakdown starch to be
    able to be absorbed in our bloodstream.
  • Once in the bloodstream the body can distribute
    to where it is needed.

19
Glycogen
  • Polymer of Monosaccharide molecule
  • Humans store glucose as glycogen
  • Stored for energy
  • Stored in the liver and muscle tissue as a source
    of instant energy

20
Glycogen (cont.)
  • The form in which carbohydrate is stored in the
    animal body for future conversion to sugar.
  • Use in performing muscle work or for liberating
    heat.
  • Converted into glucose when needed by the cells

21
Glycogenesis
  • The formation of glycogen
  • Occurs after eating a carbohydrate meal
  • Glucagons
  • a substance secreted by the pancreas that
    stimulates the breakdown of glycogen and the
    release of glucose by the liver causing blood
    sugar to rise.

22
Metabolism
  • All physical and chemical changes that occur
    within and organism
  • All transformation of chemical energy of
    foodstuffs to mechanical energy or heat

23
Metabolism and Carbohydrates
  • All carbohydrates are digested into
    monosaccharides
  • Absorbed as glucose
  • In liver and muscles glucose is converted into
    glycogen or used
  • Carbon dioxide and water production of ATP
  • Cellular Respiration
  • C6H12O6 6O2 ? 6CO2 6H2O

24
Ketosis
  • If your diet does not contain enough
    carbohydrates to supply the body with glucose
    your body breaks down fat.
  • When the fat is broken down a substance called
    ketones are produced.
  • That process is called ketogenesis.

25
Ketosis (cont.)
  • DKA (diabetic ketoacidosis)- life threatening
    blood-chemical imbalance that develops in a
    person when the cells do not get enough glucose
    they need for energy
  • Fat is broken down (instead of glucose) and
    ketones are released into the bloodstream

26
Ketosis (cont.)
  • This can occur
  • in people with poor nutrition.
  • People that fast for 18 hrs. or longer
  • Low levels in pregnant women (depending on amount
    it can harm the fetus.)
  • Ketosis can indicate a very low carb diet.

27
Ketosis (cont.)
  • Result from incomplete metabolism of fatty acids,
    generally from carbohydrate deficiency or
    inadequate utilization
  • Large amounts of ketone bodies eliminated in
    urine (ketonuria)
  • Absence of starches prevents the breakdown of
    fats and proteins
  • Body becomes polluted with waste (fats ketones)
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