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Ancient Rome

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From Village to Empire Legend Abandoned on the Tiber River and raised by a She-Wolf, the twin sons of the god Mars and a Latin princess decide to build a city near ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Rome


1
Ancient Rome
  • From Village to Empire

2
Romulus and Remus
  • Legend
  • Abandoned on the Tiber River and raised by a
    She-Wolf, the twin sons of the god Mars and a
    Latin princess decide to build a city near this
    spot.

3
Geography of Rome
  • Developed because of strategic location
  • Fertile soil important to the agriculture
  • Built among seven hills along a bend in the Tiber
    River

4
The Seven Hills of Rome
  • The Seven Hills of Rome east of the Tiber form
    the heart of Rome. The Seven Hills of early Rome
    the Cermalus, Cispius, Fagutal, Oppius,
    Palatium, Sucusa and Velia figured prominently
    in Roman mythology, religion, and politics. The
    original city was held by tradition to have been
    founded by Romulus on the Palatine Hill. The
    other six are now the Aventine, the Capitoline ,
    the Quirinal , the Viminal , the Esquiline and
    the Caelian.
  • The hills of Rome were of great strategic
    importance because of their height and position.
    They have gradually been cut away and built over
    although they are still evident to the expert eye.

5
Strategic Location
  • Midway between the Alps and Italys southern tip
  • Located midpoint in the Mediterranean Sea

Not without reason did gods and men choose this
spot for the site of our citythe river brings us
produce from the inland regions and sea-borne
commerce from abroad, the sea Itself, near enough
for convenience yet not so near as to bring
danger from foreign fleets , our situation in the
very heart of Italyall these advantages make it
of all places in the world the best for a city
destined to grow great LIVY, The Early History
Of Rome
6
From Whence We Came
  • Three groups inhabited the region and battle for
    control
  • Latins
  • Greeks
  • Etruscans

7
Etruscans have skills
  • Skilled metal workers and engineers
  • System of writing
  • Architecture

8
It was all Greek to them
  • Greeks settle between 750 and 600 B.C
  • Settle along southern coast and Sicily
  • Develop prosperous and commercial activity
  • Teach Romans to grow olives and grapes
  • Romans borrow religious ideas

9
The Early Republic
  • The Early Romans accept an Etruscan monarchy
  • Under this leadership Rome grows from swamp
    village to a major city
  • Tarquin the Proud is the last king of Rome

10
The Last King of Rome
  • Tarquin the Proud was a harsh tyrant
  • Driven from Rome in 509 B.C. by wealthy
    landowners who resented his heritage
  • Romans declare they will never be ruled by a king
    again

11
The Republic
  • The Latin term res publica (from which comes the
    word republic) is usually translated as state
    or commonwealth.
  • At no time was Rome a democracy (that is, rule by
    the people) in the Greek, or true, sense. Its
    society was rigidly divided by legal status (free
    or enslaved) and by class.
  • Free men or women were further classified, for
    example, according to whether they were so by
    birth or by release from slavery, were Roman
    citizens or Latins, or were independent or
    answerable to a guardian or other person in
    authority.

12
Struggle For Power
  • Patricians
  • Plebians

13
Disenfranchised
  • Women
  • Slaves
  • Women could not partake in government decisions,
    office or voting
  • Slaves made up 1/3 of population
  • Slave mostly war captives who were soley owned by
    citizens and had no rights

14
Power in Society
  • Patricians vs. Plebians
  • Patricians inherited their power and social
    status
  • Ancestry gave patricians authority
  • Plebeians were citizens w/ rights to vote
  • Barred from holding office
  • Tribunes were finally developed to protect the
    rights of plebeians from unfair patricians

15
Government under the Republic
  • Rome claim a balanced government
  • Consuls (leaders) were limited in power
  • Limited terms
  • Senate represented Aristocrats of society
  • Senators were in office for life (continuity)
  • Major influence
  • Centuriate / Tribune Assemblies
  • Tribal Assembly represented the Plebeians and
    made laws for the common people
  • In times of crisis, a Dictator assumed absolute
    power for six months

16
The Twelve Tables Lex Duodecim Tabularum
Senatus Populusque Romanus
  • A plebeian named Terentilius proposed in 462 BC
    that an official legal code should be published,
    so that plebeians could not be surprised and
    would know the law.
  • Like most other early codes of law, they combine
    strict and rigorous penalties with equally strict
    and rigorous procedural forms.

17
The Roman Army Courage, Duty, Determination
  • All citizens required to serve in the army
    Citizen Soldier
  • Military units Legions (5,000)
  • Legions divided into smaller groups of 80
    Century
  • Organization/fighting skills were key to Romes
    rise to greatness
  • Daily training swimming, running, jumping,
    fencing and javelin throwing
  • To secure public office, ten years of service was
    required

18
Cincinnatus
  • Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus (519 BC) was an
    ancient Roman political figure, serving as consul
    in 460 BC and Roman dictator in 458 BC and 439 BC
  • Cincinnatus was regarded by the Romans as one of
    the heroes of early Rome and as a model of Roman
    virtue and simplicity
  • After defeating Romes enemies, Cincinnatus
    resigns his office and goes back to being a farmer

19
Romes Rise to Power
  • Fight to control Italian penninsula
  • Conquer the Etruscans, the Latins and the Greek
    City-States in the south
  • Good diplomacy with those conquered Citizenship
    and rights
  • Good location Good Trade
  • Built infrastructure to support trade
  • War with Carthage The Punic Wars

20
The Punic Wars Punici
  • The main cause of the Punic Wars was the clash of
    interests between the existing Carthaginian
    Empire and the expanding Roman Republic.
  • The Romans were initially interested in expansion
    via Sicily
  • At the start of the first Punic War, Carthage
    was the dominant power of the Western
    Mediterranean
  • By the end of the third war, after more than a
    hundred years and the deaths of many hundreds of
    thousands of soldiers from both sides, Rome had
    conquered Carthage's empire and razed the city,
    becoming the most powerful state of the Western
    Mediterranean.

21
Hannibal
  • Hannibal was a master strategist who knew that
    the Roman cavalry was, as a rule, weak and
    vulnerable. He therefore enlisted superior
    cavalry into his armies, with devastating effect
    on the Roman legions.
  • Hannibal surprised the Romans in 218 BC by
    directly invading Italy after traversing the alps
    with, most famously, two dozen African war
    elephants
  • Although Hannibal surprised the Romans and
    thoroughly beat them on the battlefields of
    Italy, he could not invade the crucial city of
    Rome itself, thus making him unable to draw the
    war to a decisive close.

22
Rome Controls The Mediterranean
  • Romes victories in the Punic Wars give it
    dominance in the Mediterranean world
  • Rome conquers the eastern half
  • Romes empire expands from Spain and Britain to
    Asia Minor
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