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Early Childhood: Physical Development

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Chapter 8 Early Childhood: Physical Development Some children are left-brained, and others are right-brained. Children s levels of motor activity increase during ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early Childhood: Physical Development


1
Chapter 8Early ChildhoodPhysical Development
2
Early Childhood Physical Development Truth or
Fiction?
  • Some children are left-brained, and others are
    right-brained.
  • Childrens levels of motor activity increase
    during the preschool years.

3
Early Childhood Physical Development Truth or
Fiction?
  • Sedentary parents are more likely to have couch
    potatoes for children.
  • Julius Caesar, Michelangelo, Tom Cruise, and
    Oprah have something in common? (Hint They
    dont all have book clubs.)

4
Early Childhood Physical Development Truth or
Fiction?
  • A disproportionately high percentage of math
    whizzes are left-handed.
  • Infections are the most common cause of death
    among children in the United States.

5
Early Childhood Physical Development Truth or
Fiction?
  • It is dangerous to awaken a sleepwalker.
  • More competent parents toilet-train their
    children by their second birthday.

6
Growth Patterns
  • Height and Weight

7
What Changes Occur in Height and Weight During
Early Childhood?
  • Growth rate slows
  • 2 to 3 inches per year
  • 4 to 6 pounds per year
  • Individual variation
  • As a group, boys are slightly taller and heavier

8
Figure 8.1 Growth Curves for Height and Weight,
Ages 2 to 6 Years
9
Growth Patterns
  • Development of the Brain

10
How Does the Brain Develop During Early Childhood?
  • Rapid growth in weight due to myelination
  • By age 5 brain is 90 of adult weight
  • Visual Skills
  • Improved attention and visual processing skills
  • Specialization of hemispheres

11
What Does It Mean to Be Left-brained or
Right-brained?
  • Left-brained
  • Logical, problem solving, language and
    mathematical computations
  • Right-brained
  • Visual-spatial functions, recognition of faces,
    discrimination of color, aesthetic and emotional
    responses, understanding metaphors, creative
    mathematical reasoning
  • Functions overlap
  • Myelination of corpus callosum

12
What Is Meant by Plasticity of the Brain?
  • Ability to compensate for injury
  • Greatest plasticity at 1 to 2 years
  • Other areas may assume functions lost to injury
  • Sprouting
  • Growth of new dendrites
  • Redundancy of neural connections

13
Motor Development
14
How Do Motor Skills Develop in Early Childhood?
  • Gross motor skills
  • Involve large muscles used in locomotion
  • Differences in gross motor development
  • Little sex differentiation
  • More individual differences
  • Physical Activity
  • Rough and tumble play
  • Activity levels

15
Developing in a World of Diversity
  • Sex Differences in Motor Activity

16
How Do Motor Skills Develop in Early Childhood?
  • Fine motor skills
  • Involve small muscles used in manipulation and
    coordination
  • Proximodistal trend accounts for lag in fine
    motor skills
  • Childrens Drawing

17
Figure 8.2 The Twenty Basic Scribbles (Really)
18
Figure 8.3 Four Stages in Childrens Drawings
19
Lessons in Observation Gross and Fine Motor
Skills
  • Describe the way the 2- and 3-year old children
    maneuver the stairs in the video.
  • How will stair-climbing skills change over time?

20
Lessons in Observation Gross and Fine Motor
Skills
  • Describe Olivias hopping and jumping skills and
    her performance with the ball.
  • How will Olivias hopping and jumping skills
    change over time?
  • How will her throwing and catching skills
    change?
  • How does Olivias attempt to catch a ball
    illustrate the proximodistal trend in
    development?

21
Lessons in Observation Gross and Fine Motor
Skills
  • Outline the developmental changes in the drawing
    and writing skills of children between the ages
    of 2 and 5.
  • How do the children in the video illustrate these
    changes?What activities are the children in the
    video participating in that facilitate fine motor
    development?
  • What are the relative roles of maturation and
    learning in the development of fine motor skills,
    and how do these interact?

22
When Does Handedness Emerge?
  • Emerges and shows preference during infancy
  • Becomes strongly established during early
    childhood
  • Majority of people are right-handed

23
Are There Problems Connected With Being
Left-handed?
  • Connections have been made with
  • Language problems
  • Dyslexia and stuttering
  • Health problems
  • Migraine headaches and allergies
  • Psychological problems
  • Schizophrenia and depression
  • Higher frequencies of left-handers have been made
    with
  • Mathematical abilities
  • Athletic abilities
  • Artistic, musical and architectural

24
What Are the Origins of Handedness?
  • Genetic component
  • Seems to run in families
  • Identical twins
  • Frequently differ in handedness
  • Mirror opposites

25
Nutrition
26
What Are Childrens Nutritional Needs and Their
Eating Habits Like in Early Childhood?
  • Nutritional Needs
  • Need more overall calories than toddlers
  • Slower growth rate - less calories per pound
  • Patterns of Eating
  • Appetite decreases and becomes erratic
  • Preference for sugar and salt with exposure

27
Health and Illness
28
What Are Some of the Illnesses and Environmental
Hazards Encountered During Early Childhood?
  • Minor illnesses
  • Respiratory infections
  • Colds, sore throat
  • Gastrointestinal upsets
  • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  • In developing countries, diarrheal illness is
    leading killer of children
  • Major illnesses
  • Immunizations, antibiotics reduced major illness
    in US
  • One-third of children in US under 18 years suffer
    from some type of chronic illness
  • Globally 13 million children die each year
  • Two-thirds die of pneumonia, diarrhea, measles,
    tetanus, whooping cough and tb

29
A Closer Look
  • Ten Things You Need To Know About Immunizations

30
Figure 8.4 Recommended Childhood Immunization
Schedule, United States, July-December, 2004
31
A Closer Look
  • Lead Poisoning
  • Assessing the Risk

32
Developing in a World of Diversity
  • Ethnicity, Level of Income, and Immunization ? USA

33
Accidents and Prevention of Accidental Injury
  • Most common cause of death in young children in
    US
  • Motor vehicle accidents
  • Low-income children most likely to die from
    accidents
  • Legislation to prevent accidents
  • Child safety seats in cars
  • Window guards in apartment buildings
  • Toy and clothing safety standards

34
Sleep
35
How Much Sleep is Needed During Early Childhood?
  • Preschoolers average 10 to 11 hours per 24 hour
    period
  • 9 to 10 hours at night
  • 1 to 2 hour nap

36
Developing in a World of Diversity
  • Cross-Cultural Differences in Sleeping
    Arrangements

37
Sleep Disorders
38
What Kinds of Problems or Disorders Disrupt Sleep
During Early Childhood?
  • Sleep terrors
  • Occur early in night during deep sleep
  • May be associated with stress
  • Nightmares
  • Occur later in night during REM sleep
  • Insomnia
  • Somnambulism (sleepwalking)
  • Onset between ages 3 and 8
  • Occurs early in night during deep sleep

39
Elimination Disorders
40
When Are Children Considered To Be Gaining
Control Over Elimination Too Slowly?
  • Maturation plays a critical role in toilet
    training
  • Most US children are trained between 3 and 4
  • Enuresis
  • Based on age of child and frequency of accident
  • Bed-wetting
  • More frequent in boys than girls
  • Numerous causes
  • Organic, psychological, stress, sleep disorder

41
A Closer Look
  • What To Do About Bed-Wetting

42
When Are Children Considered To Be Gaining
Control Over Elimination Too Slowly?
  • Encopresis
  • More common in boys than girls
  • Less common than enuresis, more common in daytime
  • Causes may be physical or psychological
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