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The Cardiovascular System

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A closed system of the heart and blood vessels. The heart pumps blood. Blood vessels allow blood to circulate to all parts of the body. Function: to deliver oxygen ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cardiovascular System


1
The Cardiovascular System
2
The Cardiovascular System
  • A closed system of the heart and blood vessels
  • The heart pumps blood
  • Blood vessels allow blood to circulate to all
    parts of the body
  • Function to deliver oxygen and nutrients and to
    remove carbon dioxide and other waste products

3
The Heart
  • Location
  • Thorax between the lungs
  • Pointed apex directed toward left hip
  • About the size of your fist
  • Less than 1 lb.

4
The Heart
Figure 18.1 Page 677
5
The Heart Coverings
  • Pericardium a double serous membrane
  • Visceral pericardium
  • Next to heart
  • Parietal pericardium
  • Outside layer
  • Serous fluid fills the space between the layers
    of pericardium

6
The Heart Heart Wall
  • Three layers
  • Epicardium
  • Outside layer
  • This layer is the parietal pericardium
  • Connective tissue layer
  • Myocardium
  • Middle layer
  • Mostly cardiac muscle
  • Endocardium
  • Inner layer
  • Endothelium

http//www.ohiohealth.com/mayo/images/image_popup/
r7_heartmuscle.jpg
7
The Heart Heart Wall
Figure 18.2 page 677
http//legacy.owensboro.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/anat2/no
tes/Image261.gif
8
External Heart Anatomy
Fig 18.4 Pg 679
9
The Heart Chambers
  • Right and left side act as separate pumps
  • Four chambers
  • Atria
  • Receiving chambers
  • Right atrium
  • Left atrium
  • Ventricles
  • Discharging chambers
  • Right ventricle
  • Left ventricle

10
Blood Circulation
http//www.biomaterials.org/sigs/cardiovascular/im
ages/cv_anatomy_heart.jpg
11
Blood Circulation
Figure 18.5 Page 682
12
Flowchart for blood flow
Light Blue- Atrioventricular Valves Light Pink-
Semilunar Valves Red- Oxygen RICH blood
(oxygenated) Dark Blue- Oxygen POOR blood
(deoxygenated) Purple- Gas Exchange
Body where gas exchange occurs in capillaries
13
The Heart Associated Great Vessels
  • Aorta
  • Leaves left ventricle
  • Pulmonary arteries
  • Leave right ventricle
  • Vena cava
  • Enters right atrium
  • Pulmonary veins (four)
  • Enter left atrium

14
http//static.howstuffworks.com/gif/adam/images/en
/heart-front-view-picture.jpg
15
The Heart Valves
  • Allow blood to flow in only one direction
  • Four valves
  • Atrioventricular (AV) valves between atria and
    ventricles
  • Bicuspid (mitral) valve (left)
  • Tricuspid valve (right)
  • Semilunar valves- between ventricle and artery
  • Pulmonary valve
  • Aortic valve

http//www.starsandseas.com/SAS_Images/SAS_Physiol
_Images/SAS20cardiopics/heart_valves.jpg
16
http//www.trialsightmedia.com/exhibit_store/image
s/heart-valves.jpg
17
The Heart Valves
  • Valves open as blood is pumped through
  • Held in place by chordae tendineae (heart
    strings)
  • Close to prevent backflow
  • Lub Dub Heart Sound

18
http//www.clarian.org/ADAM/doc/graphics/images/en
/19613.jpg
19
Operation of the Heart Valves
Figure 18.9 and 18.10 pgs 686-7
20
The Heart Conduction System
  • Intrinsic conduction system (nodal system)
  • Heart muscle cells contract, without nerve
    impulses, in a regular, continuous way
  • Special tissue sets the pace
  • Sinoatrial (SA) node (right atrium)
  • Pacemaker
  • Atrioventricular (AV) node
  • Junction of rl atria and ventricles
  • Atrioventricular bundle (Bundle of His)
  • Bundle branches (right and left)
  • Purkinje fibers

21
Figure 18.14 page 691
22
Electrocardiograms (EKG/ECG)
  • Three formations
  • P wave impulse across atria
  • QRS complex spread of impulse down septum,
    around ventricles in Purkinje fibers
  • T wave end of electrical activity in ventricles

23
EKGs/ECGs
http//1.bp.blogspot.com/_aYa8XC4OPgQ/SdS8IubwZtI/
AAAAAAAAA-w/_pg2lp_zQGw/s320/ecg03.gif
http//www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/uploads/VMC/Di
seaseImages/1287_ECG_Definitions3.jpg
24
The Heart Cardiac Cycle
  • Atria contract simultaneously
  • Atria relax, then ventricles contract
  • Systole contraction
  • Diastole relaxation

Figure 18.20 page 697
25
The Heart Cardiac Cycle
http//www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sciences/lifes
cience/generalbiology/physiology/CirculatorySystem
/CirculatorySystem/TheHeart/cardiaccycle.gif
26
The Heart Cardiac Output
  • Cardiac output (CO)
  • Amount of blood pumped by each side of the heart
    in one minute
  • CO (heart rate HR) x (stroke volume SV)
  • Stroke volume
  • Volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one
    contraction

27
The Heart Cardiac Output
  • CO HR x SV
  • 5250 ml/min 75 beats/min x 70 mls/beat
  • Norm 5000 ml/min
  • Entire blood supply passes through body once per
    minute.
  • CO varies with demands of the body.

28
Regulation of Heart Rate
  • Heart rate is normally determined by the
    pacemaker activity of the sinoatrial node (SA
    node) located in the posterior wall of the right
    atrium.
  • Stroke volume usually remains relatively constant
  • Changing heart rate is the most common way to
    change cardiac output

29
Regulation of Heart Rate
  • Increased heart rate
  • Sympathetic nervous system
  • Crisis
  • Low blood pressure
  • Hormones
  • Exercise
  • Decreased blood volume

30
Regulation of Heart Rate
  • Decreased heart rate
  • Parasympathetic nervous system
  • High blood pressure or blood volume
  • In Congestive Heart Failure the heart is worn out
    and pumps weakly.

31
Blood Vessels The Vascular System
  • Taking blood to the tissues and back
  • Arteries
  • Arterioles
  • Capillaries
  • Venules
  • Veins

32
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33
Differences Between Blood Vessel Types
  • Walls of arteries are the thickest
  • Lumens of veins are larger
  • Skeletal muscle milks blood in veins toward the
    heart
  • Walls of capillaries are only one cell layer
    thick to allow for exchanges between blood and
    tissue

34
Pulse
  • Pulse pressure wave of blood
  • Monitored at pressure points where pulse is
    easily palpated

35
Blood Pressure
http//0.tqn.com/f/p/440/graphics/images/en/9124.j
pg
36
Blood Pressure
  • Systolic pressure at the peak of ventricular
    contraction
  • Diastolic pressure when ventricles relax
  • Pressure in blood vessels decreases as the
    distance away from the heart increases

http//www.everybody.co.nz/admin/UserImages/479a5f
19-d8cb-44a3-ac5e-544e695f8f20.jpg
37
Measuring Arterial Blood Pressure
38
Variations in Blood Pressure
  • Human normal range is variable
  • Normal
  • 140110 mm Hg systolic
  • 8075 mm Hg diastolic
  • Hypotension
  • Low systolic (below 110 mm HG)
  • Often associated with illness
  • Hypertension
  • High systolic (above 140 mm HG)
  • Can be dangerous if it is chronic

39
http//www.whatisnormalbloodpressure.org/systolic
20blood_pressure20_and_chart/diastolic_systolic_b
lood_pressure.jpg
40
  • Virtual Body Interactive
  • Label the heart
  • Heart Valves
  • Conduction Animation
  • Blood Circulation Interactive
  • Blood Flow Animation
  • Cardiac Cycle Animation
  • Perform Open Heart Surgery!!!
  • Awesome website on the Cardiovascular system!

41
(No Transcript)
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