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Native American Cultural Groups

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Native American Cultural Groups In order to provide an insight to the cultural, linguistic, and ethnic diversity of Native Americans, and provide alternative mental ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Native American Cultural Groups


1
Native American Cultural Groups
In order to provide an insight to the cultural,
linguistic, and ethnic diversity of Native
Americans, and provide alternative mental images
that depict the American Indian, this
presentation will explore elements of lifestyle
and traits in clothes, headdress, hairstyle and
other physical appearances that distinguish four
cultural groups of American Indians, also
referred to as Native Americans.
Learning Objective Upon completion, the learner
should be able to demonstrate the ability to
distinguish between the represented Native
American cultural groups by analyzing details
and contextual clues within the photographs to
recognize combinations of clothing, jewelry,
accessories, and headdress that distinguish that
cultural group from a list of choices.
  • These four cultural groups are
  • Woodland,
  • Pueblo,
  • Plains/Plateau, and
  • Pacific Northwest Indians.
  • Instructional Designer Randy S Tanner

2
Can you identify who is Native American?
Yes, all of these artists and entertainers are
Native American
Through Guessing?
3
One little, two little, three little Indians
  • How many Indians are there?
  • According to the 2000 U.S. Census (Glaczko,
    2001)
  • 2.5 million registered as Native American,
    American Indian, Alaskan Native.
  • 4.5 million registered as predominantly Native
    American, American Indian, Alaskan Native.
  • 1 of 4 Americans, whose grandparents were born in
    the U.S., share Native American ancestry.

4
500 Nations
  • The term 500 Nations refers to the diverse,
    indigenous American population before European
    contact in the 1490s (Michaelis, 1997).
  • Over 300 original native languages in use prior
    to Euro contact only 175 survive today. (
    color-coded for the 10 Major Language Families)

5
Taxonomy of Nations
  • The diversity of language, social customs,
    spiritual beliefs, and ethnic origins of the
    hundreds of native nations, or peoples (tribes)
    has driven classification efforts by historians,
    anthropologists, and social scientists using
    various methods (Hodge, 2003 Jack, n.d. Native
    Language Network, 2000)
  • Language reveals ethnic and genetic links
  • Crafts based on basket weaving, pottery, or
    leather work
  • Geography coastal, plains, southwest,
    southeast, etc.
  • Socio-political culture based on shared social
    characteristics and similar lifestyles.
  • Unrelated ethnic groups often shared crafts,
    lodging, and dress styles due to proximity.
  • Lifestyle and dress were influenced by both
    internal and external factors.

6
Influence Factors
  • External Factors
  • Geography/Climate
  • Unrelated ethnic groups often shared crafts,
    lodging, and dress styles due to proximity.
  • Trade/Isolation
  • Natural barriers of distance or landscape.
  • Distinctive traits increased with isolation
  • Commonality increased with inter-tribal trade
    (beads, shells, craft techniques, Euro iron
    items)
  • Raw materials available (bone, flint, obsidian,
    straw, clay, cedar, cotton, wool)
  • Food sources (buffalo, deer, otter and beaver)
  • Internal Factors
  • Cultural Norms (masculine feminine social roles
    and distinctions)
  • Display of status (feathers, scalps, skulls,
    power shirts)
  • Values mores (spiritual ideals, medicine and
    power, animal totems)
  • (Please refer to the workbook activities)

7
Southeast Woodland Indians ca. 1800 1830s
(Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Seminole)
  • Known as the Five Civilized Tribes, they were
    quick to adopt Euro dress and some customs early
    after contact.

8
Southeast Woodland Indians ca. 1800 1830s
(Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Seminole)
  • Locale Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, and North
    Carolina.

9
Southeast Woodland Indians ca. 1800 1830s
(Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Seminole)
  • External Influences (Hodge, 2003)
  • Climate hot and cold extremes
  • Raw materials available bone, flint, straw, and
    clay (no iron, little silver, or wool)
  • Food sources crops, deer and small game
  • Extensive inter-tribal trade
  • Trade with early Europeans
  • Cotton and wool cloth
  • Cloth long shirts
  • Ostrich and Peacock plumes
  • Trade silver (silver coins, trinkets, and
    buckles) were hammered into jewelry items.

10
Southeast Woodland Indians ca. 1800 1830s
(Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Seminole)
  • Internal Influences
  • Cultural Norms early adoption of Euro clothing
    styles (Hodge, 2003)
  • Display of status (large silver gorgets, armbands
    and tattoos)
  • Spiritual ideals (West, 2010 Obermeyer 1991)
  • Animal totems (source of strength and power) not
    greatly emphasized
  • Hair was considered sacred (source of power)
  • Turbans or shrouds were common.
  • If hair was cut off, it was hidden and guarded
    with secrecy.
  • Warriors shaved off most, leaving small lock in
    back to prevent enemies from reaching their
    power.
  • Only the most powerful (chiefs) dared to expose
    it.

11
Southeast Woodland Indians ca. 1800 1830s
(Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Seminole)
  • Distinctive Characteristics
  • Hair - shaved foreheads, or concealed with
    turbans (often with bright feather plume)
  • Jewelry - silver bracelets, armbands, broaches
    (gorgets), and earrings. (Obermeyer, 1991)
  • Clothing - quickly influenced by Europeans long
    cloth shirt and belt a carry-along wool blanket
    or robe for warmth or fancier dress occasions.
  • Status - as a status of wealth and popularity,
    men often wore silver bracelets, broaches, and
    earrings women wore multiple bead necklaces.
  • Status - tattoos, associated with combat
    exploits, were common for warriors. (West, 2010).

12
This concludes the presentation on Southeast
Woodland Indians ca. 1800 1830s (Cherokee,
Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Seminole)
  • Refer to the workbook activities
  • Section 1

13
Pueblo Indians ca. 1850s 1950s(Hopi, Zuni, and
Acoma)
  • This cultural group represents at least six
    different ethnic origins that speak over a dozen
    different languages.

14
Pueblo Indians ca. 1850s 1950s
  • Locale - New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Colorado,
    Texas

15
Pueblo Indians ca. 1850s 1950s(Hopi, Zuni, and
Acoma)
When the Spanish explorers met them, they called
them pueblos, meaning villages (Hodge, 2003)
  • Climate Locale
  • Arid climate several days journey to nearest
    stream.
  • Resources
  • Gourds, cactus, yucca, cotton, mud bricks. (no
    buffalo, no deer, no forests)
  • Food Source
  • Mainly corn plus beans and squash limited
    rabbit, dove, quail, and turkey.
  • Made clothing out of yucca (a desert plant), by
    weaving its fibers.
  • Some cultivated cotton.
  • After Spanish conquest, wool became available.
    (Puebloan Peoples, 2010)
  • Trade / Craft
  • Some wove straw baskets most excelled in pottery
  • Extensive trade with Navajo and Apache to gain
    feathers, silver jewelry, coral and shells.

16
Pueblo Indians ca. 1850s 1950s(Hopi, Zuni, and
Acoma)
  • Distinctive Characteristics
  • Hair men wore long and down with a headband
    women often rolled and tied their hair (Hopi).
  • Jewelry unlike their Navajo neighbors, Pueblos
    placed little emphasis on silver jewelry. Men
    women prized turquoise and bead necklaces with
    some silver (Puebloan Peoples, 2010).

17
Pueblo Indians ca. 1850s 1950s(Hopi, Zuni, and
Acoma)
  • Distinctive Characteristics
  • Clothing men woven long cotton shirts, cotton
    breeches and knee-length moccasins carry-along
    wool blanket sometimes worn wrapped around like a
    skirt beaded sash was common some wore
    loincloth over breeches.
  • Clothing women long dress, usually with an
    outer apron.
  • Status intricately decorated sash (with beads
    or porcupine quills) made by wife displayed
    proven ability as a family provider.

18
End of Pueblos
  • Refer to the workbook activities
  • Section 2

19
Plains/Plateau Indians ca. 1800 1830s (Sioux,
Cheyenne, Comanche, Klamath, and Kalispell)
  • Perhaps the iconic image for most of what the
    American Indian looks like, with grand
    Eagle-feather headdress, moving their tipis
    across the plains as they follow the buffalo.

20
Plains/Plateau Indians ca. 1800 1830s (Sioux,
Apache, Comanche, Klamath, and Kalispell)
Plateau Indians
Plains Indians
  • Locale Plateau - Upper Northwest Plains
    Midwest (Hodge, 2003)

21
Plateau Indians ca. 1800 1830s (Klamath, and
Kalispell)
  • Although the Plateau Indians and the Plains
    Indians live lived hundreds of miles apart, and
    descend from multiple different ethnic origins,
    they shared may characteristics that were
    influenced by their common environment.
  • Geography High Plateau or High Plains
  • Climate hot dry summers and cold snowy winters
  • Resources Buffalo, horse, prairie grass, bones
    very few trees
  • Food Sources buffalo, elk, black bears,
    pronghorn, and deer plus wild fruits, berries,
    and nuts. They did not eat fish or fowl, unless
    starving. No agriculture (Hodge, 2003)

22
Plains Indians ca. 1800 1830s (Sioux and
Comanche)
  • Cultural Norms (Smithsonian, 2010)
  • Horse-centric nomadic lifestyle.
  • Hunter-gatherers - followed game animals
    migratory paths.
  • Strict male/female roles - men hunted raided
    women gathered fruits, seeds berries
  • Believed in totems (animal spirits) that served
    as link between this world and the spirit world.
    (significance of feathers and skulls of certain
    animals).
  • Power shirts - often made of tanned animal hides
    and adorned with objects such as fur, beads, and
    locks of hair, were highly important in the
    culture of many plains tribes, including the
    Lakota Sioux, Dakota Sioux Cheyenne, and Comanche.

23
Plains Indians ca. 1800 1830s
  • Distinguishing Characteristics
  • Horse culture, nomadic, living in Tipis
  • Leather power shirts and breeches
  • Bone jewelry
  • Abundant use of feathers for headdress and other
    decorations
  • Hairstyle long and usually braided (wrapped
    with ermine)
  • Dark skin tones from constant exposure to sunlight

24
End of Plains/Plateau Indians
  • Refer to the workbook activities
  • Section 3

25
Pacific Northwest ca.1850s 1930s(Cayuse,
Yakima, Chilkat, and Coast Salish)
  • An ethnically diverse mix with dozens of
    different languages.
  • Shared a common coastal habitat and natural
    resources.
  • Proximity to each other blended social customs
    and beliefs.
  • Dwellings were sophisticated, built with cedar
    planks and shingles.
  • Communal living in long houses (Suquamish
    Tribe, 2011)
  • Temporary fishing camps were pole frames covered
    with woven cedar bark mats.

26
Pacific Northwest ca.1850s 1930s(Cayuse,
Yakima, Chilkat, and Coast Salish)
  • Climate - Warm ocean currents moderate
    temperature extremes 150 - 200 days of rain per
    year July and August are hot, dry months.
  • Natural Resources western red cedar used for
    canoes, houses, clothing, and tools.
  • Food Sources - salmon and coastal shellfish as
    their nutritional mainstay, plus deer, elk,
    moose, bear, migratory birds, medicinal plants,
    roots, herbs, and berries.
  • Cultural Norms - Communal living in long houses
    (Suquamish Tribe, 2011)

27
Pacific Northwest ca.1850s 1930s(Influence of
Habitat)
  • Some, like the Coast Salish are splinter groups
    from their Plains/Plateau relatives.
  • Their appearance changed significantly.
  • Compare these two groups of Salish.

28
Pacific Northwest ca.1850s 1930s(Cayuse,
Yakima, Chilkat, and Coast Salish)
  • Distinctive Characteristics
  • Jewelry and fancy dress only worn for festivals
    or potlachs.
  • Headdress decorated with bead, quill, and limited
    use of feathers.
  • Hairstyle men wore shorter hair than women.
  • Clothing woven bark or grass fabric, sometimes
    seal skin rarely used tanned leather due to the
    wet environment.
  • Robes and houses often decorated with geometric
    patterns and animal effigy (totem poles.

29
End of Pacific Northwest Indians
  • Refer to the workbook activities
  • Section 4

30
References
  • Puebloan Peoples (2010). Wikipedia. Retrieved
    from http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puebloan_peoples
  • Smith, S., Im, S. (2009). Pueblo. eMuseum.
    Minnesota State University, Mankato. Retrieved
    from http//www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northame
    rica/pueblo.html
  • Glaczko, G. (2001). Native American statistics
    U.S. census figures. The Heard Museum. Retrieved
    from http//www.nativevillage.org/Messages20from
    20the20People/Population20statistics.htm
  • Hodge, F.W. (Ed) (2003). Handbook of American
    Indians north of Mexico, Volume 1. Scituate, MA
    Digital Scanning. Retrieved from
    http//www.onread.com/book/Handbook-of-American-In
    dians-North-of-Mexico-959837
  • Jack, J. (n.d.). Traditional history of the Coast
    Salish people. Coast Salish History website.
    Retrieved from http//www.joejack.com/coastsalishh
    istory.html
  • Native Language Network (2000). Indigenous
    Language Institute, Winter Newsletter. Retrieved
    from http//www.ilinative.org/share/newsletter/NLN
    Newsletter/NewsletterWinter2000.pdf
  • Obermeyer, R. (1991). Turbans in 19th century
    Seminole Mens Clothing. NativeTech Native
    American Technology and Art website. Retrieved
    from http//www.nativetech.org/seminole/turbans/in
    dex.php
  • Redish, L. (2010). Native American language
    families. Native Languages of the Americas
    website. Retrieved from http//www.native-language
    s.org/index.htmtree
  • Rehling, J. (n.d.). Native American Languages.
    Indiana University, Center for Research on
    Concepts and Cognition. Retrieved from
    http//www.cogsci.indiana.edu/farg/rehling/nativeA
    m/ling.html
  • Smithsonian Art Museum, (2010). Symbols of power
    in clothing worn by the Plains Indians. Retrieved
    from http//americanart.si.edu/exhibitions/online/
    catlinclassroom/lessonplans/cl-b.html
  • Suquamish Tribe (2011). The Suquamish Tribe
    History and culture. Retrieved from
    http//suquamish.org/HistoryCulture.aspx
  • West, P. (2010). Culture Who are we? Blog.
    Seminole Tribe of Florida website. Retrieved from
    http//www.semtribe.com/Culture/Hairstyle.aspx
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