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Emergence of River Valley Civilizations

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Emergence of River Valley Civilizations * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Mohenjo-Daro Mound of the Dead Indus River Valley Destruction well-planned, citadels ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Emergence of River Valley Civilizations


1
Emergence of River Valley Civilizations
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4 River Valley Civilizations
  • Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia
  • Tigris
  • Euphrates
  • Egyptian Civilization
  • Nile River Valley (upper and lower Nile)
  • Indus River
  • Harrapan
  • Mohen-jo Daro
  • Hwang He
  • Yellow River later civilizations focused on both
    Yangtze and Yellow River
  • First dynasty is Xia then Shang

4
Nile River Valley
  • Because of its geography Egypt developed to
    become a peaceful civilization with a higher
    standard of living. People as individuals were
    treated with more respect here than in other
    civilizations of the time.
  • The Nile River Valley is Surrounded on Four Sides
    by Natural Barriers
  • Red Sea to the East
  • Desert to the West
  • Mediterranean to the North
  • Mountains to the South

5
Gifts of the Nile
  • Predictable flooding
  • Mild flooding therefore able to use river for
    irrigation
  • Prevailing winds made trade possible both north
    and south on the river
  • Rich deposits of clay, granite, sandstone
    limestone used for building
  • Silt deposits rich for farming
  • papyrus used for mats, rope, sandals, baskets,
    paper

6
Major Pharaohs of Egypt
  • Menes-
  • United upper and lower Egypt in 3100 BC
  • Ramses II
  • Defeated the Hittites and returned Egypt to
    Egyptian rule.
  • Nefertiti -
  • influential wife of Amenhotep, mother-in-law to
    Tutkanamon.
  • Amenhotep (later called Akhenaton)-
  • moved the capital and changed worship from
    polytheism to monotheism. The main god became
    Amon Ra and only the royal family could worship
    him.
  • Tutkanhamon-
  • young Pharaoh found with his tomb intact.
  • Hatshepsut
  • female Pharaoh who stabilized Egypt, built many
    new structures which provided work for many.
  • Cleopatra
  • last Pharaoh of Egypt

7
Rosetta Stone
  • We didnt know as much about Egypt until the
    mid-1800s after the Rosetta Stone was allowed us
    to decipher the hieroglyphics of Egypt
  • Napoleons officer discovered the Rosetta Stone
    (late 1700s)
  • Deciphered by Champanion in early 1800s

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Fertile Crescent
  • Deserts and mountains surround the Fertile
    Crescent to the north but because grass grew on
    these mountains it attracted wandering tribes who
    often attacked those living in the River Valley.
  • City-states protected and isolated each group

10
Natural Boundaries Unfavorable
  • Both rivers overflow in an unpredictable manner
  • The time of year could not be predicted.
  • The magnitude of turbulence of the flooding could
    not be predicted.
  • The area is called a "crossroad" because
    everyone who traveled or traded between Europe,
    Africa, and Asia traveled through this region,
    sometimes taking what they wanted

11
Mesopotamian Trade
The Cuneiform World
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Gave rise to multiple empires within the general
region that controlled different territory but
had similar culture
20
Assyria and its rivals
21
The First Empire Builder
  • Invasion and conquest were prominent features
    of the ancient Middle East. About 2300 BC,
    Sargon, the ruler of neighboring Akkad, invaded
    and conquered the city-states of Sumer. He built
    the first empire known to history.

Akkad (in green)
22
Cuneiform Wedge-Shaped Writing
23
Cuneiform Writing
24
Hammurabis CodeBabylonian
  • Stele or Stela Hammurabi
  • 282
  • Cuneiform

25
Assyrian (1st Empire)911 BCE 612 BCE
26
Middle Kingdom
  • Himalayas, Kunlun Shan, Tian Shan
  • Gobi desert
  • Pacific Ocean to east
  • rivers
  • Hwang Hu (Yellow),
  • Chang Jiang (Yangtze),
  • Xi Jiang (West)
  • yellow silt favorable climate make good farming

27
Ancient Dynasties Mandate of Heaven
  • Xia (first)
  • 2100 BCE 1800 BCE
  • Shang
  • 1500BCE- 1100BCE
  • Mandate of Heaven
  • Zhou (longest)
  • 1100BCE 256BCE
  • Confucianism during Axial Age (ca. 500 BCE)
  • Qin (Chin)
  • China gets its name from this dynasty

28
Mandate of Heaven
  • Zhou Dynasty
  • Family of rulers that have the approval of the
    ancestors
  • Dynastic Cycle has added element much like a
    divine monarch creates a theocracy yet as earthly
    events appear and have a negative impact then it
    is assumed that the emperor has lost the approval
    of the ancestors and they have created the
    environment

29
Are you Sleeping?
  • Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han
  • Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han
  • Sui, Tang, Song
  • Sui, Tang, Song
  • Yuan, Ming, Manchu
  • Yuan, Ming, Manchu
  • Mao Zedong
  • Mao Zedong

30
Confucianism and Scholarly-Gentry
  • Creates balance
  • Yin and Yang
  • Filial piety is the final link in the chain of
    continuity of the civilization

31
Indus River Valley
  • Harappan
  • Mohenjo-Daro
  • subcontinent of Asia water on east and west,
    mountain ranges on north
  • Hindu Kush and Himalayas
  • southwest monsoon brings heavy rain and flooding
  • enriched soil, but sometimes great erosion

32
Ancient Geographic Divisions in South Asia
33
Cities of the Indus
34
Mohenjo-DaroMound of the Dead
35
Indus River Valley
  • Destruction
  • well-planned, citadels, grid of streets
  • clay brick houses, plumbing with sewer system
  • bronze and copper tools, gold and silver jewels,
    clay pots, spun and woven cloth

36
Development of Region
  • Early Food Producing Era (ca. 7000-5500 BC)
  • Regionalization Era, (5500-2600 BC)
  • Regional cultural development
  • Subdivided into various eras
  • Emergence of an Early Indus state ca. 2800 BCE
    and urbanization ca. 2600 BCE

37
Drains Sewer Systems
38
Successors to the regionVedic Era - Hinduism
  • Aryans
  • Rajas
  • Indo-Europeans
  • Caste System - called Varna which translates to
    color in the ancient language)
  • Jati sub-castes

39
Aryan Invasion Theory
  • Sometime between 2500 and 1800 BCE
  • Aryans began moving into India
  • Apparently NOT the cause of the fall of Indus
    Civilization
  • Farmers without written language
  • Used Khyber Pass

40
Political and Social Systems
  • Tribe led by chief and tribal council
  • Tribes formed small states
  • Each state ruled by king and council of warriors
  • Aryans looked down on conquered people
  • Laws against marriage of Aryans with original
    valley dwellers
  • Men permitted more than one wife
  • Sons expected to be warriors and perform ritual
    at fathers funeral

41
Economic System
  • Mostly farmers
  • Barley major crop
  • Most owned their land
  • Handicrafts in villages
  • System of barter for goods
  • Cattle later used as money

42
Historical Geography
  • Environmental determinism the manner in which
    humans and the environment interact.
  • Man and his culture are shaped by their
    environment and while technology allows them to
    adapt, their underlying characteristics have
    already been shaped by their environment
  • Systems within a civilization are influenced by
    the environment
  • Humans change and adapt their environment with
    technology
  • Technology are methods that are used by man or
    mans attempt to overcome his environment
  • Possibilism is a different theory that holds that
    there is an interdependence between humans and
    their physical environment and that while the
    environment sets certain constraints, culture is
    shaped by man

43
Olmec- 3500-2500 BCE- site La Venta
  • Two environments Agricultural methods
  • Slash and burn agriculture- forested uplands
  • Irrigation riverine agriculture- riverine
    lowlands- u-shaped stone drain lines.
  • 2 or more crops per year
  • Maize, beans, squash
  • Lowland riverine populous became the elite
  • Chiefdom societies- with centers populated at
    circa 1000 each- rulers, elite, craftspersons
  • Writing system but un-deciphered though
    indications of counting system- Maya used same
    counting system so this aspect is translatable.
  • Items of trade
  • Highlands- obsidian, jade and Magnetite, cacao
    (drink for nobility)
  • Lowlands- mollusk, turtle shell, sharks teeth,
    and pottery
  • 4 major redistribution/ceremonial centers-
  • San Lorenzo, La Venta, Tres Zapates, and Laguna
    de los Cerros
  • Classic Maya- 2000- 800 BCE- sites Copan
    Palenque

44
Classic cultures of the Americas
45
Yin and Yang
  • The light color area which indicates more
    sunlight is called Yang (Sun).
  • The dark color area has less sunlight (more
    moonlight) and is called Yin (Moon).
  • Yang is like man. Yin is like woman. Yang
    wouldn't grow without Yin. Yin couldn't give
    birth without Yang.
  • Yin is born (begins) at Summer Solstice and Yang
    is born (begins) at Winter Solstice.
  • Therefore one little circle Yin is marked on the
    Summer Solstice position. Another little circle
    Yang is marked on the Winter Solstice position.
  • These two little circles look like two fish eyes.

http//www.chinesefortunecalendar.com/yinyang.htm
46
The Spread of Bantu
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