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History of Cultural Anthropology

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History of Cultural Anthropology Western Science 1500 Europe in isolation Supernatural explanations explained everything Exploration of world caused questions Museums ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of Cultural Anthropology


1
History of Cultural Anthropology
2
Western Science
  • 1500 Europe in isolation
  • Supernatural explanations explained everything
  • Exploration of world caused questions
  • Museums
  • Interest in biology and earth sciences

3
19th Century Figures
  • Charles Darwin
  • Natural Selection
  • Charles Lyell
  • Uniformitarianism

4
Lewis Henry Morgan 1818-1881
  • A 19th century scholar who developed the
    evolutionary approach
  • Pioneered the comparative study of culture

5
Sir Edward B. Tylor 1832-1917
  • Provided a classic definition of culture that is
    still valid
  • Key theorist in the anthropology of religion

6
Unilinear Evolution
7
Herbert Spencer 1820-1903
  • Survival of the fittest
  • Social Darwinism

8
Franz Boas 1848-1952
  • Set high standard for excellence in fieldwork
  • Developed the idea of cultural relativity
  • Discredited then-dominant theories of racial
    superiority

9
A.R. Radcliff-Brown 1881-1955
  • Developed the structural-functional approach to
    look at how each aspect of society contributes to
    the maintenance of the whole

10
Bronislaw Malinowski 1884-1942
  • Outlined the biological and psychological needs
    of people fulfilled by culture
  • Pioneered the participant observation method

11
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12
Ruth Fulton Benedict 1887-1948
  • Wrote Patterns of Culture
  • Viewed cultures as coherent patterns

13
Margaret Mead 1901-1978
  • A founding mother of anthropology
  • Pioneered the cross-cultural study of personality

14
Ralph Linton, 18931953
  • Insights into process of acculturation
  • Influenced development of the culture-and-personal
    ity school of anthropology
  • Introduced terms "status" and "role"
  • The Tree of Culture (1955)

15
Claude Levi-Strauss 1908-
  • Established structuralism, which considers the
    underlying mental structures that culture
    represents

16
Julian H. Steward 1902-1972
  • Founder of the cultural ecology approach that
    focuses on the interactions of cultures with
    their environments

17
Leslie White 1900-1975
  • Developed the cultural materialist approach with
    focus on how the techno-economic aspects of
    culture determine the social and ideological
    spheres

18
George Murdoch 1897-1985
  • Empiricist
  • Came up 70 or so cultural universals
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