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The United States in Somalia

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The United States in Somalia Operation Restore Hope August October 1992 Where is Somalia? Brief History of Somalia Post-World War II Was a protectorate of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The United States in Somalia


1
The United States in Somalia
  • Operation Restore Hope
  • August October 1992

2
Where is Somalia?
3
Brief History of Somalia
  • Post-World War II
  • Was a protectorate of Great Britain
  • 1960
  • Achieved independence
  • 1970s
  • Military dictatorship
  • Under Mohamed Siad Barre
  • 1980s
  • Somalia's strategic importance was diminished due
    to end of the Cold War
  • Government became even more totalitarian

4
Somali Civil War 1991
  • Results of the Somali Civil War
  • Barre is ousted from leadership
  • Disrupted agriculture, food water distribution
  • Based on clan allegiances and competition for
    resources

5
Somali Civil War 1991
  • More Results
  • Famine approx. 300,000 dead
  • UN Security Council authorized the limited
    peacekeeping operation
  • Completely disregarded by the warring factions

6
Warlords
  • The country was ruled by a number of warlords
  • A person with power who has military and civil
    control over a an area
  • Armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a
    central government
  • Alliance of warlords was formed in 1992
  • Operated under the authority of Mohamed Farrah
    Aidid
  • Declared himself President of Somalia

7
United States Response
  • In December of 1992, President Bush ordered
    Operation Restore Hope
  • Primary mission of restoring order in Somalia
  • President Bill Clinton took office in January
    1993 and continued the Operation

8
The Home-Front
  • Many Somalis resented the international forces
  • Many took up arms and actively resisted the UN
    and US
  • On June 5, 1993, one of the deadliest attacks on
    UN forces in Somalia occurred
  • 24 UN soldiers were killed in Mogadishu
    (controlled by Aidid)

9
The UN Responds
  • The next day, the UN issued Resolution 837
    calling for the arrest and trial of those
    responsible for the ambush
  • US and UN began an attack on Aidids control
  • Aidid remained defiant, and the violence between
    Somalis and UN troops escalated

10
The Battle of Mogadishu
  • Fought on October 3 and 4, 1993, in Mogadishu,
    Somalia
  • Operation was to capture top officials to Aidid

11
The Battle of Mogadishu
  • During the operation, two US Black Hawk
    helicopters were shot down
  • Some soldiers were trapped at the crash sites
  • A combined task force was sent to rescue the
    trapped soldiers
  • Results
  • US Forces
  • 19 Killed
  • 84 Wounded
  • Somali Forces
  • Est. 700 Killed
  • Est. 1,500 Wounded

12
Fallout from Mogadishu
13
Fallout from Mogadishu
  • American Foreign Policy
  • Became a cautionary influence on US policy
  • When US considers sending soldiers into foreign
    crisis zones remember Somalia
  • Americans were repulsed at the images of
    soldiers' corpses being dragged through the
    streets

14
The End of International Involvement
  • Withdrawal
  • President Clinton called for a full withdrawal by
    March 1994.
  • Marines were completely removed from the area by
    1995
  • The UN also withdrew forces
  • Ended the UN effort to help a country in anarchy
    and civil war

15
The End of International Involvement
  • Results
  • Secretary of Defense Les Aspin resigned
  • Blamed for denying the US Army permission to use
    tanks
  • US politicians didnt want tanks in Somalia
  • Thought it would look bad for peacekeeping

16
THE END
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