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DESERTS

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EARTH S MAJOR TYPES OF BIOMES Tundra Taiga Deciduous forest Grasslands Desert Tropical rain forest Polar regions Water biomes Biomes A biome is a large scale ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DESERTS


1
BIOMES
2
EARTHS MAJOR TYPES OF BIOMES
  • Tundra
  • Taiga
  • Deciduous forest
  • Grasslands
  • Desert
  • Tropical rain forest
  • Polar regions
  • Water biomes

Each type of biome occurs in several places on
Earth. North America, South America, Africa,
Asia, and Australia all have desert biomes.
3
Biomes
  • A biome is a large scale ecosystem.
  • A biome is an area with specific plants, animals
    and climate.
  • The climate and the plants and animals adapted to
    living in that climate are what make the biomes
    different.

4
Climate
  • The climate of a region is determined by
  • temperature
  • rainfall
  • wind
  • light

A climate zone is a region in which yearly
patterns of temperature, rainfall, the amount of
sunlight are similar throughout.
5
PLANTS AND ANIMALS
  • Plants and animals differ in various biomes due
    to the climate.
  • Plants and animals have adaptations that allow
    them to live in the various climates found in the
    biomes.
  • Adaptations are features a plant or animal has to
    survive its environment.
  • (the way it moves, body covering, etc.)

6
deserts
7
DESERTS
  • Deserts cover about 20 of the Earths land
    surface
  • Soil and air are very dry
  • Less than 10 inches of rain or snow a year
  • There are hot and cold deserts
  • Deserts have little or no water
  • Only a few kinds of plants can grow there
  • Always sunny, hot during the day
  • Cold during nights

8
United States DesertsFound in the Southwest
  • Great Basin Desert
  • Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Washington,
    Idaho
  • Mojave Desert
  • Nevada, Utah, California
  • Sonoran Desert
  • Arizona, California
  • Chihuahuan Desert
  • New Mexico, Texas
  • Navajo Desert
  • Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico

9
Deserts Around the World
  • Africa
  • Sahara, Namib, Kalahari (The Sahara is the
    largest in the world.)
  • Mexico
  • Chihuahuan
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Arabian
  • South America
  • Atacama, Patgonian
  • Australia
  • Gibson
  • China and Mongolia
  • Gobi
  • Antarctica

10
(No Transcript)
11
Name the deserts!
12
Desert Climate
  • Deserts have a very dry climate.
  • They get less than 10 inches of rain or snow a
    year. A storm may drench the desert with several
    inches of rain, then not rain again for several
    months, even years.
  • Some deserts are hot, some are cold.
  • Deserts are the hottest places in the world. By
    noon its over 100 degrees.
  • Nights are cold. Temperatures can drop 60
    degrees or more between sunset and sunrise.

13
Hot Deserts
  • Most deserts are hot.
  • Temperatures on the sand can be 180 degrees
    during the day. You can fry an egg on the sand.
  • Nighttime temperatures can go below freezing.
  • In hot deserts, precipitation falls as rain.

14
Cold Deserts
  • Most of Antarctica is a giant icy desert.
  • There is no water at all at least no liquid
    water.
  • Its all frozen into solid ice, and living things
    cannot use it, therefore there are no living
    things.
  • Snowfall is only 4-8 inches per year.
  • It is the coldest desert in the world.
  • During winter, temperatures can drop to minus 126
    degrees.
  • In cold deserts,
  • precipitation falls as
  • snow.

15
Desert Landscapes
  • There are rocky and sandy deserts .
  • Erosion changes deserts. Erosion is the breaking
    apart of rock by rain and winds and sudden change
    of temperature. Monument Valley was formed by
    water erosion.
  • There are rocks in many shapes.
  • Dunes look like large waves.

16
Oasis
  • This is an area in a desert that has water all
    year long.
  • It usually comes from an underground river or
    pool.
  • People build villages around an Oasis.
  • They can grow crops here.

17
Desert Plants
  • Cactus (cacti, plural)
  • Creosote Bushes
  • Mesquite
  • Thorn Acacias
  • Sage Brush
  • Annual flowers
  • Yucca

18
Cactus (cacti)
  • There are about 2000 species
  • Most have thick fleshy stems with waxy skin.
  • The stem holds water and the waxy skin keeps it
    from evaporating
  • The stems can expand to hold more water
  • They have very long roots that grow close to the
    surface of the soil to collect more water.
  • All cacti produce flowers
  • Spines protect it from being eaten by animals.
  • They can be long or short, soft or sharp

19
CactiSuguaro
  • Suguaro is the worlds biggest cactus.
  • It can grow to more than 55 ft. and may live for
    200 years. They can grow as tall as telephone
    poles.
  • It does not grow arms until its about 60 years
    old.
  • It can store several tons of water after a rain.

20
Cacti Prickly pear
  • Prickly pears have broad fleshy stems with thorny
    prickles.
  • It has a delicious pear-shaped fruit
  • Its considered a weed in Australia

21
CactiBarrel Cactus
  • Barrel cactus are chubby.
  • They grow close to the ground. They look like
    fingers pushing up out of the ground.
  • They have shallow roots
  • that soak up the rain as
  • soon as it hits the ground.

22
Desert wildflowers
  • Seeds stay dormant in the ground for long periods
    of time until it rains.
  • After the rain comes, flowers bloom and cover the
    land, but die in just a few weeks.
  • Seeds drop and again wait for rain.

23
Desert Trees
  • The Joshua Tree is
  • actually a giant yucca
  • plant. They have tufts
  • of sharp leaves. Their
  • raised branches make them also known as
  • praying trees. They grow to about 40ft.

24
Desert TreesMesquite
  • Mesquite is a tough
  • bush or tree whose roots
  • will go down 50 to 60 feet
  • in search of water.
  • The pods are food for
  • animals, the trunks are used
  • for fence posts.
  • They have tiny leathery leaves that lose less
    water than larger ones would.

25
Desert Bushes Creosote Bush
  • There is a creosote bush in California that is
    9,400 years old. The average age is 900 years.
  • Its food and shelter for many desert animals.
  • Its tap root grows 3ft. below the surface.

26
Yucca
  • Yucca is a spiny plant that grows in gravelly
    soil.
  • It is food and shelter for many animals.

27
Plant Adaptations for Desert Life
  • Some have long roots that reach deep down to tap
    underground moisture.
  • Some have shallow roots that spread along just
    below the surface to collect as much water as
    possible.
  • Others have hairy stems that trap morning dew.
  • Plants with fleshy leaves and stems store
    moisture in them. (succulents)
  • Spiny cactus plants store water in their stems.
  • Thorns or spines protect the plants from being
    eaten by animals.

28
Desert Animals
  • There are many animals found in the desert.
  • Animals differ depending on the location of the
    desert.
  • Insects, Spiders, Scorpions, Reptiles, Birds, and
    Mammals can all be found in deserts.
  • Animals have many adaptations to help them
    survive in such harsh conditions.

29
Animal Adaptations
  • Animals need little or no water.
  • Animals get the liquid they need from the plants
    or animals they eat.
  • Many animals are nocturnal.
  • They burrow in the sand or cave, under rocks or
    in cactus to stay cool during the day and then
    hunt at night.
  • Those that are out during the day keep their
    bodies high from the ground by hopping or running
    on tiptoe.

30
Desert AnimalsBirds
  • Jewel-colored hummingbirds visit to sip nectar
    from cactus flowers.
  • Would you find them in the desert all the time?

31
BirdsRoadrunners
  • Roadrunners can fly, but prefer to run and catch
    lizards, snakes and other small animals to eat,
    even rattlesnakes!
  • They can run up to 20 miles per hour.
  • They have large, sharp beaks to
  • kill their prey.

32
BirdsGila Woodpecker
  • Gila Woodpeckers peck holes in Saguaro cactus to
    build nests.
  • They feed on beetles and
  • other insects living in the
  • Saguaros juicy stems.
  • They have no enemies but
  • the Saguaro is dying out in
  • some areas.

33
BirdsElf Owls
  • Elf owls also live in the Saguaro. They often
    move into empty woodpecker holes.
  • They have large eyes to see their prey at night.
  • Its only about 5 inches long.
  • It feeds on insects, spiders and scorpions.
  • Its feathers keep it cool during the day and warm
    at night.

34
Birds of PreyRed-tailed hawk
  • Red-tailed hawk They eat lizards, snakes, other
    birds and small rodents.
  • They also live here in Ohio.

35
Birds of PreyCaracaras
  • Eagles Mexican eagles called, Caracaras, eat
    dead animals.

36
Birds of PreyTurkey vultures
  • Turkey vultures depend on dead animals for
    their food. They can smell them while soaring in
    the sky.

37
MammalAdaptations
  • Some have hooves that help them walk on the soft
    sand.
  • They get moisture from eating grass and other
    desert plants.
  • Others eat insects, birds, lizards and other
    mammals.

38
MammalsDromedary camel
  • Dromedary camels live in African and Asian
    deserts.
  • They have 1 hump.
  • The camel stores fat in the hump and uses that
    fat when no other food is available.
  • It drinks up to 53 gallons of water at a time and
    can travel long distances without a drink.
  • They have special eyelashes and extra eyelids to
    keep out the sand.
  • They are used as transportation in the desert.
    Their nickname is ships of the desert.

39
MammalsArabian oryx
  • They live in herds.
  • They live in the Arabian desert.
  • They have horns to protect themselves against
    predators.
  • They almost became extinct in the 1960s due to
    hunting, but they have been raised in zoos and
    returned to the wild.

40
MammalsThe Kit fox
  • It lives in the American southwest.
  • It looks like a Fennec fox from Africa.
  • Its also called a swift fox because it runs so
    fast.
  • It has huge ears to help it stay cool and pick up
    every sound as it hunts in the desert at night.
  • They eat small lizards
  • and rabbits.

41
MammalsLong-eared Jack rabbits
  • They are really hares.
  • It doesnt burrow, but sits in the shade of a
    cactus or rock.
  • The black-tailed jack rabbit lives in North
    American deserts.
  • It can run 40 miles per hour and leap nearly
    20ft.
  • It eats desert plants at night.
  • It has large ears to hear enemies.
  • Their ears also help them keep cool.

42
MAMMALScoyote
  • It looks like a lean dog with a bushy tail.
  • They sometimes travel in bands.
  • They eat anything, vegetables, fruit, carrion
    (dead animals), small animals.
  • They nap under plants or sleep in their dens
    during the day, but late afternoon or night they
    hunt for food.

43
MammalsBats
  • Some eat nectar from flowers.
  • Some hunt for flying insects.
  • Long-nosed bats like nectar.

44
ReptilesBearded dragon
  • The bearded dragon is named for the bristly
    shield on its throat.
  • It lives in the Australian deserts.
  • It can run on its hind legs. It keeps cool by
    lifting his body clear off the ground.
  • It eats mainly insects.
  • It basks in the sun late in the afternoon to warm
    its body for when he looks for food at night.
  • This is different from other lizards.

45
ReptilesGila monster
  • It lives in the deserts of North America.
  • Its bite is poisonous.
  • Its bright colors warn other animals to leave it
    alone.
  • It eats birds eggs and other small animals.
  • The lizard stores food in its tail for the dry
    season.
  • It is only active during the
  • wet season.

46
ReptilesChuckwalla
  • It lives in North America.
  • They eat desert flowers in Spring and early
    summer and sleep the rest of the year.
  • If attacked, it dives into a rock crevice and
    puffs its body up with air so it cant be pulled
    out.

47
ReptilesDesert tortoise
  • The tortoise eats cacti.
  • They have horny jaws instead of teeth.
  • They never drink water. They get all the water
    they need from the plants they eat.
  • They store water from the cacti in their bodies.
  • They are rare now because theyve been collected
    and sold as pets.
  • There are laws to protect
  • them now.

48
ReptilesSidewinder rattlesnake
  • They live in North American deserts.
  • They find their prey at night by the heat
    sensitive pits on each side of their head. They
    sense warm blooded prey.
  • It moves by throwing its body into loops and only
    two points of its body touch the sand at one
    time, leaving parallel tracks.
  • Fangs swing forward out of the mouth when
    attacking.
  • Each time a rattler sheds its skin, it adds a new
    ring to the rattle. It gets bigger and louder as
    the snake grows older.

49
ReptilesDesert king snake
  • It is non-venomous.
  • It lives in North American deserts.
  • It eats other snakes sometimes twice its size.
  • It kills its prey by squeezing it.
  • It swallows its meal whole.

50
ArachnidsGiant hairy desert scorpion
  • Its the largest kind of scorpion in North
    America. It grows up to 5.5. inches long.
  • Scorpions use the hairs to help sense smells and
    movement of prey.
  • Their bodies have a waxy coating to prevent
    moisture from escaping.
  • Spend most of their time resting. Because of this
    they dont need to eat often.
  • They eat mice, lizards, snakes, other scorpions
    and they are nocturnal.

51
ArachnidsTarantula
  • They live in holes in the ground.
  • They are hairy.
  • They eat insects and small creatures.

52
InsectsNamib darkling beetle
  • It lives in Africa, close to the sea.
  • It obtains drinking water from sea fog.
  • It searches for food during the day and stays
    buried in the sand at night.
  • If attacked, it squirts poison from its abdomen.

53
Endangered desert animalsBactrian Camel
  • only 2 wild herds left
  • Found in Gobi desert
  • habitat loss

54
Gila monster
  • Habitat loss

55
Scimitar Horned Oryx
  • Killed during wars
  • Goats and cattle ate the oryxs food supply
  • Bred in captivity and released in the wild

56
Addax
  • Extinct in Egypt
  • Used as pack animals
  • Sacrificed in religious ceremonies
  • Fewer than 1000 left in Africa
  • They have one advantage, other animals do not
    like to eat them

57
Desert Bighorn
  • Habitat loss due to cities took
  • over their water source
  • Gets moisture from plants
  • Burros compete for food
  • People have provided sanctuaries
  • around water holes for them

58
ocelot
  • Almost gone from desert
  • Hunted for fur in North America
  • Orange fur/jungle
  • Gray fur/desert

59
Jaguarundi
  • Habitat loss
  • Over hunted
  • Farmers shoot them because they attack
    domesticated animals

60
Bobcat
  • Hunted for fur
  • Habitat loss due to cities being built in the
    wilderness areas

61
Desert destructioncauses
  • Cities being built
  • Farming
  • Mining
  • Oil wells
  • Off road vehicles
  • Tourists
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